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Richard duke of Gloucester appointed to lead invasion of Scotland, 1482

On 12 June 1482 Richard Duke of Gloucester was made commander of the English army due to invade Scotland.

On 11 June, the Treaty of Fotheringay had been signed in which the Duke of Albany, Alexander Stuart, was declared to be King of Scotland and pledged his loyalty to King Edward IV of England. This led to England agreeing to invade Scotland in support of his claim. 

The problem was that Albany’s brother was already crowned as King James III of Scotland and had possession of the major strongholds, including the formidable Edinburgh Castle. English support of Albany’s claim had been promised, and so on 12 June Richard Duke of Gloucester was appointed as commander of an English army to invade Scotland.

The choice of Richard made perfect sense. As Lieutenant-General of the North, he had the right to issue commissions of array across a vast area. He also had administrative oversight of much of the North through the Council of the North. With additional forces and artillery from the royal armouries, he would be at the head of a large and powerful army.

Richard’s army swept into Scotland. Men were left to besiege Berwick before marching on Edinburgh. No siege of Edinburgh took place, despite much of the surrounding area falling to the English. Albany and his brother settled their differences.

Richard, therefore, turned his attention once more on Berwick. Once the English army’s full weight was upon the town, it fell, returning into English hands for the first time since it had been exchanged for military support by Margaret of Anjou in 1461. Berwick has remained an English town and fortress ever since.

Image Credit: Arms of Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany By MostEpic – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

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