In July of 1470, the Earl of Warwick had met with Margaret of Anjou. The meeting, arranged by the King of France, resulted in an unlikely alliance between the two former foes, the Angers Agreement. As a result of the agreement the Duke of Clarence and Earl of Warwick sailed to Plymouth in September 1470 to begin the agreed campaign against King Edward IV.
Both Margaret and the Earl of Warwick now found themselves in exile. They retained supporters in England and had backers on the continent. Individually, however, neither had the resources to change things in their favour in England. Combined, they did.
Warwick had wealth and could call upon his own large retinue. Margaret and the Prince of Wales retained the allegiance of many nobles, who remained loyal to the crowned King Henry VI. Margaret lacked funds though and her armies had been defeated by the Yorkist King.
The Duke of Clarence and Earl of Warwick landed at Plymouth.
Allying themselves brought together both sets of armies and secured the funding for two expeditions to England. Warwick and Clarence would sail first and raise armies in the Midlands. Margaret and the Prince of Wales would follow mustering forces in the South-West and from Wales. The Duke and earl landed at Plymouth on 13 September 1470 and began the campaign that ousted King Edward IV.
Declaration by the Duke of Clarence and Earl of Warwick
A declaration was sent by the Duke of Clarence and Earl of Warwick to the people to garner support. An extract is below:
“Wherefore we entend, by the grace of God, and the helpe of every well disposed man, in right short tyme, to put us in deboure to the uttermost of our powers, to subdwe and put undar falshod and oppression; chastice and punishe the seyde covetows persons in perpetuall example to all other; and to set right and justice to theyr places, to se them equally ministred and indifferently, without mede or drede, as owght to be, and to reduce and redeme for evar the said Realme from thraldome of all outward natyons, and make it as fre within it self as evar it was heretofore”
Clarence and Warwick land at Plymouth: Image Credit
Artists impression of Plymouth Castle as it may have looked c1470. Source.