Croyland Chronicle (Full Text}




As I, Ingulph, by the long-suffering of the Diyine
Goodness, abbat of the monastery of Croyland, am bound, by
virtue of the duties imposed upon me, to devote my attention
to ecclesiastical matters ; it appears to me especially desirable
to know who were the founders and benefactors of our monas-
tery, at what period it was founded, and by whose alms food
and the other necessaries of life are here provided for us ; and
at the same time to learn what estates or possessions our re-
spective benefactors have bestowed as alms upon us. These
particulars I have endeavoured to learn, to the end that they
may be set forth, as well for your information, as for that of
our successors, in behalf of whom we are in duty bound to im-
plore and entreat the mercy of God.

But, as it would be a tedious task to dwell at length upon
each of these particulars, to the extent to which we find
matter afforded us in various quarters ; I shall make it my
especial object to treat, though in a compendious form, of such
things only as are likely to be deemed most necessary to be
known by us who live at the present day, and to be brought
to the notice of our successors. These particulars I shall
therefore set forth, just as I have learned them, either from
the trust-worthy information of my brethren now residing here,
(who, in their turn, have received the same from their prede-
cessors), or from an attentive examination of ancient records
and otiieif documents which have been perused by me. In ac-
cordance with the prophetical language of the Psalmist, *’ I

Ingulph’s histoky op the abbey of CROYULSD. A.D. 704.

will litter sayings of old ; which we have heard and seen, and
our fathers have told us ;” ^ and I will remind you of the words,
“Let your children tell their children, and their children an-
other generation ;”* thereby making good those other words of
Scripture, ” Whatsoever things were written aforetime, were
written for our learning.” *

I have therefore determined, in the first place, to speak of
the succession of certain kings of Mercia, who, in very remote
times, were converted to the catholic faith. Although Penda,
who was a heathen, and notorious for his impiety, usurped
the kingly name and the sovereignty of the Mercians, and in
his tyrannical frenzy martyred Oswald, the king and saint, he
was the father of several sons who proved most devoted sup-
porters of the Christian religion. The names of these were
Peada, Wulpher, Ethelred, Merwald, and Mercelm; while
Kynenburga and Kyneswitha, women celebrated for their
sanctity and the purity of their lives, were his daughters. The
unbridled desires, however, of this same Penda, after he had
been long possessed by this heathenish frenzy, brought him to .
an end suitable to his deserts. For, by the grace of God, Oswy,
the brother and successor of Saint Oswald, (of both of whom
I here make mention, that the remembrance of them may be
perpetuated, to the praise of Him who alone shall recompense
each according to his works) cut him off, and thereby increased
the number of souls in hell.

His eldest son, Peada, succeeded him as king. This Peada had
the intention of founding the monastery atMedeshamsted,^ but
being prevented by an untimely death, he bequeathed his religious
zeal to his brother Wulpher, who succeeded him on the throne,
and to Saxulph, a man of very considerable influence ; for it
is a matter beyond doubt that this monastery was afterwards
founded by them, in the year from the Incarnation of our Lord
Jesus Christ, 664. After reigning sixteen years, the said Wul-
pher departed this life, in the seventeenth year of his reign.

On his decease, his brother Ethelred succeeded him on the
throne, and after a reign of thirty years became a monk in the
monastery of Baideney.*

He was succeeded on the throne by Kenred, the son of Wul-

* Psalm Ixxviii. 2, 3. » Joel i. 3. » Rom. xv. 4.

^ The original name of Peterborough. ^ Or Partney, in Lincoln



pher, who, after a reign of four years, left his kingdom, and
set out for Rome, where he departed this life at the threshold
of the Apostles.

Kenred was succeeded by Celred, who was the son of Ethel-
red, the former king, and reigned eight years.

Iq these days lived the Clito® Ethelbald, who was then in
exile. He was the great nephew of Penda, through Alwy, his
brotherj’ and was a man remarkable for the gracelulness of his
figure, his strength of body, and his indomitable courage. On the
other hand, a thing grerftly to be lamented, he was extremely
proud in spirit, and immoderately fond of rashly courting
danger. For this, as no doubt we may be allowed to believe,
he had to submit to many hardships, and to endure a very long
estrangement from the helm of state.

While the before-named king Celred was unrelentingly pur-
suing him from place to place, the strength of himself and his
adherents being now quite exhausted amid the doubtful perils
of warfare, he repaired, according to his usual wont, to Guth-
lac, the man of God, his confessor ; to the end that, finding all
human counsel fail, he might obtain that of God ; and with great
humility disclosed to him those complaints which tribulation
extorted from him. When the holy man of God had heard
his words, in soothing language he consoled him, and, as though
an interpreter of a Divine oracle, revealed to him in its proper
order each event as the same should befell him; promising
him the rule over his own people, the conquest of his enemies,
and the sovereignty over other nations Kor were these things
to come to pass through fighting, blows, or effusion of blood ; but
he bade him have full confidence that through the Divine
power and goodness he should obtain the same.

To this he added, by way of admonition, “Acknowledge
the Lord thy God, and above all things fear Him : make it thy
study also to venerate the Holy Church. Oftentimes lament
the wickedness of thy misdeeds, and with constancy observe
thy purpose of leading a good life ; and hope for the sure assist-
ance of the Lord, if thou shalt first in His presence have offer-
ed up the merits of good w^orks.”

^ A title given to princes of the royal family among the Anglo-Saxons.

7 This is evidently a mistake. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle^
(under the years 626 and 716) Alwy was the son of Eawa, who was the
brother of Penda.


With these words and this doctrine Ethelbald was so much
refreshed in spirit, that, without delay, in presence of his
father Guthlao and the other persons then standing by, that
which he conceived in his heart to do, he pronounced with his
lips ; and declared that as soon as it should be his lot peace-
fully to arrive at the helm of state, he would found in that
same spot a monastery of religious, to the praise of God, and in
memory of his said father Guthlac. This promise in after-
times he efficiently and devoutly ftdfiUed.

In the meanwhile, however, after some time had elapsed, the
before-named Ethelbald, being still an exile, and Ijring concealed
in secluded spota, heard tidings of the death of the holy man ;
upon which, full of grief and sorrow, he hastened to the spot.
After shedding many tears and praying at great length, while
he was watching in an adjoining cottage, the holy man ap-
peared to him, and consoled him in these words : ” Have con-
fidence, my son, and be not sorrowful ; for, through my inter-
cession, the Lord hath heard tiiy prayers, and, before the
present year shall have run its course, thou shalt gain the
sceptre of the kingdom, and shalt in happiness enjoy a length-
ened course of days.” To this, he made answer, “My lord,
what shall be a sign to me, that these things shall thus come
to pass ?” ” To-morrow, before the third hour of the day,”
the holy man replied, ” to those who are dwelling in this isle
of Croyland, food shall unexpectedly be given.”

Thenceforth, bearing in mind everything that had thus been
said to him, with undoubting hope he believed that the same
should come to pass. I^or did his faith deceive him ; for he
found that all things were carried into effect in accordance with
the prophecy of the man of God.

Guthlac, the servant of God, being thus dead and buried,
upon his intercession being invoked, signs, displayed in miracles
and wondrous healings, began oftentimes to gleam forth ; which
(as from your’ archives I have been enabled to collect) are sot
forth clearly and in a most perspicuous style in the book which
treats of his Life and Miracles. When king Ethelbald found
that his blessed consoler was conspicuous for his miraculous
powers, ftdl of gladness and devotion, he sought the place of
his burial, and, having now gained the sovereignty, with the

^ He addresses his brethren, the monks of Croyland.


greatest care ^IfiUed the promises which he had formerly
made to the man of God, while he was still alive.

Immediately sending for a certain monk of Evesham, Ke-
nulph hy name, a person fSuned for his religions life, he gave,
granted, and for ever confirmed to him and those there serving
God, the isle of Croyland, to the end that he might found a con-
vent there. He also fully absolved the whole of the island
from all rents and secular dues, and secured the same in pre-
sence of the bishops and nobles of his kingdom by his charter ;
which was to the following effect :

” Ethelbald, by Divine Providence, king of the Mercians, to
all followers of the catholic faith, health everlasting. To the
King of all kings and the Creator of all mankind, I do with ex-
ceeding joy return thanks, for that He hath patiently borne witli
me, though polluted wil^ all sins, even unto the present time,
and hath in His mercy drawn me away therefrom, and hath in
some measure elevated me to the acknowledgment of His name.
Wherefore it is good for me to adhere unto God, and in Him to
place my hope. But how shall I repay God for all that He
hath bestowed upon me, in order that I may do that which
is pleasing unto Him in the sight of living men ? Inasmuch
as without Him we possess nothing, are nothing, and are able
to do nothing. For He, the author of our salvation, and the
bestower of all things, with great readiness receiveth the very
least of our gifts, that so He may have a cause for repaying us
with joys mighty and infinite. Those who follow His doctrines
with the works of mercy. He thus consoles, saying, ‘ Inasmuch
as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren,
ye have done it unto me.’*^ Hence it is, that, having been in-
structed by the counsels, and prevailed upon by the prayers, of
the devout anchorite Guthlac, my dearly beloved confessor, I
have joyfully formed the following determination. As a per-
petual testimony to be preserved Siereof, I do by this public
deed” give, grant, and deliver unto Almighty Qod, the blessed
Virgin, and Saint Bartholomew, out of my demesnes, for the
purpose of founding a monastery of Black Monks, ‘ ‘♦ serving God
in conformity with the rules of Saint Benedict, the whole island
of Croyland, the same to be set apart for the site of an abbey,

^ St. Matthew, xxv. 40. ” Or, more strictly, *’ patent,” or •* open

chirograph.” ^’* This is the first of the suppotted anachronisms

noticed by Hickes.


and severally to be held; being surrounded by four rivers,
that is to say, by the river called Shepishee, on the east ; by
the river called if ene, on the west ; by the river called Southee,
on the south ; and by the river called Asendyk, on the north,
where runs the Common Drain” between Spalding and the said
island ; the same being also four leagues” in length and three
leagues in breadth : together with the marsh lands adjoining
thereto, which lie towards the west, and opposite to the said
island, on either side of the river Welland ; one part of which,
called Goggislound, on the north side of the river Welland, is two
leagues in length,’* extending from the bridge of Croyland, by
which the island is entered, as far as Aspath, and is one league in
breadth, extending from the river Welland, which lies to the south
thereof, as far as Apenholt on the north, near the banks of the
said river, the same being throughout the whole length thereof
of equal breadth ; and the other part of the said marsh, on
the south side of the river Welland, is two leagues in length,
from the bridge of Croyland as far as Southlake, near the
banks and opposite to Aspath, and two leagues in breadth
from the river Welland as fer as Fynset, near the river Nene,
on the south side of the said marsh : together with several
piscary in the rivers Welland and Nene, as far as the before-
mentioned limits of either of the said marshes, and in all the
waters that encompass the said island. And, for the said
purpose, I have appointed a certain monk of Evesham, Ke-
nulph by name, a man of approved piety, to be abbat thereof,
to the end that he may there collect monks of the said order,
of approved life, in subjection to himself; and have granted to
them from my treasury, for the purpose of building the said
monastery, in the first year, three hundred pounds of lawful
money, and, during the ten years next ensuing, one hundred
pounds in each year ; and have given them permission to build
a vill there, as also to enclose as much of the said two marshes
lying on the west, for the use of themselves and their people,

” This is probably an arm of the river Welland, now called the ” Shire
Drain,” which runs along the southern border of the county, and falls
into the Wash, at the mouth of the river Nene. These streams are gene-
rally called “waters” in the original.

i» Leuca. The ‘* leuca,” or French league, generally consisted of 1500
paces; but Ingulph in another passage speaks of it as containing 2000 paces.

^^ The length is measured from east to west, and the breadth from north
to south.


as to the said monks shall seem fit. ‘ I do therefore will, that
the aforesaid monks shall have these my gifts, with all their
appurtenances, free of and acquitted from all secular burdens,
as a perpetual alms from me, together with all the profits
and advantages that may arise or be derived within the afore-
said limits, as well above ground as beneath, together with
common of pasture for all kinds of animals, at all seasons, for
themselves as well as their men or tenants with them there
dwelling, on either side of the river Welland, that is to say, on
the one side, as far as the lands of Medeshamsted, and on the
other, as fax a:^ the buildings of Spalding ; together with all
Uberties and free customs, as fully as in times past the royal
power has bestowed the same upon any church in my kingdom.
And I do frirther strictly command, that if any person shall
presume to devise any impediment in contravention of this
exercise of my authority, that so they may not peacefully possess
whatever has been given and gnuited by me, the same per-
son shall pay one hundred pounds of lawful money into my
treasury, and shall, in addition thereto, make due satisfaction to
the said monks for their losses and expenses thereby incurred.
1 do also entreat all my posterity, who shall succeed me on the
throne, so to keep inviolate this my censure and condemnation,
as they shall wish to receive the due reward of justice, and to
escape the punishment of avarice. And may he who shall up-
hold and defend these alms-deeds of mine be eternally re-
warded, by being chosen as one of the elect of Gt)d. This my
charter was confinned in the year from the 1 ncamation of Christ,
716, as is attested beneath by the following trust- worthy wit-
nesses, with the sign of the Holy Cross, -f- I, Ethelbald,
king of the Mercians, have, of my gratuitous will and consent,
eontirmed the same, -f I, Brithwdd, archbishop of Canterbury,
have ratified the same, -f I, W3m£rid, bishop of the Mercians,
have approved of the same. -|- I, Ingwald, bishop of London,
have folly consented hereto. + I, Aldwiii, bishop of Lichfield,
have sanctioned the same, -h I, Tobias, bishop of Rochester,
have applauded the same, -h I, Ethelred, abbat of Bardeney,
have greatly desired the same. + I, Egwald, abbat of Me-
deshamsted, have earnestly requested the same. +1, Egga,
earl of Lincoln, have advised fiie same, -i- I, Leuric, earl of
Leicester, have given my assent hereto, -f- I, Saxulph, son
ot* earl Saxulph, have supported the same. -|- I, Ingulpli,

8 h^gulfjbl’s histoby of the abbey of cboylajtb. a.d 716.

priest and an humble servant, being summoned, have heard the
same. + I, Ethelbald, who unworthy as I am, still, by the
Divine forbearance, guide the helm of the kingdom of the Mer-
cians, do, with the greatest faithfulness, in all humility return
unto Christ my Creator ; of whom in the Psalm it is written by
the prophet, * His tender mercies are over all His works ;’** to
His goodness I do wholly submit myself, and to the prayers
and spiritual services of holy mother Church do commend my-

Upon this occasion it was, that a certain poet wrote the
following lines : —

«< This abbey, Christ, I, Ethelbald, the king Of Anglia, by God's grace, have for Thee built. The isle of Croyland, of the king's demesne. That same, Oh Jesus ! do I grant to Thee — The whole, great God, with its encurcling streams On every side, 1 do to Thee present. Three hundred pounds the building to promote This year, I hereby pledge myself to give — And, in the following ten, one hundred pounds Each year, I will unto the builders pay. Kenulph, the monk of Evesham profess'd, Shall be first abbat ; him I do appoint. The gifts, too, of my nobles I confirm. Should they grant lands or tenements to God. Should any native Kenulph e*er molest, His chattels all I hereby confiscate. And, till he shall due reparation make Unto the monks, he shidl in prison lie. The English nobles and my prelates all Before the Lord are witnesses hereof. Guthlac, confessor, saint, and anchorite Here lies ; before him I these words do speak— May that most holy priest for ever pray For us, before whose tomb this grant I make.'' Croyland consisting of fenny lands, (as, in fact, its name in- dicates, for it means " crude" and " muddy" land), it was not able to support a foundation of stone ; wherefore, the king ordered huge piles of oak and beech in countless numbers to be driven into the ground, and solid earth to be brought by water in boats a distance of nine miles, from a place called Upland, (which means the " higher ground,") and to be thrown into the marsh. And thus, whereas the holy ^ Psalm cxlv, 9. K-9. 716. sautt peoa tbayels to boice. 9 Guthlac had been previously content with an oratory made of wood, he both began and finished a church, founded a convent, enriched the place with decorations and lands, and other va- luable possessions, and loved the spot with the greatest ten- derness all the days of his life. And never, at any time, since its first foundation by the hands of the said king, has the monastery of Croyland been in want of religious to dwell therein, even unto the present day. There were also in those times, some persons in the said island who led there the lives of recluses, and who, main- taining a holy friendship with the man of God, had resorted to him as long as he lived, just as sick men do to a physician ; and thus, by his teaching and example, obtaining healing sup- pHes for their souls. Of these, one had been recently converted to the catholic faith, Cissa by name, a man sprung from a noble family, and, in former times, of great influence in worldly matters ; but now, having left all things behind, he had become a follower of his Lord Jesus Christ. Another was Bettelm, a most attached servant of the father before named. A third was Egbert, who was admitted by him to a more strict confidence than any of the rest. A fourth was Tatwin, who had formerly been his guide and steersman to the said island. All these had sepa- rate dwellings to the end of their lives, with the sanction of the before-named abbat, Kenulph, in different cottages, situate not far from the oratory of the holy father, Guthlac. Saint Pi'ga, however, the sister of our holy father Guthlac before named, shortly after the close of the first year from his death, leaving there, in the hands of abbat Kt^nulph, the scourge of Saint Bartholomew and the Psalter of her brother, together with some other relics, returned by boat to her ceU, which lay to the west, at a distance of four leagues from the oratory of her said brother. Having lived here two years and three months in tearful lamentations, she travelled, suffer- ing greatly from cold and hunger, to the threshold of the Apostles Peter and Paul. On entering the city of Kome, after suddenly causing all the bells to ring for the space of one hour, she proclaimed to the citizens the merits of her sanctity : and there, devoting herself entirely to the service of God, at last ftilfilled the number of her days in the fear of the Lord. Her holy body being there committed to the earth 10 INQULPH's H18T0KT OF THE ABBEY OF CROTLAND. A.D. 726. among many other holy relics belonging to the Roman city, her spirit, quitting the toils of this present existence, ascended to eternal rest. King Ethelbald, before-named, his monastery of Croyland being now erected and completely finished, gave his utmost attention both to promoting tifie good of the holy church every- where throughout his kingdom, and to bestowing dignities and privileges upon other convents of religious men and women as well. Accordingly, for the purpose of strengthening the li- berties of the church throughout his kingdom, in the third year of his reign, we read that he promulgated the following statute : — " Whereas it frequently happens, in accordance with the uncertain vicissitudes of temporal affairs, that those institutions which have been founded upon the testimony and by the counsel of many and faithful persons, are, through the contumacy of still more, and by means of machinations and fraudulent pretences, without any consideration of what is reasonable, and to the peril of their own souls, brought to nothing; unless the establishment thereof has, on the authority of letters and by the testimony of hand-writing, been consigned to memory in aU time to come. Wherefore, I, Ethelbald, king of the Mer- cians, in consideration of my love of the heavenly land, and for the redemption of my own soul, am sensible that I ought to form a determination, by good works, to make it free from all the bonds of sin. And moreover, inasmuch as the Almighty, in the merciful exercise of His clemency, without any pre- ceding merits of mine, hath bestowed upon me the sceptre of this kingdom, I do willingly make repayment to Him out of that wluch He hath so given me. For the better canying out this purpose, I do, while I am still alive, grant the fol- lowing privilege ; that all monasteries and churches in my kingdom shall be free and exempt from all public taxes, works, and burdens, except only the building of castles and bridges, from which no person can ever be made exempt. And further, the servants of God are to have full libCTty in the enjoyment of the produce of their woods, the fiidt of their fields, and the taking of fish ; nor are they to make offerings of any presents whatever to^ the king, or to the nobles, unless the same be voluntary : but they are to be at Hberty to serve A.D. 793. CHABTEK OF KING OFFA. 11 the Lord in peaceful contemplation throughout the whole of my realm to the end of time." The hefore-named king Ethelhald, after a reign of forty-one years, having rashly engaged in hattle at Seggeswold,** with the tyrant Bemred, was there slain, in accordance with a prophecy of the holy father, Guthlac. The tyrant Bemred, however, had not long to glory in his excessive tyranny, for he perished in the same year. King Ethelbald was buried at Kipadium, or Eipedune," which was at that time a very cele- brated monastery, and, with the consent of the nobles of the whole of Mercia, left the kingdom of the Mercians to Offa, grandson to his uncle by the father's side. Offa was the son of Bignfert, the son of Enulph, the son of Osmod, the son of Eoppa, the son of Wibba, father of kin^ Penda. Tina Offa reigned forty years, and founded a monastery of Black Monks at the city of Verulam, in honour of Qod and of Saint Alban, the protomartyr of the English. Shewing himself everywhere most duteous to the saints of God, and ever ready to listen to the prayers of religious men, at the en- treaty of Patrick, the lord abbat of Croyland, who had suc- ceeded Kenolphf the first abbat thereof, he by his charter con- firmed the grant of his monastery of Croyland in the following words : — " Offa, king of the Mercians, to all lovers of Christ through- out the whole kingdom of Mercia, health everlasting. Al- ways keeping in remembrance that the days of man are short, and that, in this fewness of our days, whatsoever a man Bhall sow that same he shall reap, it is my desire, by the holy acts of my present life, to purchase for myself and to reap an everlasting reward in that to come. I do therefore take into my hands Patrick, abbat of Croyland, and the monks there serving GK)d, and all their servants, as also the place it- self, and I do command, that, in like manner as my brethren the monks of Saint Alban* s, they shall be free and discharged from all secular burdens, and shall everywhere throughout my kingdom be held acquitted from the payment of dl taxes : and I do confirm to them their aforesaid monastery, together ^* Saxwold, in Lincolnshire, is probably the place referred to. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Henry of Huntingdon, and Simeon of Durham, tail this place Secandune. Matthew of Westminster calls it Sacchenda. " Repton, in Derbyshire. 12 DTGULPH S HISTORY OF THB ABBXT OF CBOTLAND. A.D. 806. with all their possessions and all other things whatsoev^ which my kinsman, the late renowned king Ethelbald, the founder of the said monastery, bestowed upon the same, and whatsoever his nobles or mine have since bestowed or shall bestow hereafter, as also whatsoever the fEdthfiil in Christ shall in all times hereafter bestow upon the said monastery of Groyland. This present deed, in the year from the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, 793, I, Offa, king of the Mercians, have granted and confirmed. H- I, -^thelard, archbishop of Canterbury, have consented hereto. H- I, -^gbald, bishop of Winchester, have subscribed hereto. + I, Aldred, bishop of Dorchester, have set my sign hereto, -f I, Aldulph, bishop of Lichfield, have approved hereof. H- I, Benna, abbat of Medeshamsted, have confirmed the same. + I, Ceolburgay abbess of Berdea,*® have sanctioned the same. + I, earl Heabricht, at the command of my lord the king, have signed the same, -f I, Tilhere, the priest of my lord the king, Ofia, have, at his mandate, written this deed with my own hand." In the year following, the said OflPa, king of the Mercians, departed this life on the fourth day before the calends of August, and his son Egbert succeeded to the glories of his rule ; but, after having reigned one hundred and forty-one days, he was seized with a malady, and departed this life. He was succeeded by Kenulph, a mighty man, and happy in his holy offspring ; in peace, piety, and justice, for a period of twenty- six years, he most gloriously guided the helm of state. After Kenulph, the first abbat thereof, the before-named Patrick succeeded to the pastoral office of the abbey of Croy- land. He was succeeded, in the time of king Kenulph, by Siward, the third abbat of the said monastery. He was re- lated by blood to king Kenulph, and, being a man of great piety, and his confessor, and admitted by him to the strictest intimacy, by the royal munificence, in the twelfth year of his reign, he obtained a charter to the following effect : ** Kenulph, by the mercy of God, king of the Mercians, to all the Mid- Angles throughout the whole of Mercia, who confess the Christian faith, perfect peace and health ever- Listing. Know, all and each of you, that the Lord hath, by most signal signs and by remarkable prodigies, wrought wou- ^® Perhaps meaning Bardney, in Lincolnshire. A.O. 806. CHABT£B OF XLSQ XENTJLPH. 13 drons new and innumerable miracles, by his Saint, the most blessed confesscnr of Christ, Guthlac, whose body rests in the monastery of Groyland ; as I and my queen have on our late pilgrimage with our own eyes beheld ; and hath thereby rendered him more refulgent and conspicuous in the eyes of the whole world. Wherefore, at the entreaty of that most religious man, our spiritual father and counsellor, Siward, lord abbat of the said monastery, the venerable father Wulfred, the lord arch- bishop of Canterbury, who accompanied us on our pilgrim- age, counselling and advising us thereto, I have taken under my protection the said monastery of Croyland, together with the whole of the island adjoining thereto, according as the siime is by boundaries set forth in the charter of the late king Ethelbald its founder, as also the monks of the said monastery, and the lay brethren and all the servants there- of. Moreover, all pilgrims going thither for the purposes of devotion, and returning with the mark of Saint Guthlac upon their cowls or hoods, I do will to be free and absolved for all fiiture time from all tribute and tolls, wheresoever throughout the whole kingdom of Mercia they shall come. And further, as to the alms-gift which Thorold, the sheriff of Lincoln, has given to the said monks in Bokenhale ; as also the alms-gift which Geolph, the son of Malte, has given to them in Halington ; as also tiie alms-gift which Fregest, the most valiant knight, my former tutor, has given to them in Lang- toft ; as also the alms-gift which Algar, who is still my knight, has given to them in Baston and Eepingale ; I do give, grant, and confirm the same as a perpetual possession unto God and Saint Guthlac, and to the aforesaid monastery and the monks serving God therein. In the year from the Licamation of Christ, 806, 1, Kenulph, king of the Mercians, have signed this charter with the sign of the holy cross. H- I, Wulfred, archbishop of Can- terbury, have advised the same to be done. H- I, Kinebert, bishop of Winchester, have set my sign hereto. H- I, Wonwona, bishop of lieicester, have consented hereto, -f I, Celred, abbat of Me- deshamsted, own brother of Siward, the lord abbat, have zeal- ously promoted the same. H- I, Cuthred, king of Kent, at the command of my lord the king Kenulph, have given my consent hereto. H- I, Ceolwulph, brother of my lord tbe king Kenulph, have approved of the same. H- I, Algar, the thane, have been present hereat. + I, Sigga, the priest, by the command oi 14 IKGULFIl's HISTOKT of the ABB£Y of CBOTLAND. A.D. 823. my lord the king Kenulph, have presented this charter, -written with my own hand, in presence of my venerable fathers and lords aforesaid, to the venerable Siward, lord abbat of Croy- land, before-named." In the year of our Lord Christ, 819, Kenulph, the renowned king of tiie Mercians, after having reigned for a period of ^twenty-six years, to the great grief of aU, ended his worldly career, after many good works, which in his lifetime he had done with equal sanctity and zeal. His body was consigned to the tomb at Wynchelcombe,^ a monastery of Black Monks, which he had built from the foundation ; while his blessed soul sought the realms of heaven. He left his son Saint Kenelm, a boy then seven years old, heir to the throne. Through the treachery of his sister Quen- dreda (with so great ambition did this most wicked woman aspire to the sceptre of the kingdom), within a few months after the death of his father, he was slain in a certain wood, whither he had, toward the close of the day, been taken to walk. Here this most innocent boy was most cruelly martyred by Ascebert, his tutor, and only through a divine miracle his body was at last discovered ; a ray, containing an immense body of light, having shone throughout a whole night upon the body of the martyr. Upon ^bis it was taken to Wyn- chelcombe, and there solemnly buried in the tomb at the side of his father. After his martyrdom, his uncle Ceolwulph, the brother of king Kenulph, succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians, and reigned one year ; being in the second year of his reign ex- pelled by one Bemulph, a foolish man, but remarkable for his wealth and influence, though in no way connected with the royal line. In the third year of his reign Bemulph was conquered in battle and put to flight by Egbert, king of Wessex : after which, striving to make amends for his slothfulness, he led an army against the East- Angles, who by entreaties and money had aroused the West-Saxons against him ; but he was shortly after defeated by them in a pitched battle, and slain. He was succeeded on the throne by Ludecan, his kinsman, whO; after a reign of two years, while making preparations to ^ Or Winchcomb, in Gloucestershire. A.D. 833. CHABTEK OF KING WICHTLAF. 15 avenge the death of Bemnlph, having led an army against the East- Angles, was surprised by them, and slain. Thus were the tyrants in a short time removed who had assumed the purple, against all right, and, while they oppressed the kingdom with their violent measures, had wasted the whole of its military resources, once very great, and ever attended with victory ; upon which, with tiie consent of all, Wichtlaf, duke of the Wiccii,*^ (whose son, Wymund, had married Alfleda, the daughter of Ceolwulph, the former king, and brother of tiie most noble king Kenulph), was made king, and reigned thirteen years, subject, however, to the authority of Egbert, king of Wessex, to whom he was a tributary. For immediately after he was made king, and before he was able to collect an army, he was pursued by the generals of Egbert throughout the whole of Mercia ; on which, by the care of Siward, the lord abbat, he was, without the privity of any other person, concealed for the space of four months in the cell of the most holy virgin, Etheldritha. (She was the daughter of Offa, the former long of the Mercians, and wife of the holy martyr Ethelbert, the former king of East AngHa, in whose name the present episcopal see of Hereford is dedicated ; but at this period, in her love for Christ her spouse, was living as a recluse in one part of the cell situate on the south side of the church of Croyland, over against the great altar there.) Here he lay conceded in safety until such time as, through the mediation of the before-named venerable abbat Siward, he had made peace with the said king of the West Saxons, and, alter promising to pay an annual tribute, was permitted to return munolested to his kingdom. In return for this service, at a later period, he granted a charter to the said monastery of Croy- land, which contained very valuable privileges, and was to the following effect : " Wichtlaf, by the Divine dispensation, king of the Ifer- cians, to all the worshippers of Christ who inhabit the whole of Ifercia, health everlasting. For me to preach and publish the mighty works of God would be a thing far from becom- ing; but of a truth it seemeth honourable and glorious [to declare the same] ; wherefore I will openly confess unto the Lord, who dwelleui on high, and who looketh down upon the lowly in heaven and upon the earth ; forasmuch as, though ** The people of "Worcestershire. 16 I170ULPH*S HISTOBY OF THE ABBEY 07 CROTLAND. A.D. 833. for a time He was angered against me. His wrath hath been turned aside, and He hath consoled me, and though in His anger He humbled me, a sinner, to the earth, and dragged me down even to the dust. He hath again in His mercy raised the poor out of the dust, and hath lifted up the needy from the dung- hill, that so I may sit among princes, and inherit a throne of glory.** Wherefore, on the day of good things, that I may not be unmindful of the evil ones, * I wiU make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me;'*^ not, indeed, of llahab, the harlot, but of Etheldritha, the most holy virgin, my kinswoman, who, in her love for her spouse, the Lamb without blemish, is a recluse at Croyland, and who, in the times o£ my tribulation, most carefully concealed me in her cell from before the face of the enemy and persecutor for the space of four months. I will also make mention of Babylon ; not of the tower of confrision, but of the most holy church of Croy- land, which spot is a tower which reacheth unto heaven, and which with watchings and prayers, with psalms and medita- tions, with discipline and afflictions, with tears and sobs, with alms-deeds and innumerable other acts of devoutness and piety, in behalf of a sinM generation, doth extreme violence to the kingdom of heaven day and night. Wherefore, forasmuch as the venerable father Siward, the lord abbat of Croyland, hath protected me in his tabernacle on the evil day, and hath con- cealed and saved me from the face of him that afflicted me ; in addition, to the privileges granted thereto by the kings of Mercia, my predecessors, who have nobly graced the aforesaid monastery with various liberties and gifts, I do also of my poverty make offering unto the great altar of the aforesaid monastery, of a chalice of gold, a cross of gold, and the [holy] table of my own chapel, covered with plates of gold ; and do make profession that I will always, to the best of my ability, prove myself a defender of the said church. I do also command my servants throughout the whole of Mercia appointed, that they shall in all things obey and serve the abbat of Croyland, the monks, and all the brethren of the said most holy monas- tery, whenever they shall come unto the cities and tiie royal casdes upon any business whatever, ia such manner as they would dbey my son Wymund or myself; and that they shaU ^ In allasion to 1 Sam. ii. 7, 8, and Psalm xiii. 7, 8. *> Psalm buuvii. 4.


receive nothing from them for the expenses which they or
their people may thei^ incur ; but that my treasurer shall take
upon himself all the said expenses, and pay the same in full
out of the public treasury, when an account thereof shall have
been received under the signature or mark of the said monks,
and my said servants shall have reckoned up the same/’

” I do also ^dll and command, that whoever in my kingdom
shall be found guilty of any offence, and shall be amenable to
the laws for the same, if the said person shall flee to the said
monastery, and shall, in presence of the abbat of the said
monastery for the time being, invoke the favour of the most
lioly confessor, Guthlac, who in the body resteth there, and
shall swear everlasting fealty and service to him ; he shall be
safe and secure under the protection of the abbat and his
monks, in whatever service they shall employ him, throughout
the whole island of Croyland ; and shall enjoy my protection
and full impunity, as though he were in an asylum or in my
own chamber ; and no one of my servants shall presume to
pursue him any further, nor yet in any way to molest him,
under pain of losing his right foot^ which penalty shall be in-
flicted upon all persons in my kingdom who shall in any way
iittempt to violate this my privilege. And further, it shall be
lawful for all such fugitives to sail upon and to fish in the five
livers which surround the said island, and to labour in any
other way in which they may be directed by their masters^
without challenge or molestation on the part of my servants or
of any other person whatsoever. But if any such person ^all
Ik? captured beyond the said rivers, or beyond the Mmits of the
said monastery, he shall, without any favour, sulFeT the penalty
which he had previously incurred, whether the sjune be death or
!o8s of limb, if my servants, or any other adversaries of such
[lerson shall be able, on the oaths of six trustworthy men, to
prove that such person has been found beyond the said limits.
The said boundanes of the monastery of Ooyland by its five
rivers aforesaid, I have caused to be described and marked out
for the guidance of my own servants^ as also of its abbat and
monks, in relation to their fugitives aforesaid. Now the said
rivers are called by the following names : Schepishee, which
Ues on the east, and on the west^ bank of which stands an
ancient cross of wood, which is ten feet distant from the river,
and is situate at equal distances between two comers of the



said island, of which Asw} ktoft is one, being the comer and
boundary of the said island on the north-east,^ and Tedwarthar
ia the other, being the comer and boundary of the said island
on the east. The second river bounds the said island on the
south, and is called Southee. On its bank there stands a stone
cross, which is distant from Kamanlandhime five perches, and
six perches from Southee, where the river Southee enters the
river Nene, which runs to the bridge of Croyland. In this
direction the limits for the fugitives run into the marshes on
the west, and take a south-westerly direction through Eynset,
and then, as far as Folwardstakyng, a north-westerly direction
Thence they take a turn to the north, to the spot where the
river Southlake enters the river “Welland, just opposite a stone
cross, which stands on the northern bank of the said river
“Welland, being distant five feet from the said river, which
runs thence to the bridge of Croyland aforesaid. The limits
for the fugitives, however, take a direction fit)m the said cross
through the northern marshes straight to Oggot, which is the
comer of the boundaries to the west; they then run in an
easterly direction through Wodelade, as far as Apynholt,
where they take the course of the river Welland, (which is the
fourth river, and bounds the island on that side, in the same
manner as the third river, the Nene, bounds it on the other
side of the bridge of Croyland,) as far as the Drain of Asendyk,
which falls into the WeUand, where a broken cross of stone
stands on the southern bank of the river Asendyk, from the
waters of which it is five perches distant. The said river
Asendyk is the fifth river, and separates the said island from
the place of that name, running in a northerly direction as fur
as Aswyktoft.^ If any fugitive shall be found beyond the
said five rivers and the boundaries beforenamcd, then, even us
Shimei,^ when he went forth from Jemsalem, he shall be
amenable to the public laws, and shall suffer the punishment
which he had deserved. And if, within the boundaries afore-
said, and the outer banks of the aforesaid rivers, any fugitive

*» ** Vidtumum” can only have this meaning here.

^ This description of the boundaries, as here stated, appears very con-
fused. It is more than probable that, from the total change made in the
face of the country about Croyland by the operations in forming the Red-
fbrd level, but few of these bounaaries could now be traced from an actual
survey of the spot.

^ Alluding to Solomon’s injunctions to Shimei, 1 Kings ii. 36 40.


shall commit any homicide, theft, or other oifence, he shall he
arrested hy the officers of the said monastery for his misdeeds
in the said island, the protection of which he has so forfeited,
and shall he there judged and condemned to the ahhat’s prison.
And, to the end that this my privilege may endure more firmly
and more surely to the times of our descendants, I have ob-
tained confirmation thereof by my lord Egbert, the king of
Wessex, and Ethelwulph, his son.

** I do also present to the vestry* of the said monastery, for
the service of the most holy altar, the pm*ple robe which I
wore on the occasion of my coronation, for the purpose of making
a cope or chasuble of the same, and likewise, as an ornament
for tiie most holy church, my veil^ of gold embroidery, upon
which is worked the destruction of Troy, to be hung upon
my anniversary, if it shall so please them, on the walls thereof.
I do also present to the refectory of the said monastery, for
the use of him who shaU daily preside in the said refectory,
my gilded cup, which is chased all over the outside with savage
vinedressers fighting with dragons, and which I have been
in the habit of calling my * crucibolum,’ because the sign of the
cross is stamped in the inside of the cup, across the same, the
four comers thereof projecting and being impressed with a simi-
lar design ; as also the horn used at my table, that the elders of
the monastery may drink therefirom on the festivals of the
Saints, and may, in their benedictions, sometimes remember the
Boul of Wichtlaf the giver thereof.

” I do also confirm unto the said monastery all their lands,
tenements, and possessions, and their cattle, and all other the
gifts which my predecessors, the kings of the Mercians, and their
nobles, or other faithful Christians, as well as Jews, have
given, sold, or pledged to the said monks, or have in any way.
deUvered to them for a lasting possession ; and, in especial,
the gift of Thorold, formerly sheriff of Lincoln, at Buken-
bale, that is to say, two carucates and a half of land, as also
twenty-six acres of meadow land, and fifty acres of woodland,
[and seventy acres], at Brusche.” Also, the gift of Geolph,
the son of Malte, at Halington, that is to say, ibur bovates of

” Or, perhaps, «* treasury.” In the original, ** sccretarium.”
^ These vdls were made of embroidery, and were hung as i screeK at
the entrance to the king’s private chamber. >

^ Piobab}j 80 called from the brushwood there growing.

c 2

20 TNGULPH’s HISTOBT of the abbey of A.D. 833.

land at Juland, and ten bovates of land rented to tenants, and
thirty-three acres of meadow land at Gemthorp. Also, the gift
of Fregist, the knight, that is to say, the whole of the vill of
Langtoft, and in the fields of the said vill six carucates of
arable land, the same being in length fifteen quarentenes,^
and nine quarentenes in breadth ; as also one hundred acres of
meadow land, and a wood and marsh two leagues in length,
and two leagues in breadth ; besides the church of the said
vill, and forty acres of the same fee *•* in the fields of Depyng.
Also, the gilt of Algar, the knight, [the son of Northlang],
that is to say, Northland in Baston, consisting of four caru-
cates of arable land, containing eight quarentenes in length,
and eight quarentenes in breadth, as also forty-five acres of
meadow land, and a marsh containing sixteen quarentenes in
length, and eight quarentenes in breadth ; likewise the church
of the said vill, and one mill, and one half of another mill,
with several piscary in the river from the mill situate to-
wards the west, as far as the end of the said marsh, towards
the east. Likewise, the gift of the same Algar, the knight,
at Eepyngale, that is to say, three carucates of arable land
and forty acres of meadow land. Likewise, the gift of Nor-
man, the former sheriff, at Sutton, near Boswoi^, that is
to say, two carucates of land, and one windmill. Like-
wise, the gift of the same Norman, at Stapilton ; that is
to say, the manor, and two carucates of land. Likewise,
the ^ft of the same person at Badby, that is to say, four
hides of land, together with the appurtenances. Like-
wise, the gift of the lord, earl Algar, at Holbecke^ and at
Cappelade, that is to say, four carucates, and six bovates and
eighteen acres of meadow land, and a marsh. [Likewise, the
gift of the same person in his vill of Spaldelyng, that is to say*i
three carucates of land.] Likewise, the gift of the same per-
son, in his vill of Pyncebek, that is to say, one carucate of
land. Likewise, the gift of the same person, in his vill of
Algarkirk, that is to say, eleven bovates of land ; and in the
parish of Sutterton, three carucates of land, and one bovate
and twenty-six acres of meadow land, and four salt-pits, to-

3> A quarentene of land consisted of forty perches.
‘^ The mention of fees or feuds is one of the suspicious circumstances
Dointed out by Hickes.
‘» Now Holbeacb.


gethei- with the church of the said vill. Likewise, the gift of
the knight Oswy, at Drayton, that is to say, eight hides of
land, and four virgates, and the church of the said vill. Like-
wise, the gift of Asketel, my cook, at Glapthom, that is to
say, three virgates of land. Likewise, the gift of Wulget, my
[former] butler, at Peiekyrke, that is to say, three virgates of
land. Likewise, the gift of [EdulphJ my courier, one bovate
of land at Laythorp. Likewise, the gift of Si ward, the sheriff,
three bovates of land, one dwelling house, and three cottages
at Kirkeby. Likewise^ at Staunden, the gift of the countess
Sigburga, being five hides of land. Likewise, the gift at
Adyngton, of Wulnoth, my sewer, that is to say, two hides of
land, and several piscary,’* together with the advowson of the
church of the said vill ; as dso, in the other Adyngton, one
virgateof land, the gift of the same person. The said lands and
tenements I do give, grant, and confirm unto the aforesaid
monastery of Croyland, and the monks there serving God, as a
peaceable and permanent possession, to hold of me and each of
my heirs, kings of the Mercians, my successors, as a pure and
perpetual alms-gift, freely, quietly, and exempted from all
fiecular burdens, exactions, and taxes whatever, under what
name soever the same may be imposed. And if any enemy,
at the instigation of the devil, shall at any time hereafter at-
tempt to lay claim to any of the lands or tenements aforesaid,
which have been so long and under so many kings held in
peace, and confirmed by their authority, I do by this present
deed, profess and promise that I and my successors, kings of
the Mercians, will be defenders of the said monastery hence-
forth in all time to come.

” This my charter I have confirmed with the sign of the
holy cross, in favour of the lord abbat Siward, my father, and
the most holy virgin, Etheldritha, a recluse there for the love
of Christ, my kinswoman in the flesh, but (what is still more)
my most dearly beloved sister in Christ ; and which I had for-
meily promised in presence of my lords, !%bert, king of Wes-
^x, and Ethelwulph, his son, before the bishops and nobles of
highest rank throughout all England, in the city of London, on
the occasion when we had all met together for the purpose of
derising measures against the Danish pirates, who were then

‘* It is doubtful whether ** piscaria” here means the fishpond itself, oi
the right of fishing in it.


repeatedly harassing the coasts of England. + I, Ceolnoth,
archbishop of Canterbury, have advised the same. H- I, Em-
bald, archbishop of York, have signed the same. H- I, Osmond,
bishop of London, have approved of the same, -f I, Helm-
8 tan, bishop of Winchester, have given my assent hereto. + I,
Herewin, bishop of Lichfield, have consented hereto. + I,
Cedda, bishop of Hereford, have sanctioned the same, -h I,
Adelstan, bishop of Sherbum, have promoted the same, -f I,
Humbricht, bishop of Elmham, have given my approbation
hereto. H- I, Wilred, bishop of Dunwich, have assented here-
to, -f I, Herfred, bishop of Worcester, have countenanced
the flame. + I, Godwin, bishop of llochester, have favoured
the same, -f I, Hedda, abbat of Medeshamsted, have ratified
the same, -f I, Ambert, abbat of Eepton, have assisted here-
at. H- I, Kynewin, abbat of Bardeney, have been present here-
at. -f I, Egbert, king of Wessex, have granted tbe same.
-I- I, Ethelwulph, son of the king of Wessex, have allowed of
the same. -}- I, duke Wulhard, have taken part herein. + I,
duke Athelm, have heard the same, -f I, duke Herenbricht,
have agreed hereto. H- I, Swithun, priest of king Egbert,
have attended hereat. H- I, Bosa, the secretary of king Wicht-
laf, have with my hand written this deed, -h I, Wichtlaf, by
the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, king of the Mercians, do,
for the honour of holy Mother Church, and for the promotion
of Divine worship, in the year from the Incarnation of the same
our Saviour, 833, upon the festival of Saint Augustin, the con-
fessor, teacher, and Apostle of our nation, make this slight offer-
ing, and I would offer still more, and would even promise my
body after my death to so holy a monastery, were it not that
before my burial I had promised the same to [the monastery
of] Eepton. But still, my spirit shall remain with you always.”

The said king Wichtiaf persevered with the greatest con-
stancy, even unto his death, in the affection he had conceived
for the monastery of Croyland, so much so, that at least once
in each year of his life, he visited the shrine of Saint Guthlac
with great contrition, and offered there some jewel of great
value and costliness. When he first heard of the death of the
most holy virgin Etheldritha, he was struck with such violent
grief, that for a long time he took to his bed, and all his atten-
dants were fearful that he was in danger of his life.

At length, however, by the favour of the grace of God, he


recovered in some d^;ree, and going to her tomb, (she had been
buried at the head of the holy man Tatwin, the fonner guide
and steersman of the holy father Guthlac to the said island),
there suffered a kind of trance ; on recovering from which
he shed as many tears over the tomb, as if by a sudden mis-
fortune he had just lost his wife and his son, or his whole family ;
until Siward, the lord [abbat], whom he always most affection-
ately revered as his father, rebuking him somewhat severely, led
him away, with reluctance, and offering considerable resistance,
from the tomb to his chamber. Not long after this, his son Wy-
mund dying, after a continued attack of dysentery, he buried
liim on the right hand side of that virgin. His wife Celfreda,
also, dying soon after, within the space of one year, he had her
buried wifii royal obsequies, and amid inextinguishable tears,
on the left hand side of the same virgin. He himself departed
tliis life in the thirteenth year of his reign, and, in conformity
with his former vow, was buried in the monastery of Eepton.

He was succeeded on the throne by his brother, Bertiilph,
who in like manner reigned thirteen years, being a tributary
of Ethelwulph, king of Wessex : but neither after the example,
nor with the affection of his brother, king Wichtlaf, did he
caress the Saints of God or the monastery of Croyland. For
Berfert, his son, on the holy vigil of Pentecost, with the
sanction of his father, Bertulph, cruelly and impiously slew his
kinsman, the holy Wistan, son of Wimund, the son of king
Wichtlaf, and of Alfleda, the daughter of Ceolwulph, the for-
mer king. So violent was the ambitious desire for rule by
which he was actuated ! The body of this most guileless
martyr was at the time carried to Eepton, and interred near his
grandfather, Wichtlaf, but was in after years, through the de-
voutness of the faithfal, transferred to Evesham.

As for his father, Bertulph, he was a plunderer of the mo-
nasteries ; and, when passing through Croyland, he most im-
piously stripped it of all the jewels which his brother, Wicht-
hif, as well as other kings of the Mercians, had given with
a bounteous hand, in great numbers, for the decoration of the
holy church, together with all the money that he could find in
the monastery. Leading his soldiers thence, he engaged in
battle with the Danes, who were committing ravages in the
»3 In Norfolk.

24 nrauLpn’s histokt of tff. abbey of cboyland. a.d. 851

neighbourhood of London, but was routed by the pagans, and
put to flight.

By way, however, of making some small amends for the
money of which he had plundered it, he granted a charter
conferring very important privileges on Croyland, relative t« its
lands and liberties, to the following effect : ^

” Bertulph, king of the Mercians, to the venerable father
Siward, abbat of Croyland, and to all his brethren, the monks
of the said monastery, both present and to come, health ever-
lasting in the Lord. I do most heartily return due thanks
unto you aU, for th!e money with which, in my greatest need,
when I was lately passing by, you did, with most kindly and
most liberal feelings, refresh and encourage me to withstand the
violent attacks of the Pagans. At which time you made serious
complaints to me as to injuries and losses most maliciously in-
flicted upon you by certain of your enemies; and stated that they
wickedly lie in wait upon the outer banks of your rivers,
and watch if any of the fugitives who have become your
servants, should, while Ashing, land upon the said banks ; and
in like manner repeatedly watch the boundaries of your
marshes, if by chance any sheep or oxen, or other animals, your
property, straying to a distance, your said servants should hap-
pen, for the purpose of recalling them, to go beyond the said
bounds ; in which case, on flnding your said servants beyond your
island, it is their custom to subject them to the public laws, and
condemn them as violators of their right of impunity ; of which
the consequence was, that either your said servants frequently
fell into the hands of the said persons, and were put to death, or
else that you failed to reap the full benefit of their labours.
Wherefore, your complaints to the said effect being openly laid
before me by the brother Askil, your fellow monk, in pre-
sence of the prelates and nobles of my whole kingdom of
Mercia, at Beningdon,** lately assembled, and all most affection-
ately sympathising with you, upon the said injuries so done to
you ; for the purpose of promoting the honour of God, and of
giving relief to holy Mother Church, it did please me, all takinj*
into consideration and praising the extent of your devout and

^ Hickes, in his Thesaurus of Northern Literature (pref. p. 28), looks
upon this charter as fictitious.

^ Either Bennington, in Hertfordshire, or perhaps, more probably, Ben
ton. in Oxfordshire.


holy zeal, to insure the peace and quiet of your holy monnBtery,
and as an alms-deed for the good of my soul, to declare and
extend the privileges granted to you by the lord king Wichtlut’,
my brother and predecessor, as to exemption from punishment,
and when so declared and extended, by my charter to confirui
the same.

** Wherefore I commanded Eadbot, the sheriff of Lincoln,
and tiie rest of my servants in that district appointed, to
make circuit of and describe the boundaries of your island of
Croyland and your marshes, and faithfully and distinctly to re-
port to me and my council thereon, wherever during last Easter
we might happen to be : and liiey, fuMling my commands,
have, in the following terms, made a full report, and have de-
scribed to me and my council, who were then keeping our holy
£aster at Xyngesbury, the circuit of the marsh lancb of your
island. Your isle of Croyland, (with which, in former tunett,
your founder, the renowned Etbelbald, king of Mercia, endowed
your monastery, and which grant the otiier kings of Mercia,
his successors, have, by their charter, confirmed), is bounded ou
the eastern side from Aswyktofthime as far as Tedwarthar, by
the river Schepishee, the said river having the said island ou
its western side, and the marsh of Cappelade on its eastern side.
From Tedwarthar as far as Namanslandhime the river Southee
iMunds it, having the said island on its northern side, and the
wood of Ancarig on the south. From Namanslandhime as
tar as the bridge of Croyland the river N«ne bounds it, having
the said island on its eastern side, and your nmrsh of Alder-
lound on the west. From the bridge of Croylani as far as
Wodelademouth the river Welland bounds it, Imving the said
island on its eastern side, and your marsh called Go^slound
oa the west. From Wodelademouth as far as the common
Brain of Asendyk the aforesaid river Welland bounds it, hav.
ing the said island on its south side and the marsh of Spal^
(lelyng on the north; and from the aforesaid Brain as fur as
Aswy ktoft the aforesaid river Asendyk bounds it, having on its
iHiuth side the said island, and on the north the marshes of
8paldelyng, Weston, and Multon. The limits also and boun^
(luries of your marsh lands that lie opposite to your isle of
Croyland on the west side thereof, which have been describcMl
by Miy said servants, have been reported to me as follows : —
They extend from Naiuanslundhii-ne us far as Fynset, thence us


fer as Groynes, thence to Eolwardstakyng, thenoe towards the
north as farasthe Welland, where the Southlake enters that river;
thence, crossing the river Welland, they proceed to Aspath, and
thence take a northerly direction to Werwerlake. Thence they
run through Harynholt, as &r as Mengerlake ; thence to Oggot
or Dedmanslake, and so through Apynholt and Wodelade, in an
easterly direction, asfaras Wodelademouth, which is the boundary
of your island on that side towards the north, in the same way
that Namanslandhime is the boundary of your island on the
south. And ^irther, common right of pasture for all your
cattle extends beyond the aforesaid boundaries of your marges,
towards the south, aa fai aa the lands of the monks [of the
church] of Medeshamsted; towards the west, as far as the lands
of the monks of the church of Saint Pega, in the southern
marshes of the Welland; and in the northern marshes [thereof] it extends westward as far as the buildings of Depyng ; and
towards the north as far as the buildings of Spaldelyng ; the
same to be enjoyed at all seasons of the year, in the same way
that from the foundation of your monastery you have hitherto
peaceably enjoyed all the privileges before-mentioned. Also,
as to such of your servants as from the number of the fugitives
you shall make fishermen or shepherds in your service, I do,
with the general assent of the council of the whole of my king-
dom, grant unto your holy monastery, beyond the outer banks
of the five rivers’* that enclose your island, twenty feet in width
from the water itself, in whatever place they shall land, for the
purpose of drawing their nets, or of doing anything what-
soever that is necessary to be done on dry land. In like man-
ner, wherever common right of feeding your cattle in the said
marshes extends, there also shall extend free range for your fu-
gitives. And if it shall chance to happen that the said cattle
are driven into the neighbouring fields, by means of tempest,
or any other misfortune, or through robbery, then, aU my nobles
and prelates consenting thereto, I do grant unto your said fugi-
tives, that, like other free men, they shall be at liberty to follow
your cattle aforesaid, and to seek for and bring them back in
the best manner they may; and that throughout the whole road
they shall enjoy m^ protection and perfect impunity, just as
though they were m their own church : and no one is to pre-
sume to molest them, under penalty of mutilation of the most
useful limb, or in any way to impede them therein.

** ” Agrorum ” here is clearly a mistake for ” aquarum.**


” Moreover, in behalf [of the soul] of the before-named
Wichtlaf, the late king, my brother and predecessor, and as a
ransom for my own sins, I do, by the common advice, and with
the gratuitous assent of all the nobles of my kingdom, grant
unto God and to his most blessed confessor Saint Gruthlac, and
to your most holy monastery of Croyland, that throughout my
whole kingdom of Mercia, you, the present abbat, monks, and
lay brothers of your holy monastery, as well as those who shall
succeed you hereafter there to serve God, shall be at liberty
to appoint any of the said fugitives to act as their servants on
their joumies, and to take them as such, whatever may be the
business on which they are so engaged ; and that in the presence
of the said abbat, monks, and lay brothers, they shall everywhere
throughout my kingdom remain as safe and unmolested as if
they were in their own church of Croyland, and shall be en-
tirely free and exempt &om all peril whatsoever, under penalty
of mutilation of his most useful limb, if any person shall at*
tempt in any way rashly to violate this my privilege. But if
any such fugitive shall be found beyond the aforesaid twenty
feet on the further banks of your rivers, or beyond the vills,
Trhich claim common of pasture with you in your western
marshes, on both sides of the river Welland, or shall be found
in any other place, yourselves being absent and he unprovided
with letters of protection on the journey from your abbat, then,
in such case he shall, according to his demerits, be subject to
lawfid punishment.

” Having thus declared the boundaries of your island, as
also of your marshes, and having, in honour of God, extended
the privileges of the lord Wichlluf, and the other kings of
Mercia, my predecessors, munificently granted unto you, it has
pleased me and the whole of my council, unanimously, by the
authority of the royal charter, to confirm you in possession
of all pkces your property. I do therefore confirm unto you,
and to [all] your successors, as well those under your habit now
professing, as those who shall after you profess, the rule of Saint
Benedict, your principal church of Croyland, in which the
venerable remains of flie most holy confessor of Christ, and
your patron, the blessed Guthlac, tiiere in the body interred,
happily await the last resurrection, as also the whole island
thereto adjoining, in such manner as it hasbeen above sufficiently
described by its boundaries sot forth by the care of my servants,

28 nreuuPH’s histobt of the abbey of cbotlasti). a.d. 851*

the Bame to be set apart as a several foundation for your abbey,
and an especial site for your monastery, and to be held for ever
as your own sole and entire possession; together with the
two marshes lying on the western side thereof, that is to say,
Alderlound on the south side of the river Welland, and Goggis-
lound on the northern side of the same river, by their boun-
daries in like manner herein-before set forth. This is the in-
heritance of the Lord, the endowment of the Church of Christ,
the soil of Saint Mary and Saint Bartholomew the Apostle,
the most holy sanctuary of Saint Guthlac and his monks, u
monastery most free from all worldly servitude, a special alms-
gift of the most illustrious kings, the sole place of refuge for
every one in all tribulations, a perpetual abode of the Saints,
a possession for religious men, especially set apart by the com-
mon council of the kingdom ; and, by reason of the frequent
miracles of the most holy confessor, an ever-fruitful mother * of
camphire in the vineyards of Engedi,’^ and, by reason of the
privileges granted by the kings, a * Bosor in the wilderness,””
a city of grace and safety to all who repent. If any person
shall violate this holy shrine, or shall in any way molest the
same, my right hand shall take vengeance upon him, and the
same will my heirs smd successors do to the end of time, who
after me shall wield the sceptre of this kingdom of Mercia.

** I do also confirm unto God and to Saint Guthlac and your
holy monastery of Croyland, the gift of Fregist, formerly knight
of king Kenulph, being the chiirch of Lungtoft, and in the
fields of the said vill six carucates of land, the same being
fifteen quarentenes in length, and nine quarentenes in breadth;
as also one hundred acres of meadow land, and a wood and
marsh two leagues in length and two leagues in breadth, be-
sides forty acres of the same fee in the fields of Depyng. I do
also confirm unto God and to Saint Guthlac and your holy
monastery, the gift of Algar the knight, the son of Northlang,
being the church of Tetford together with the chapel of Saint
John the Evangelist at Baston ; as also in the same parish foar
carucates of land, containing in length eight quarentenes, and
eight quarentenes in breadth; likewise one mill, and one
hdf of another mill, and several piscary in the river, as the
same bounds your meadows towards the east. Likewise, the
gift of the same Algar at Eepyngale, that is to say, three
«• Caut. i. 14- ” Probably in allusion to Jer. ix. 2.


ciirucates of land and sixty acres of meadow land. I do also
confirm unto God and to Saint Guthlac and your holy mo-
nastery of Croyland, the gift of earl Algar, the father of the
younger Algar now living, being the church of Cappelade to-
gether with the chapel of Saint John the Baptist in the same
vill, and, in the fields of Holbeck, as also of Cappelade, four
carucates of arable land, and six bovates and eighteen acres of
meadow land, and a marsh of two thousand ^^ acres, and another
marsh of three thousand^ acres ; likewise, the gift of the said
earl Algar the elder, being the wooden chapel of Saint Mary, near
Spaldelyng, which in English has the name of Stokkym, and
i:« situate on the eastern side of the river of that vill ; as also,
in the fields of Pynchbek and of Spaldelyng, four carucates of
lund, and several piscary in the aforesaid river from the
bridge which leads from the burial-ground of the aforesaid
chapel of Saint Mary, to the burial-ground of the stone chapel
of :;^int Nicholas, which in English is called Stonyn, and is
situate on the western bank, in tibe manor of the aforesaid earl
Algar, who gave the said right of fishery from the aforesaid
bridge as far as the Drain of Asendyk, unto God and Saint
Gathlac of Croyland, for the solemn celebration of the anni-
versary of his father each year in your monastery. I do also
confirm unto God and to Saint Guthlac and your holy mo-
nastery, the gift of the said earl Algar the elder, being the
church of Sutterton, and, in the fields of Algarkyrk and of
Sutterton, three carucates of arable land, and twdve bovates and
twenty-six acres of meadow land, and foursalt-pits. Also, thegiit
of the knight Oswy at Drayton, being eight hides and four vir-
gates of land. I do also confirm unto God and to Saint Guthlac
and your holy monastery the gift of Asketel, being three vir-
gates of land at Glapthome. Also, the gift of Wulget, beingthree
virgates of land at Peiekyrk. Also, one bovate of land, the
gift of Edulph, at Laythorpe. Also, the gift of the ^eriff
Siward at Kyrkeby, being three bovates of land, one dwelling-
house, and three cottagis. Also, the gift of the countess
i^igbui^a, being five hides of land at Staundon. Also, the gift
uf Wulnoth at Adyngton, being two hides of land, toge^er
with the advowson of the church of the said vill ; and in
the other Adyngton, one virgate of land, the gift of the same.
1 do also confinn unto God and to Saint Guthlac and your
* The word *’ thousand ” ought probably to be amitted.


holy monastery, the gift of Thorold, sheriff of lincohiy heing
two carucates and a half of land in Bukenhale, and twenty-
six acres of meadow land, and fifty acres of wood-land, [and
«eyenty acres] at Brusche. I do also confirm unto God and to
Saint Guthlac and your holy monastery, the gift of Geolph,
the son of Malte, at Halyngton, being four bovates of land at
Juland, and ten bovates rented to tenants, and thirty-three
acres of meadow land at Gremthorpe belonging to the same fee.
All the aforesaid churches, chapels, lands, tenements, pastures,
fisheries, manors, dwelling-houses, mills, meres, and marshes,
I do grant unto yourselves and your successors for ever, firee
and absolved from all secular services and worldly burdens ;
and do, by this my present charter, confirm the same as my
royal alms-gift for the soul of the lord Wichtlaf the late
king, my brother and predecessor, and for the souls of all my
ancestors, kinsmen, and friends. I do also exempt the same
from all debts due to the king and every other lord and man,
of what dignity, excellence, or honour, soever he may be,
that so they shall from this time forward be able to demand
nothing whatsoever from the monks, clerks, laymen, servants,
or tenants of your holy monastery of Croyland, except your
prayers and your spiritiud benefits ; to the end that may always,
in all our necessities, deserve the favour of the holy Guthlao,
the most blessed confessor of Christ, who, in the body, rests
among you.

“Wherefore, with the unanimous consent of the whole
council here at Kyngesbury, in the year from the Incar-
nation of our Lord Christ, 851, on the sixth day of
Easter week, on the business of the kingdom assembled, I
havB steadfastly and immutably confirmed this my royal
charter with the sign of the holy cross, -h I, Ceolnotii, arch-
bishop of Canterbury, being whole and healed both in
mind and body, have with my hand signed the same, -h I,
Swithulph, bishop of London, having in myself experienced
the grace of God, and of His most holy confessor Guthlac^
have, with humble duteousness, at the command of my lord
the king, dictated this deed, and have, among the other lord
bishops, in my proper order, subscribed the same, -f- I,
Swithun, bishop of Winchester, joyous and rejoicing so oft as
the Lord most holy gladdens His city, our Holy Mother Church,
with miracles, have set piy signature to this charter of the


king. + I, Elstaiif bishop of Sherburn, the duteous and
everlasting debtor of Saint Guthlac, rejoicing with our Holy
Church at its privileges, have mado this sign. + I, Orken-
wald, bishop of Lich£eld, pleased and delighted at all the
prosperous successes of the Holy Church, have, with willing
mind, approved hereof, -f I, Eethun, bishop of Leicester, the
son and servant of Saint Guthlac during my whole life, have,
with pleasure, promoted the same, -f I, Godwin, bishop of
Kochester, have, by this deed, ardently desired to promote the
honour of God. -f I, Wulfard, abbat of Evesham, have ap-
proved hereof, -f I, Living, abbat of Winchelcombe, have
commanded the same. + I, Hedda, abbat of Medeshamsted,
liave diligently promoted the same. + I, duke Enulph, have
consented hereto, -h I, duke Osric, have counselled the same,
+ I, earl Serlo, have given my sanction hereto. + I, earl Elhere,
have assented hereto, -f I, earl Huda, have given my con-
sent hereto, -h I> Oslac, butler of king Ethelwulph, and
envoy from my said lord and his sons, have in their name
and in that of all the people of Wessex, especially commended
this deed of my lord the king Bertulph. -f I, Bertulph,
king of the Mercians, in presence of all the prelates and
nobli’8 of my kingdom, do pray to the Divine Majesty, that,
through the intercession of His most holy confessor Saint
Guthlac and all his Sednts, He will pardon me and all my
people our sins ; and that, as openly by His miracles He has
eloigned to shew imto us His mercies, so He will also deign
in every contest to give us the victory over the Pagans, His
enemies, and, after the frail career of this present life, in the
company of His Saints, glory everlasting. — ^Amen.”

At this council, in honour of His most holy confessor
Guthlac, the Lord wrought a most remarkable miracle, by
means of which the devout desires of the whole land to make
the pilgrimage to Croyland, which were now more lukewarm
than usual, at once became reinvigorated, and were daily re-^
vived on all the roads from every province. For it so hap*
pened, that this year a certain disease afflicted the whole of
England ; it was a kind of paralysis, by which the nerves of
men, women, and children, were attacked, through the sudden
and excessive cold of a very inclement winter, against which
no coverings of cloth were proof; the arms and hands es-
pecially of men became useless, and were totally withered

32 ikgulph’s uitKrofir or the abbev of c&oylxsd. a.d. 861.

up, the attacks of the disease being preceded by an into-
lerable pain, which, like a most unerring forerunner, first
took possession of the afflicted Umb. It so happened that
at this council many of both high and low degree were sut-
tering from the malady. When the aSairs of the kingdom
were about to be discussed, Ceolnoth, the lord archbishop
of Canterbury, who was afflicted with the said disease, openly
gave it as his opinion that holy matters ought first to be
treated of, and that then, Christ bestowing His grace thereon,
their worldly affairs might be crowned with a prosperous

To this proposal all assented, and enquiiies were made for
Siwai-d, the lord abbat [of Croyland] ; as, for many years past,
he had been, in consequence of his extreme eloquence and his
holy piety, a sort of Divine interpreter, as it were, at the
councils and Sjmods, and had proved a most graceful expounder
and promoter of innumerable matters relative to the interests
of the whole of the clergy. In consequence, however, of his
great age, he was not present at this council, but, by a most
humble letter of apology, sent by the hands of brother Askili,
his fellow-monk, had excused his absence on the groimd of
his infirmities and advanced years.

On this, king Bertulph, recalling to mind the complaints of
the church of Croyland, laid before the council at full length
the injuries which had been repeatedly inflicted on Siward,
the lord abbat, and his monastery of Croyland, by the infatu-
ated frenzy of their adversaries ; and ordered it to be deter-
mined, with the universal sanction of the council, what remedy
should be applied. While this matter was being publicly dis-
cussed, and the petition of Si ward, the lord abbat, which had
been presented hereupon by brother Askill beibre -named, had
passed from hand to hand among all the prelates and nobles iu
the council, and each was now proposing some different plan,
Ceolnoth, the lord archbishop of Canterbury, with a loud voice,
exclaimed that he was whole and healed of lus malady, through
the merits of the most blessed Quthlac, the most holy confessox
of Christ, whose affairs were at that moment being treated of.
In the same manner, many others, men of the highest rank,
bishops as well as nobles, who were present at the same coun-
cil, exclaimed, that they too had been afflicted with the
Bdmc disease, but that now, through the grace of God, and the


merits of the most holy Guthlac, they expierienced no pain
whatever, in. consequence of the said malady, in any of tiieir

Upon this, all, at once, with the most stringent vows, made
it a matter of conscience, as soon as they possibly could, on
devout pilgrimage to visit the most sacred tomb of the most
holy Guthlac. Accordingly, our lord the king, Bertulph, com-
manded t}ie bishop of London (who was at this time looked
upon as the most able writer and the most elegant composer,
and who, besides, had been attacked by the malady, and now,
with the greatest joyousness, asserted that he was healed
thereof), to take in hand the matter of the privileges of Croy-
land, and determined to do all honor to Saint Guthlac, his phy.
sician, by granting his charter, in such manner as his council
should determine — which was accordingly done. For this reason
it is, that in the signatures to the royal charter, Ceolnoth, the
archbishop of Canterbury, confesses that he is ” whole and
healed ;” Saint Swithun, tiie bishop of Winchester, ” rejoices
ut the miracles of the Lord ;” Elstan, bishop of Sherbum,
and Orkenwald, bishop of Lichfield, express their delight
” at the successes of the Church ;” and Kethun, bishop of
Leicester, promises that he will be the ** servant of Saint
Guthlac so long as he lives.” All the nobles, likewise, present
at the council, with the most ardent zeal, seconded tiie royal
favour towards Saint Guthlac in all respects.

Accordingly, innumerable multitudes of the sick, from
throughout the whole land, flocked daily to the most holy tomb
of Samt Guthlac ; and these, with becoming devotion, implor-
ing the Divine grace, through the merits of the most holy con-
fessor, the Lord so plentifully opened unto them all the foun-
tains of His healthful mercies, that sometimes, in one day,
more than a hundred persons so paralyzed were healed. Hence,
the abbat Si ward was beyond measiire enriched, and became a
very great man ; so much so, that he, who, like the blessed
Job, had been proved by the utmost poverty, and had been
despoiled of all the treasures of his monastery, even to the
utmost farthing, because he was far from cursing his days, nor
yet spake any foolishness against the Lord, but always main-
tained his long-suffering unimpaired, began, by the bounty of
God, to abound in all good things : and thus, ibr the treasures
and wedth, both in lands and tenements, which he had lost


in foiiner tunes, it was afterwards returned unto him twofold,
and his old age became much more fruitM, and twofold more
prosperous, than his youth.

This fact also added to the prosperity enjoyed by him in his
old age — that, shortly after Ms return from Bome, where, in
company with his youngest son, Alfred, he had, with great
devoutness, visited the thresholds of the Apostles Peter and
Paul, and the most holy pope Leo ; Ethelwulph, the renowned
king of the West Saxons, with the free consent of all his pre-
lates and chief men, who, under him, presided over the various
provinces throughout the whole of England, then for the first
time endowed the whole Church of England with the tenths of
all lands, and other goods or chattels, by his royal charter, to
the following effect : —

” In the name of our Lord, who reigneth for everlasting.
Whereas, in our days, we do perceive that evil times are im-
pending, the flames of warfare, the plunder of our treasures,
most cruel depredations by enemies who lay waste far and
wide, and by barbarous and pagan nations, with multiplied tri-
bulations to afflict us even unto death for our sins ; I, Ethel-
w\ilph, king of the West Saxons, together with the council of
my bishops and nobles, securing thereby healthfrd advice and
one uniform remedy, do consent that, by all ranks who have
heretofore possessed any hereditary portion of land, there shall
always be given the tenth part thereof, be it ever so small, for
a dwelling^ for the servants and handmaids of God, in the
service of Gk>d, or else for poor and afflicted laymen ; as also
the tenth part of all goods. And for the purpose of lastingly
preserving the liberties of the Holy Church, I have thought
proper to grant that it shall be free and exempt from all secu-
lar services, and from king’s tribute, both great and small, as
also the taxes which we call ‘ witeredden,* and shall be ab-
solved from all other matters, for the forgiveness of my soul
and the remission of my sins ; and that it shall be devoted to
the service of God alone, exempt from military service, the build-
ing of bridges, and casUe- wani, to the end that the clergy may
the more diligently offer prayers for us unto God without ceas-
ing, the more we do in any degree lighten their services. This
was done at Winchester, in the church of Saint Peter, in the

^ This copy of the charter is evidently in a most corrupt state, and
differs very eonsiderably from that given by Roger of Wendover.


year from the Incarnation of our Lord, 855, being the third year
of the indiction, on the nones of November, before the great altar
there, and in honor of the glorious Virgin Mary, the Mother
of God, and Saint Michael the Archangel, and Saint Peter the
Prince of the Apostles, as also our blessed father Gregory the
Pope ; all the archbishops and bishops of the whole of England
being present and subscribing thereto, as also Beorred, king of
Mercia, and Edmund, king of the East Angles, and an infinite
multitude of abbats, abbesses, dukes, earls, and nobles through-
out the whole laud, and of others of the faithful, all of whom
have approved of this royal charter, and the dignitaries have
subscribed their names thereto.’*

King Ethelwulph, for the more ample confirmation thereof,
offered the above-written charter upon the altar of Saint Peter
the Apostle ; and the bishops, putting faith in God, received
the same, and afterwards transmitted it to all the churches, in
order to be published in their respective dioceses.

Bertulph, king of the Mercians, having departed this life,
after a reign of thirteen years, Beorred succeeded him on tbe
throne. In his time, the before-named venerable father, the
lord Siward, being full of days and enfeebled, ended his life,
after having most ably discharged the pastoral duties for a
period of sixty-two years. He was succeeded in the office of
abbat of the monastery of Croyland by the lord Theodore, In
his time, the Danes, collecting booty in evejy direction through^
out the land, especially ravaged Northumbria and Mercia.

Ethelwulph, king of Wessex, dying just at this time, his
sons, Ethelbald and Ethelbert, succeeded him, and divided
their father’s kingdom between them. Ethelbald, ascending
his father’s bed, a thing before unheard-of among heathens
even, married his own step-mother, Judith, who was the
daughter of a former king of France, and had been taken to
wife by his father Ethelwulph ; to the extreme astonishment
of all his countrymen, who abhorred a crime of this nature.
After having lived for two years in this vile and filthy
course, he departed this life, and his portion of the kingdom
was wholly united to that of his brother Ethelbert.

He, proving himself a most valiant youth and an uncon-
querable triumpher over the Danes, ably maintained the de-
fence of the kingdom for a period of five years ; after which,
Ethelred, the tMrd brother, ascended the throne. In his

n 2

36 nreuLFH’s hisiobt or thx abbkt of cbotiaitj). a.d. 868.

time, the kingdom was most dieadfollj harassed by wars, the
Pagans making inroads on every side. Thej invaded the ter-
ritory of Northumbria, gained possession of York, and, after
ravaging East Anjglia, invaded Mercia, and, in the year of
ourlford, 866, wintered at Nottingham. On this, Beorred,
having assembled a large army, and being strengthened by the
forces of Ethelred, king of Wessex, and his brother Alfred,
whose sister he had married, forced the Pagans to leave Not-
tingham and return to York.

In this expedition earl Algar the younger signalized him-
self by his exploits and military prowess, and through his
valiant deeds gained the especial esteem of king Beon^ and
the two brothers of Wessex. He was also most warmly at-
tached to the monastery of Groyland, and lived on terms of
the strictest intimacy with abbat Theodore, as he had for-
merly done with abbat Siward, proving himself a most
strenuous supporter of that church in all its negociations and
necessities. Having a few years previously to this bestowed
his manor of Spalding upon abbat Theodore, for the good of
the soul of his father, earl Algar the elder, he obtained a con-
firmation thereof to the said abbat Theodore, as also of all the
lands and tenements at that time to the monastery of Groy-
land belonging, to the following effect: —

^ ” Beorred, by the bounty and grace of God, king of the
Hercians, to all the provinces, and the people thereof through-
out the whole of Morcia dwelling, and professing the catholic
faith, health everlasting in our Lord Jesus Christ. Whereas,
our sins so requiring it, we perceive the hand of the Lord ex-
tended over us and threatening our necks with a rod of iron,
I deem it to be necessary and healthful for us, by the pious
prayers of Holy Mother Church, and the free bestowal of alms,
to appease the anger of the Lord, and with becoming devo-
tion in our necessities, to implore His favouring help. For
this reason, and at the prayer of the most valiant earl Algar,
4r ti^ oppressions of the Christian people and the destruction
^ The Saxon name for Nottingham.

40 nroTJLPH*B Hisrofiy op thb abbey op cbotiand. a.ji. 870.

of the churchea and monasteriesy have come together promptly
and spontaneously to join the army of the Lord against these
most wicked Pagans; that so, like martyrs, the worship of Christ
might be promoted by yonr holy blood, and the superstitious
cruelties of the barbarians be put to flight.*’

In addition to this, we are informed by the chroniclers, that
Tduring the aforesaid siege, the Pagans, putting their trust in
the protection of the walls which were fortified in the strongest
manner, and in the strength of the castle, and so declining to
come forth to engage, the Christians found themselves unablo
to effect an entrance through the walls ; and accordingly peace
was made between the Christians and the Pagans, and the
latter, leaving the castle, returned with great booty to North-
umbria. [At the same time, king Ethelred and his brother
Alfred returned with their troops into Wessex.]

In the following year, however, the army of the Pagans,
after having made some stay at York, at the close of the winter
passed over by ship into Lindesey, and, landing at Humberstan,
ravaged the whole country. At this time the most famous
and ancient monastery of Bardeney was destroyed by them,
and all the monks were massacred in the church without
mercy. Having employed themselves throughout the whole
of this summer in reducing the land to ashes, and ravaging it
with fire and sword, about the feast of Saint Michael they
entered Kesteven, spreading fire, slaughter, and devastation in
every quarter.

At length, in the year from the Incarnation of our Lord,
870, and in the month of September, the most valiant earl
Algar and two knights, his seneschals, called Wibert and
Leofric, (from whose names the aged men and rustics have
since given appellations to the vills where they lived, retaining
their names, and calling the one of them ” Wiberton,” which
means the ‘* vill of Wibert,” and the other ** Lefrinkton,” that
is to say, “the vill of Leofric,”) collected together all the youths
of Hoyland. With these there was a band of two hundred
men from the monastery of Croyland, very stout warriors,
which was mostly composed of ftigitives, commanded by
brother Toley, then a monk in that monastery, who had
been, before he adopted the habit, most renowned throughout
all Mercia for his military skill, but had lately, through the
desire of a heavenly country, given up secular for spiritual
warfare at Croyland. They also collected together with


them about three hundred brave and active men from Bepyng,
Langtoft, and Baston, and with them Morcard, lord of Bninne/*
and his retainers, who were very valiant and numerous.
They were also met by the sheriff of Lincoln, Osgot by name,
a veteran and a most stout warrior, at the head of a band of
five hundred Lincoln men.

All ttiese meeting together in Kesteven, joined battle with
the Pagans on the feast of Saint Mauricius the Martyr, and the
Lord granting them the victory, the Christians slew three
kings, together with a vast multitude, and smiting the bar-
harians, pursued them as far as the gates of their camp. Here
they made a very stout resistance, and night putting an end
to the combat, this most invincible earl called off his men.

During the night, there arrived in the camp of the Pagans
all the other kings of their country, who, dividing the district
between themselves, had gone forth for the purpose of ravag-
ing it. These, whose names were Gogroun,** Baseg, Oskitel,
Halfden, and Hamond, with as many earls, namely, Frena, TJn-
guar, Ubba, and the two Sidrocs, the elder and the younger, now
arrived, together with all their forces, and a very great booty,
as well as a numerous multitude of women and children. On
hearing of their arrival, the greater part of the Christians,
being smitten with fear, fled by night ; and there remained with
the before-named earl and his chieftains, out of eight hundred
men, hardly as many as two hundred. With these, early in
the morning, after hearing Divine service, and receiving the
holy viaticum,** they marched forth to the field of battle,
My prepared to die for the faith of Christ and in defence of
their country.

The most valiant earl, finding that his army was in a very
unprotected state on the fianks, again placed brother Toley,
with his five hundred** men, who were the stoutest of all, on
the right wing, assigning to him as well a most valiant troop,
consisting of the illustrious knight, Morcard, of Brunne, toge-
ther with aU those who followed his standard. On the left wing
be placed the renowned sheriff Osgot, with his five hundred**

*i Boone. *’ More generally called ‘* Guthmm.”

^ The Sacrament.

*^ This must refer to the numbers under their command on the pre«
vioas day ; as we have just read that by desertions during the night they
were reduced to less than two hundred in number.

42 dtoulph’s histobt or the abbey of cboylakb. a.d. 870.

men, giving him an active troop, consisting of the knight,
Harding of Rehale, with all the men of Stamford, as tiiey
were all young men and excellent soldiers. He himself, with
his seneschals, took up his position in the centre, for the pur-
pose of assisting either wing, according as he might see it
standing in need thereof.

As for the Danes, being greatly enraged at the loss of their
men, early in the morning they buried their three kings at a vill
which was formerly called Laundon, but which is now, in
consequence of the burial there of the three Danish kings,
called Trekyngham ; after which, four kings and eight earls
marched forth to battle, while two kings and four earls kept
guard over the camp and their prisoners. Upon this, the
Christians, in consequence of the smallness of their numbers,
formed themselves into one solid mass, and by linking their
bucklers together, presented a most formidable bulwark against
the discharge of the archers, and a most dense rampart of
lances against the violent charges of the horse; and thus,
most excellently marshalled by their leaders, they maintained
an immoveable position throughout the whole day.

After they had thus remained unconquered until night-fall,
and the archers of the enemy had wasted their arrows by
discharging them to no effect, the horsemen, being wearied with
their unceasing labour, began to flag ; on which, the barba-
rians, by a concerted plan pretending flight, made a show of
leaving the fleld. The Christians, seeing this, contrary to the
wishes of their leaders, who strongly dissuaded them, broke
their ranks, and dispersed in pursuit of the Pagans over the
plain ; and “without any order, and no longer subject to the
commands of their chiefs, divided themselves into small
parties. Upon this, the barbarians feced about and rushed on
them, just like lions upon a few poor sheep. The most valiant
earl Algar, and the most illustrious knights before-named,
with brother Toley, now drew up their men in a mass upon a
piece of ground in the plain, a little more elevated than the
rest of the surfiEuse, and for a long time withstood the assaults
of the barbarians.

At length, however, after the said valiant and ever-to-be-
renowned earl Algar, and the before-named six most stalwart
chieftains, had witnessed the fall of all the bravest men of their
hand, they rushed in a body over a large heap of the carcases of


the Christians, and there having avenged the shedding of their
hlood, to the best of their ability, upon all who approached,
fell, pierced with innumerable wounds, upon the corpses of
their brethren. A few young men of Sutton and Gedeney,
throwing away their arms, with difficulty escaped into an
adjoining wood, and the next night arrived at the monastery
of Croyland ; where, while abbat Theodore and his brethrra^
were performing the matin vigils, crying aloud and weeping,
with tearful accents they related at the door of the church
the slaughter of the Christians and of brother Toley, as well as
the destruction of the whole of their band.

All were in a state of distraction upon receiving these
tidings. The abbat, in the first place, retained with himself
the more aged monks, and a few children, thinking that their
defenceless state might possibly move the barbarians to pity,
but failing to bear in mind the words of the poet :—
*’ In men who follow camps no faith or pity lives.’*
All those who were stouter and of more youthful age, he then
ordered to fiy to the adjoining fens, and there await the ter-
mination of the warfare ; he also bade them take with them
the sacred relics of the monastery, these being the most holy
body of Saint Guthlac and his scourge and Psalter, as well as
their most valuable jewels and muniments, that is to say, the
charters of foundation given by king Ethelbald, and the con*
finnation thereof by the other kings, as also some of the gifts
presented by king Wichtiaf .

Accordingly, obeying his commands with the greatest ssulness
of heart, they loaded a boat with the aforesaid relics, and the
moniments of the kings ; after which they threw the table of
the great altar, covered with plates of gold, which king
Wichtiaf had formerly presented, and ten chalices, together
with basons for washing, pots, patens, and other vessels of
brass, into the well of the convent. All these, except the
table, sank ; the end of which, in consequence of its length,
always made its appearance, projecting above the surface of
the water ; upon which, they drew it out, and, as they per-
ceived the fires of the vills in Kesteven approaching nearer
and nearer, fearing every moment that the Pagans would
arrive, left it behind vnth the abbat and the aged men before-
mentioned ; and then, embarking in their boat, they reached
the wood of Ancarig, which was adjacent to their island on


the soutli side thereof; and remained there with hrother Toret,
an anchorite, and others of the brethren residing there, for
the space of four days; they themselves being thirty in
number, of whom ten were priests, and the rest of lower rank.

After this, abbat Theodore, taking with him two of the aged
monks, concealed the said table outside of the church, on the
northern side thereof ; but where it was so concealed has never
been ascertained up to the present day. Then, putting on
their sacred vestments, the abbat and all the others assembled
in the choir, and there performed the regular Hours of the
holy office ; after which, commencing it, they went through
the whole of the Psalter** of David. The lord abbat himself
then celebrated high mass, being assisted therein by brother
Elfget, the deacon, brother Bavin, the sub-deacon, and the
brothers Egelred and Wulric, youths who acted as taper-bearers.

The mass being now finished, just as the abbat and his
assistants before-named had partaken of the mystery of the
holy Communion, the Pagans bursting into the church, the
venerable abbat was slain upon the holy altar, as a true martyr
and sacrifice of Christ, by the hand of the most blood-thirsty
king Osketul. His assistants, standing around him, were all
beheaded by the barbarians ; while the old men and children,
on attempting to fly fix)m the choir, were seized and examined
with the most cruel torments, that they might disclose where
the treasures of the church were concealed, and afterwards
put to death ; the lord Asker, the prior, in the vestry, the
lord Lethwyn, the sub-prior, in the refectory. Brother Turgar,
a child ten years of age, remarkable for the beauty of his face
and person, who followed the latter into the refectory, on
seeing the old man put to death, most urgently entreated that
he, too, might be put to death, and killed together with him.

The younger earl Sidroc, however, being moved with com-
passion for the child, stripped him of his cowl, and throwing
over him a long Danish tunic without sleeves, ordered him
everywhere to keep close to him ; and in this way, out of all,
both old and young, who were left in the monastery, he was
the only one saved ; for, through the favour and protection of
the said earl, during the whole period of his stay, he went
in and out among the Danes, as though he had been one of
them. All the monks being thus slain by the executioners,
^ He perhaps means the seven penitential psalms of David*

4.0. 8/0. ATBOCITIES 07 THl DANES. ii

and none of the treasures of the monastery foimdy the Danes,
with ploughshares and mattocks, hroke open all the shrines of
the Saints, who reposed in marble altar-tombs around the
sepulchre of the holy father Guthlac to the right and left.
These were as follow : — on the right hand side was the
tomb of Saint Cissa, the priest and anchorite, and the tomb of
Saint Bettelm, the man of God, and formerly servant of Saint
Guthlac ; [also the tomb of Si ward, the lord abbat of pious
memory. On the left hand side was the tomb of the most
holy father Saint Egbert, formerly the secretary and confessor
of Saint Guthlac ;] likewise the tomb of Saint Tatwin, the
former guide and steersman of Saint Guthlac to Groyland ; the
tomb of the most holy virgin Etheldritha ; and the tombs of
Celfreda, the former queen, and of Wymund, the son, of king

The barbarians having broke open these, on not finding the
hoped-for treasures, were extremely indignant, and in a shockT
iug manner, after piling all the bodies of the Saints in one
heap, set fire thereto, on the third day after their arrival, and
dreadfully burned the same, together with the churdh and all
the buildings of the monastery ; it being the seventh day before
the calends of September.

At last, on the fourth day, with innumerable herds of cattle
and beasts of burden, they passed on in the direction of Me-
deshamsted, where, meeting with the first resistance at the
monastery, and finding the gates barred, they attacked the walls
with archers and engines on every side. The Pagans effecting
an entrance on the second assault, Tulba, the brother of earl
Hnlba, received a severe blow fix)m a stone, and fell in the
breach; on which, being carried by the hands of his attendants
to the tent of his brother Hulba, his life was even despaired of
At this, Hulba was inflamed with rage beyond measure, and
* being greatly exasperated against the monks, with his own
hand slew all he found wearing the garb of the monastic order,
while his companions slaughtered the rest. Not a person in the
whole monastery was saved. Both the venerable fiither Hedda,
the lord abbat, as well as all his monks and fellow-townsmen,
were slain. On this occasion, brother Turgar was advised by
his master, Sidroc, to use the greatest care never to meet the
earl Hulba in any place.
AH the altars were undermined, all the monuments broken


to pieces ; a large library of holy books was burned, an im-
mense number of charters of the monastery torn to pieces; the
precious relics of the holy virgins K3meburga, Kyneswita, and
Tibba, were trodden under foot, the walls utterly overthrown,
and the church itself, with all its out-buildings, burned to the
ground, the flames continuing to bum incessantly for the next
fifteen days.

On the fourth day after this, having collected an endless
booty throughout the whole of the country, the army assem-
bled together j and moved on towards Huntingdon. In crossing
the rivers, the two earls Sidroc always moved the last of all,
‘ for the purpose of protecting the rear of the army. The whole
of their forces having crossed, the river Nene in safety, they,
being the last to pass over, by a sudden mishap, lost two chariots
laden with immense treasures and various articles of furniture,
which fell over the left-hand side of the stone bridge into a
very deep part of the river, together with the beasts of burden,
which were drowned before they could be rescued.

While all the retainers of the younger Sidroc were bnsily
engaged in dragging out the said chariots, and anxiously intent
upon putting all the booty contained therein into other waggons
and vehicles, brother Turgar made his escape into a neighbour-
ing wood, and after walking all night, at daybreak arrived at
Groyland. Here he found his brethren the monks already
returned from Ancarig, and using the most vigorous exertions
to extinguish the flames that still had the mastery in many
parts of the ruins of the monastery. On seeing him return
safe and sound, they were comforted in some degree ; but on
hearing from him how their abbat, as well as the rest of their
elders and brethren, had been slaughtered, and where their
bodies lay, and how that all the sepulchres of the Saints had
been broken to pieces, and all their records and holy volumes
burned, together with the bodies of the Saints, they were all •
of them smitten with intolerable grief, and gave way to pro-
longed tears and lamentations.

At length, after having given full vent to their tears, they
returned to their task of extinguishing the conflagration.
Upon lifting off the ruinous remains of the roof of the church,
near the great altar they discovered the body of the venerable
father, their abbat, Theodore, deprived of the head, stripped
of all the clothes, and haK burnt, as well as bruised and crushed


into the earth hy the fall of the timhers. The hodj was thus
found, on the eighth day after his murder, among the dead em-
bers, at some little distance from the spot where he had been
slaughtered ; together with those of the other ministrunts, who
had met their deaths at the same time, with the exception of
Wulric, the taper-hearer; their bodies being in a similar
manner crushed down into the earth by the weight of the

These were found, however, at different times, llie bodies
of some of the brethren were discovered more than half a year
after the day on which they had been martyred, and in
different places from those in which they had heen slain.
Thus, for instance, the lord^” Paulinus and the lord Herbert,
who were very aged and extremely decrepit, through length
of years, having had their hands cut off in the choir and
having been tortured to death in the same spot, were sought
there with the greatest care, but their bodies were at length
discovered in the chapter-house ; while the lord Grimketul and
the lord Agamund, both of whom were a hundred years old,
and who had been pierced by the swords of the enemy in the
cloisters, were found in the parlour.*’ As for the rest, both
children as well as aged men, after they had been long sought
tor in all directions, brother Turgar giving a full description
how each one had met his end, they were all found at last,
amid mournful lamentations and tears innumerable, with the
sole exception of Wulric.

On this occasion, the lord Bricstan, the former chaunter of
the monastery, a most skilful musician as well as a most ele-
gant poet, and the principal man among the survivors, wrote
those strains upon the ashes of the monastery of Groyland,
copies of which are to be found in many places, and which
begin as follows : —

** O noble church, so late of convents queen,
O’er all exalted, hallowed friend of God !” &c

The whole monastery being now, after long and incessant
« ” Dominus” is here used merely as a term of respect, much the

nme ts the *’ master*’ of later centuries. It was especially applied to

priest8,and appears under the corrupted form of ** Dan,” in the works of

Chtocer and Lydgate.
** ^ Locutorium.” This apartment in monasteries was so called from

the inmates meeting there to converse with one another, or with strangers ;

•ilence being by rule imposed in the other parts of the building.


labour, cleared of its ruins, and cleansed from the ashes and other
unclean impurities, so far as the occasion would permit, they
next discussed among themselves the choice of a pastor. Ac-
cordingly, they proceeded to the election, and at length, by
the consent of all, the venerable father Godric, though very
reluctant and making great opposition thereto, was elected
abbat. On this, the venerable old man, Toret, prior of An-
carig,** as also his sub-prior, the lord Tisa, both of them most
holy and most devout anchorites, came to him, and entreated
him that he would take with him some of the brethren, and
deign to go to Jiedeshamsted, and bestow the kind offices of
Christian burial upon the bodies of their abbat and other
brethren, which were still lying unburied, a prey to birds and
wild beasts.

Accordingly, the venerable abbat Godric hearkened to their
entreaties, and with many of the brethren, among whom was
brother Turgar, proceeded to Medeshamsted, where they were
met by all the brethren £x)m Ancarig. With much toil, all
the bodies of the monks of the said monastery, eighty-four in
number, were collected in the middle of the cemetery of the
monastery, opposite to wiat had formerly been the eastern
side of the church, and were there buried upon the feast of
Saint CeciHa the Virgin, in a single grave of very great extent,
which had been formed for that purpose. Godric then placed
over the body of the abbat, as he lay at rest in the midst of
his sons, a pyramid of stone, three feet in height, three in
length, and one in breadth, on which was sculptured the effigy
of the abbat, surrounded by his monks. This spot, in me-
mory of the destroyed monastery, he ordered to be thence-
forth called Medeshamsted ; and he visited it once each year,
during the remainder of his life, and, pitching his tent opposite
the stone, celebrated masses, with unceasing devoutness, for two
days together, for the souls of the persons there interred. The
royal highway ran through the middle of the cemetery, having
the said stone on the light hand as you go up towards Hoy-
land” from the stone bridge before-mentioned, and on the left,
a cross of stone, in a similar manner sculptured with the
image of our Saviour, which the said abbat Godric placed

^ This is the Saxon name of the Isle of Thorney. It is said to have
been so called from three anchorites who took up their abode there—
Thorncred, Thortred, and Bosa. ^^ Now Holland.


there on the same occasion. This was so erected by him,
that travellers, as they passed by, bearing in mind that most
holy monastery, might offer up their prayers to the Lord for
the souls of the faithful who lay at rest in the cemetery, and
might at least, out of a feeling of reverence for Christ, abstain
from perpetrating offences and robberies within the ruins of
the walls of the monastery.

In the meantime, the Pagans, ravaging the provinces as far
as Grantebrige,** committed to the flames the most famous
[monastery] of nuns, situate in the Isle of Ely ; having first
cruelly murdered all the females as well as men that were to
be found within the walls thereof, and then plundered it of
the property and immense wealth that had been brought
thither from all the [adjacent] country, in consequence of the
security supposed to be afforded by the spot.

Then passing into East Anglia, they engaged the most
valiant earl Wulketul, who met them \iith an armed force ;
imd after a stout resistance on his part, slew him and all his
troops. The most holy Edmund, also, the king of that part,
was taken prisoner by them ; after which, binding him to a
stake as a mark for their arrows, these most blood-thirsty bar-
barians attacked him with their darts and arrows, and after
piercing him through and through with the most shocking
cruelty, decapitated him ; thus conferring upon him martyrdom
in the defence of his country. In this manner the whole o^
East Angliawas gained by them ; and taking possession thereof,
they remained there throughout the whole winter.

In the following year they proceeded onward to Wessex ;
but being met by king Ethelred and his brother Alfred, they
had several severe engagements, attended with varying for-
tunes. In these, however, after having slain some of their
kings, namely, Baseg and Orguil, and many of their earls,
(among whom were Sie elder and the younger Sidroc, earl
Frena, earl Osbem, earl Harold, and earl Funge), together
with a vast multitude of the Pagans, the Christians at last
came off victorious.

In the meantime, Beorred, king of the Mercians, was busily

engaged vrith the Britons, who, by their frequent irruptions,

disquieted the western borders of his kingdom of Mercia;

but, on hearing that the Danes were visiting the eastern dis-

« Cambridge.



tricts with dreadful havoc, he marched to London. Levying
a very considerable force, he passed through the eastern
parts of his kingdom, and reduced the whole of the Isle of Ely
to subjection ; he then proceeded into the country of the
Girvii,** and took possession of the whole of the lands be-
longing to the monastery of Medeshamsted, that is to say, all
those lying between Stamford, Huntingdon, and Wysebeck,**
which had lately belonged to the said monastery. The more
remote lands belonging thereto, that lay scattered throughout the
country, he assigned to the stipendiaries of his army. This he
did also as to the monastery of Saint Pega, at Peykirk, of which
he retained a portion, and gave the rest to his soldiers. He
also did the same as to the lands of the monastery of Saint
Guthlac, at Croyland ; some of which he distributed among his
stipendiary troops, while he himself took the others.

Although the venerable father [abbat] Godric exerted him-
self to the utmost, and repeatedly waited on the king and his
thanes, and frequently showed to them the charters of the
donors, and the confirmations thereof by the kings, together
with his own deed of confirmation, he received nothing in
return but empty words, and at last quite despaired of all
success in his endeavours. Accordingly, perceiving that the
times were evil, and that the wicked disposition of the king
was prompted by extreme avarice; he determined for the
present to pass by these donations on part of the king in
silence, and thenceforth to hold his peace and take no notice
of them until better times should arise ; being much pleased,
and exulting that the royal favour had granted to him the
whole of the island in his vicinity, free and absolved from all
the royal exactions, in much more special terms than had fallen
to the lot of many other monasteries.

Consequently, the following possessions were at this- period
withdrawn from the said monastery of Croyland, and up to the
present day have not been returned to it : the manor of Spal-
dyng, which had been given to earl Ethelwulph, with all its
appurtenances ; the manor of Depyng, which had been given

*s The Girvii here mentioned were probably the inhabitants of part
of Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. The name is thought to have
been derived from the British ” Gyrwys,” “drivers of cattle.” ** Gyrva”
is th6 Saxon for marsh lands, and may possibly have given rise to the
name. ^ Wisbeach.


to Langfer, the knight, and king’s pannier,” with all its ap-
purtenances ; the manor of Croxton, which had been given to
Femod, the knight, and king’s standard bearer^ with all its ap-
purtenances ; the manor of Kyrketon** and Kjrmerby in linde-
sey, which had been given to earl Turgot, with all its appur-
tenaaces. As for Bokenhale and Halyngton, which were then
appropriated by the royal treasury, they were afterwards,
through the exertions of Turketul, the lord abbat of Croyland,
and the bounty of the most pious king Edred, the r^torer
thereof, given back to the said monastery. In like manner,
aU the other lands which had formerly belonged to Croyland,
and of which king Beorred had taken possession for his trea-
suiy, that is to say, Gappelade, Sutterton, Langtoft, Baston,
Eepyngale, Kyrkeby, Drayton, Thinning, Glapthom, Adyng-
ton, Staundon, and Badby, were, by the favour of the re-
nowned king Edred, and the exertions of abbat Turketul, re-
stored to Croyland.

After this, king Beorred passed with his army into Lindesey,
and added to his treasury the very extensive lands that had
hitherto belonged to the monastery of Bardeney ; while those
that were more distant, and lay divided in various districts, he
bestowed upon his troops.

In the year firom the Incarnation of our Lord, 872, king
Ethelred, after being greatly harassed by numerous battles
against the Danes, though he had always remained uncon-

Juered, departed this life at Wimbome, and was buried
there]. He was succeeded on the throne by Alfred, his last
surviving brother, and the youngest son of king Ethel wnlph.
Having formerly accompanied his father to Eome, he was
here anointed by pope Leo, and adopted as his son. On being
now raised to the sovereignty, he had a most toilsome, though
glorious reign of twenty-eight years. For, during nine years
together, he was continually fighting with the Danes, and was
repeatedly deceived by their treacherous treaties, though he
more than once took a most ample revenge on his deceivers.

At last, however, he was reduced to such straits, that, with
the greatest difficulty retaining the three districts of Hamp-
shire, Wiltshire, and Somerset, in their allegiance to him, he

” ‘* Panctarius,” a «’ baker,*’ or ” server out of bread.” In the latter
:ath of king beoheed. od

still, thy retainers^ sent forth to fish in the marshes, shall satisfy
all their desires, and shall, by the Divine guidance, about the
third hour of the day, bring unto thy palace a wonderful supply
of fish.” So saying, the Saint disappeared ; on which, the king
awoke, and relating his vision to his mother, upon enquiry,
found, by her answers, that she had fallen asleep in her chair
at the same hour, and had seen the same vision, the same holy
bishop making his appearance to her in a similar manner.
While they were conversing, the fishermen returned from the
marshes, and brought in a quantity of fish, so vast, that it was
thought it would have proved sufficient for a large army.

Not long after this, the king, pretending to be a minstrel,
took his harp, and entered the tents of the Danes; and thus
getting admission to the most secret places, learned all the
plans of the enemy, and, after satisfying all his wishes, re-
tained safe and unrecognized to Ethelingey. Then, assembling
his army, he suddenly attacked the enemy, and routed them
with incredible slaughter. King Godroun, whom we call
Gurmoond, with a great multitude of the nobles and common
people, was taken prisoner ; on which, he received baptism,
and was raised from the holy font by the king, who, as a mark
of his bounty, bestowed upon him East Anglia, that is to say,
Norfolk, as a residence for him and his followers. The rest
who refiised to be baptized, abjured England, and repaired by
ahip to France.

In the meantime, while king Alfred was still staying at
Ethelingey, the Pagans, in the year of our Lord, 874, returned
to Mercia, and wintered at Bepton, M^here they levelled to the
ground that most famous monastery, the sacred mausoleum of
all the kings of the Mercians. On this, king Beorred, after a
reign of twenty- two years, seeing the whole territory of Eng-
land laid waste with slaughter and rapine, in every comer
thereof, either despairing of victory, or else, wearied by such
a labyrinth of difficulties, left the kingdom, and repaired to
Bonie; where .he died a few days after his arrival, and was
buried in the school of the English there. The wife soon
followed the husband, as she died on her way to Bome, and
was buried at Ticinum.*®

Ho was succeeded on the throne of the Mercians by one of
the servants of king Beorred, Ceolwulph bj’ name, who was
« Or Pavia.

54 ingulph’s history of the abbet of CROYLAHD. A.D, 874.

elected by the Danes, an Englishman by birth, but a barbarian
in impiety. He had sworn fealty to the Danes, and that he
would faithfully pay the tribute imposed by them, and would,
under penalty of forfeiture of his fife, wiliiout any difficulty
on his part, deliver up to them the kingdom, whensoever they
should demand restitution thereof. Accordingly, making a
circuit of the land, the few rustics that were left behind he
stripped” of their money, swallowed up the merchants, op-
pressed the widows and orphans, and inflicted on all the re-
ligious innumerable torments, on the pretext that they were
acquainted with the concealment of hidden treasures.

Hence it was, that, among the numerous misdeeds of which
he was guilty, he imposed upon the venerable Godric, the
abbat of Croyland, and his wretched brethren, a tax of one
thousand pounds, and nearly reduced the monastery of Croy-
land to a state of utter destitution. For, from this time
forward, in consequence of the extreme poverty of the place,
no one was willing to embrace the monastic life there.

Accordingly, the abbat Godric, being unable to support those
of his people who had made profession, dispersed many of the
monks among their kinsmen and other friends of the monas-
tery throughout the whole country ; while some few, remaining
with him, dragged on their existence amid the greatest poverty.
On this occasion, all the chalices of the monastery, with the
exception of three, and the whole of the silver vessels, except
the crucibolum of king Wichtlaf, with the rest of the jewek,
which were of great value, were either coined into money or
else sold for money ; though these were hardly able to satisfy
the insatiate maw of the kingling Ceolwulph. At length,
however, he was deposed by his masters the Danes, who
herein acted with the greatest justice ; and being stripped
stark naked, with nothing to cover his shame, he ended his life
by a wretched death.

At this time also, king Alfred prevailing against the Danes,
the kingdom of the Mercians was joined to his kingdom of
Wessex, and has remained so united up to the present day.
Thus ended the kingdom of the Mercians, which had lasted
from the first year of Penda, its first king, until the last mo-
ments of this wretched deputy kingling Ceolwulph, a period of
about two hundred and thirty years.

^ <* Excoriavit.*' This seems a more probable meaning of the word here, than ** flayed them alive.*' ▲.t». 874. CHABA.CTEB OF KINO ALFRED, 55 All the Danes being now either subjugated or expelled, king Alfred repaired his cities and castles, constructed towers and fortifications in the most suitable places, and, changing the entire face of the country very much for the better, rendered it insuperable by the barbarians, through its walled cities, and its other -well-fortified places. Prescribing also for himself a life regulated by rule, each day, beginning early in the morn- ing, he devoted eight hours to the worship of God ; [another eight hours he devoted to the affairs of the kingdom ; while the last eight hours of the natural day, he bestowed on the care of his body.] For he kept in his chapel a wax taper continually burning before the relics of the Saints, which was divided into equal proportions, the same being three periods of eight hours each. He also appointed a servant, whose duty it was, as each of these portions was consumed and finished, in a loud voice, acting in place of a dock, to warn the king of the portion about to succeed. A wax taper being thus consumed each day, a fresh one was lighted early in the morning ; and this was repeated every day. Full of devoutness, and prostrate at the feet of the Saints, he held Saint Neot, and Saint Werfred, bishop of Worcester, who, by the king's command, had translated the books of the Dialogues of pope Gregory into the Saxon tongue, in the greatest veneration. Of holy books and sacred reading he was so assiduous a student, that he always carried with him in his bosom the Psalter of David, or else some other edif5ing work. Sending for the most learned men from foreign lands, after retaining them some time with him in his palace for the purpose of studying the Holy Scriptures, he would afterwards promote them to various prelacies and dignities. Hence it was, that, having invited from France Saint Grimbald, who was extremely well skilled in the musical art, and most profoundly versed in the Holy Scriptures, he appointed him abbat of his new mo- nastery, which he had built at Winchester. In like maimer, he invited over John, sumamed the Scot, a philosopher of most subtle genius, from old Saxony, and made him prelate of his monastery at Ethelingey. Both these most learned doctors were of the rank of priests, and most holy monks by profes- sion.*® He also summoned Athelstan and Werwulph from ^ Or had taken ihe threefold vow, of obedience to God, chastity, and poverty. 56 INGULPh's HISTOKT of the abbey op CEOYLAND. A.D. 874. M^ercia to bis courts both of tbem most learned priests; as also Plegmund, afterwards promoted to be archbishop of Can- terbury, and Asker, " abbat of Bangor, and afterwards bishop of Sherbum, most celebrated doctors of those times, whom he added to the number of his retainers. Enjoying for some time in his palace the acquaintanceship and learned discourse of all these men, he arrived at a profound knowledge of all the liberal arts. He was also most skilful and sagacious in the management of the affairs of his kingdom. Por, following the example of the Danes, and under colour of being persons of that nation, some of the natives even had begun to disturb the peace of the country by acts of robbery and rapine ; on which, ttie king, feeling desirous to restrain and put an end to excesses of this nature, was the first who changed the districts and provinces throughout all England into counties. These counties again he divided into centuries, that is to say into " hundreds;*' and into " tenths," •- or, in other words, into ** trithings ;" so that every lawful and native-bom person was a member of some century and trithing ; and if any one was suspected of rob- bery, he was either condenmed by his century or decury, or else bailed,** and thus either received his merited punishment or escaped it. The prefects of provinces, who before had the name of " Viee^dommi,'^ he divided into two classes, that is to say into judges, whom we now call "justiciaries," and into ** Vice-comites^' [Shire-reeves], who still retain that name. Through the exertions and industry of these persons, in a short time peace flourished throughout the whole land to such a degree, that if a traveller in the evening left any sum of money, however large, in the fields and the public highways, whether he returned next morning, or whether a month after, he was sure to find it safe and untouched. In the division of his own household he used the same plan as David and Solomon. For, dividing his household into three companies, he appointed a chief over each ; and each ^* More generally called " Asser.** He is supposed to have been tlie author of a Life of king Alfred, which is still extant. **- Called by some of the chroniclers '' tementale," or ** tenementale." ^ '' luvadiatur." This was said of a person who, having been accused of »onie crime not fully proved, was '* sub debittl fidejussione," and was obliged to find persons to act as his sureties. A.D. 900. DKATH OF ALFRED. 57 chief, with his company, had the keeping of the palace in the king's service for the space of one month. Then, after the completion of his month, going to his own lands with his company, for the space of two months he attended to his own business; while, in the meantime, in succession to him, u second cliief served for one month, and then a third chief for another month in the royal palace. By this means, each com- pany in saccession had leisure for the space of two months to attend to its own affairs. Being endowed with this prudence of character, and thus profoundly skilled in literature, when, thirteen years after, the Danes had heen expelled from France by the emperor Amulph, and were again inundating England, he conquered them in every engagement, with much greater ease than he had for- merly done. For, in consequence of their wars with the Franks, they were considerably weakened, and were less active in their inroads, while he, on the other hand, both in troops and in strength was &ir better prepared, and showed more skill in effectually resisting them. In addition to this, the conntry was strengthened by means of walled cities and for- tified towers, and thus manifested a considerable improvement from its former state. Accordingly, the Danes being easily repulsed and quickly overpowered, they took refuge among their countrymen in Northumbria and Norfolk. King Alfred, who was always intent upon the bounteous bestowal of alms and other good deeds, departed this life in the twenty-ninth year of his reign, and was buried at Win- chester. He was succeeded on the throne by his son Edward, afterwards called " the Elder," because several of the same name reigned after him, and he was the first of that name ; his father's inferior in literary merit, but greatly his superior in the glory of his reign. For he took into his own hands the province of Mercia from duke Ethelred, to whom his father had previously entrusted it, together with the hand of his daughter, and in war subdued Norfolk, Northumbria, Scotland, and Wales ; and, expelling the Pagans fix)m all the walled cities and castles, introduced Christians in their room. In this he was greatly assisted by his sister Ethelfleda, the relict of Ethelred, the former duke of London, a heroine en- dowed with the greatest wisdom, and deserving to be preferred to the Amazons of ancient times. For, when in labour with 58 INGULPh's HI8T0BT OF THB ABBEY OF CBOTLAJTD. A.D. 941. her only child, suffering considerahle pain, in her indigna- tion she took so great an aversion to all carnal intercourse, that from that time forward she never returned to her hus- hand's bed, but maintained the strictest chastity. From her being continually occupied in building cities, fortifying castles, and leading armies, you might have supposed that she had changed her very sex. King Edward died in the twenty-third yea r of his reign, and was interred with his £sitiier at Winchester. He was succeeded by Athelstan, his eldest son; against whom the Danes of Northumbria and Norfolk entered into a confederacy, which was joined by Constantino, king of the Scots, and many others ; on which, he levied an army and led it into Northumbria. On his way, he was met by many pil- grims returning homeward from Beverley ; informed by whose statements relative to the miracles of Saint John, with, great devoutness he paid a visit to that Saint. He also offered his poniard upon the holy altar, and made a promise that, on his return, if the Lord should grant him the victory over his enemies, he would redeem the said poniard at a suitable price ; which he accordingly did. For, the Lord granting him the victory, the king redeemed his poniard by granting the immu- nities which that place at present enjoys, and enriched it im- mensely, to the honor of God, with numerous other presents. In the battle that was fought on this occasion, there fell Con- stantino, king of the Scots, and five other kings, twelve earls, and an infinite number of the lower classes, on iJie side of the barbarians. This war being brought to a prosperous conclusion, there was no one who dared after this in any way to offend the king. Being now intent on bestowing his sisters in marriage, he laboured to improve the condition, and promote the interests of all the monasteries of England, old as well as new, by be- stowing on them some special gift or other. Thus, sending for Godric to court, the abbat of Croyland, (who was still sur- viving, though weighed down with extreme old age,) together with the rest of Ms brethren, who were then reduced from twenty-eight to seven in number, he proposed to restore the monastery of Croyland. Being prevented, however, by a prema- ture death, he left it to his brother to carry out his intentions relative thereto ; for he departed this lite in the sixteenth year of his reign, and was buried at Malmcsbuiy. A.D. 946. KLSQ EDliES SUCCEEDS. 59 His brother Edmund, a youth eighteen years of age, succeeded him, and reigned six years and a half. In the same year, Godric, abbat of Croyland, died, and within a month after his decease, two aged men followed him, that is to say, brother Sweyn and brother Osgot ; on which there remained only five old men, brother Clarenbald, brother Swartting, brother Turgar, brother Brune, and brother Aio. The two laat, seeing that king Athelstan, their patron, and Godric their abbat, had departed this life, and quite despairing of any relief for their monastery, and of keeping up the succession of spiritual sons, abandoned the society of their brethren, and took their depar- ture, the first to the monastery of Winchester, the second to that of Malmesbury ; and were received into those respective convents, where they remained some years. But the holy trinity of the three brethren who remained at Croyland always put its trust in the Lord, that some day, mindful of His mercies. He would send them a saviour, who would restore to its former state a place so holy, and which contained the sacred relics of its most holy confessor, Guthlac ; 4md so render this most holy monastery fruitful with spiritual offspring, and again, at His good will, assemble together their brethren thus dispersed. At this time, king Edmund bestowed upon Saint Diinstan, who was then his priest, the monastery of Glastonbury, which was in a ruinous state, and occupied by a few clerks only, with all the appurtenances thereof, for the purpose of being rebuilt, the order of monks being invited to return, which had been previously established there. Go- ing to Fleury, Dunstan became a monk there, and after he had fjJly learned the regular observ.inces, bade adieu to the bre- thren, and returned to Glastonbury, where, being made abbat, and receiving other brethren of his order, in a short time he assembled a most holy community. Just when the most illus- trious youth, king Edmund, was purposing to place Croyland in the hands of some influential man, who was a lover of holy reKgion, for the purpose of raising the same out of the ashes of its desolation, by a sudden misfortune he was slain — oh grievous mishap ! — by a certain robber," at Puckle-Chyrche, and his body was buried at Glastonbury. He was succeeded on the throne by his brother Edred, the tiiird son of king Edward, who reigned nine years. In the <*» Named Leolf. 60 INGULPh's history of the ABB£Y of CttOYLAXD. a.d. 94C. second year of his reign, the Northumbrians, electing a certain Hircius as their king, gave symptoms of rebellion ; and Wul- stan, the archbishop of York, being known to sympathize with their rebellious designs, the renowned king Edred sent thither his chancellor, Turketul by name (a man of the greatest pru- dence, and an observer of all probity and justice — one, too, who was nearly akin to himself by blood, being the son of Oil ward, his late uncle, and the holder of a very rich prebend in the said church of York), and urgently, and in friendly terms, entreated him to maintain his fidelity to him, and to think of the preservation of the kingdom. Accordingly, the venerable chancellor set out on this royal business, attended by a large retinue of horsemen. He was a person of most noble birth, and descended of the blood royal, very wealthy in estates and most ample possessions, and, be- sides, the lord of sixty manors. The Divine grace directing his steps, he proceeded, on the road to York, by the monastery of Croyland. It being his intention to pass on, the three venerable men before-named, belonging to the said monastery, went forth to meet hiin, and after many entreaties, as the day was now drawing to a close, prevailed upon him to enter. They then conducted him to prayers in their little oratory, which they had constructed in a comer of the ruined church ; and showing him the relics of the most holy confessor, Guthlac, related to him the whole story of their ruin and de- solate condition. Being moved to compassion by an intense feeling of piety, he listened most devoutly to the whole of their narrative. After this, the old men, receiving their noble guest in their poor retreat with the greatest [humility and] attentiveness, offered all the provisions they had, their two mites," but accom- panied with the most liberal spirit, to his servants and cooks, in order to make ready their master' s repast ; though the supply was anything but suitable for that purpose, and greatly insufficient for the wants of such a vast retinue. They felt anxious, to the best of their ability, and, indeed, beyond their ability, to make their holy guest pleased and delighted, and to induce him to entertain such kindliness of feeling towards them as to deign to be an intercessor in their behalves with their lord the king ; '^ Alluding to the offering of the poor widow. St. Mark xU. 42 ; and St. Luke xxi. 2. AD. 946. TUKXETUL VISITS CE0YLA17D. 61 and so cause the rebuilding of their church to be carried out, which had been for some time intended by his brother, the renowned king Athelstan, if his life had been prolonged, or else procure the bestowal of some other favour, by way of an alms-deed, for the good of his own soul. The venerable chancellor greatly commiserated the misfortunes of so noble a monastery, and appreciated to his inmost vitals the courtesy of the old men ; he also gave his assent to their entreaties, and agreed to intercede for themy while at the same lime he promised to give them some assistance [on his return] from his own private purse. Accordingly, on his departure, early in the morning, he commanded his servants to leave provisions sufficient for the old men until his return, aad ordered them to give one hundred shillings for the purchase of other necessaries ; and ut length, on bidding them adieu with many tears, com- mended himself to their prayers. From that day [and thenceforward] his heart became attached to these old men, and to the monastery of Croyland, with an afiEection so ardent and so inseparable, that every day, during the remainder of his journey, whoever met him, whether on the road or whether at the inns, he would enlarge upon the courtesy of the old men of Croyland, extol their sanctity, proclaim his affection for them, and deplore their calamity. From him, on this occasion, it first took its rise, that Croyland received the sur- name of " Curteys."" The venerable Turketul, having now arrived at York, carried out the orders of the king, his master, with great care and prudence, with regard to tiie archbishop and all the people of the city ; after which he returned by way of Croyland, and, being guided by the Holy Spirit, again turned aside to take up his abode, himself and his retinue, with the same old men. Being received with extreme gladness, he again consoled them with promises of support, and reminding them that the hand of the Lord was always powerful and ready to aid His people, promised them that they would receive the Divine assistance before long. Then giving twenty pounds of silver to the old men, he set out early in the morning, on his return to the king, bis master. After he had fully informed the king on the answer given " ** The courteous." It still retains this title in several proYerbial say- ings. See Notes and Queries, vol. vi. p. 281, 350. 62 IN6ULPH 8 HISTOBT OF THE ABBEY OF OBOYLAND. A.D. 946. by the archbishop of York and the people of that city, having first invoked the aid of the Holy Spirit, he very adroitly tamed the conversation to the subject of repairing the ruins of the monastery of Croyland. When his chancellor and especial adviser had made an end of discoursing on this sub- ject to the king, the latter at once gratuitously gave his con- sent thereto; but stated that he should defer carrying out his intentions, until, by the aid of the Divine grace, he had brought to a prosperous issue a very fierce war in which he was then engaged ; for that then he should have leisure to bestow his attention on matters of that nature, and to promote the good of the Church of Christ, everywhere throughout his kingdom, to the utmost of his ability. To this the chancellor made answer : — " My lord, those most valiant kings, your predecessors and my n:Lasters, your two brothers, wrought many good works in their days to the honor of God and the exaltation of Holy Mother Church ; and in return for such good works, the Lord Grod, who is a most just judge, both gave them the victory over all their enemies, and caused them to abound in all good things. So likewise will you, if you believe me, by your meritorious works, most wor- thy of tiieir reward, lay God under an obligation to you ; and thus, protected by the prayers of the Saints, and aided by the favour of the heavenly powers, you will go forth to your battles with a more easy conscience when it shall please you so to do." To this, and more to the like purpose, the venerable chan- cellor having, in friendly conversation with the king, h^- quently given utterance, he at length prevailed upon the king, his master, and induced him to say, using the words of tiie Gospel : ** * Set a watch upon them,' and take under your eare the old men and that place, as you know how to do : for my hand shall be with you always, if in any way you stand in need of my assistance." This answer he received as though an oracle from God and proceeding from the shrine of the fioly Spirit, and understanding in no other sense these God- like®" words, he shortly after publicly promised that he would become a monk there, and requested, with feelings of the greatest devoutness, that the royal favour might be accorded •^ This seems to be the meaning of " theoricus" here, though it is somewhat doubtful. A.D.946. TUBSETUL BECOHES A MONX. 6S to his design. The king, on hearing of this, wondered at it beyond measure, and tried every way to dissnade him there- from, especially as he was now verging on old age, and, having been reared in affluence, had not been previously practically acquainted with the austerities of a rehgious life ; besides, when the most urgent interests of the kingdom were at stake, and every thing depended upon himself and his aid and counsel, he ought, with good reason, to hesitate before he perilled the welfare of the kingdom. To this the chanceUor replied, " My lord king, [hitherto] I have fought for my masters, your brothers and yourself, as God, who knoweth all things, is my witness, to the very best of my ability ; henceforth, at least in my old age, let your clemency permit me to serve the Lord God, for the well- being of your soul. As for my advice, and all the endeavours of which my humble means will allow, so long as life shall still exist in this poor body of mine, the same shall ever be afforded, without hesitation, for the promotion of your in- terests ; but may your highness deign to know this of a cer- tam truth, that from this time forward, my hand shall touch no warlike weapon." The most pious king, on hearing this, was deeply affected, and, perceiving that every day his holv aspirations waxed stronger in the Lord, dreaded to quenct the Holy Spirit, (for he was a king of the purest conscience, to a degree beyond all his predecessors) ; but one day he called him aside into his secret chamber, where, falling at the feet of his servant, with many tears he supplicated and entreated him ta take compassion on him, and not forsake him in the day of his tribulation. On this, the chancellor, seeing his master, the ^g of all England, on the ground at his feet, threw himself upon the ground, and, with sighs and sobs innumerable, im- plored him to take pity on him ; and at last, after adjuring him from his heart, by Saint Paul (for whom the king always enter- ^ed special veneration), prevailed upon him, and obtained the object of his desire. Accordingly, both arose from the Sround, and fixed upon a day on which to go to Croyland, wid respectively fulfil their holy vows, in the safest and most becoming manner they could possibly devise. In the course of a few days after this, the king consenting thereto, the venerable chancellor Turketul caused proclama- tion to be made throughout the midst of London b|* the voice 64 INGULPU'S HISTORY OP THE ABBEY OF CKOYUL^'D. A.D. 9-16. of a herald, that if he was indebted to any person, he was ready, at a certain place and day named, to pay the same in full ; and if he had done an injury to any man, he promised that he would, like another ZacchsBus, mc^e threefold satisfac- tion, and would fully make good the loss he had so occasioned, in such manner as was demanded by the exigencies of law and justice. Accordingly, the whole of his creditors and debtors being satisfied, he transferred his sixty manors to his lord the king, always reaerving the tenth manor for the service of Christ his Master. Thus he reserved those six manors out of the sixty which ho possessed, which were nearest to Croyland, namely, Wcndlingburgh, Elmyngton, Worthorp, Cotenham, Hokyngton and Beby ; the rest he gave to the king. Having come with the king to Croyland on the vigil of the Assumption of Saint Mary, he shortly after sent messengers to Winchester and Malmesbury in the king's name, for the two brethren, Brune and Aio. Hearing that the Lord had looked down jfrom heaven upon Croyland, with feelings of joy and gladness they returned to their monastery, and arriving there on the vigil of Saint Bartholomew, their patron, were received by their brethren with great manifestations of joy. For they were both of them most learned men, and distinguished for their probity and piety of character. On the following day, namely, on the feast of the holy Apostle, the venerable Tur- kctul laid aside the secular habit, and assumed the monastic garb amid the five old men before-named ; and, after being presented by the king witb the pastoral staff, received the benediction in due ecclesiastical form from Ceolwulph, bishop of Dorchester, his diocesan, who was then present. On the same day, at the king's desire, and by the advice of those learned in the law, in order that for the future they might stand on a stronger foundation against the violence of the wicked, the venerable abbat Turketul, and his five aged monks before-named, spontaneously and entirely resigned into the hands of their lord the king the whole of their monastery, together with all the lands, tenements, goods and chattels to it belongbg. The king, receiving the whole thereof into his possession, on the next day hired carpenters and masons, and appointed a certain clerk of his household, Egelric by name, a near relation of his, and a kinsman of the lord abbat, Turketuli jas superintendent of the workmen, and the whole A.D. 948. CHARTEB OF KINQ EDBED. 65 place ; while in the most generous manner he gaTe directions that the expenses should be paid out of his treasury, and that the wood and stone should be procured from out of the neigh- bouring woods and quarries, which then belonged to his royal manor of Castre.^ He giving his most diligent attention to the work with the most unconquerable resolution, in a short time the church was built, and the cloisters, together with the other requisite buildings, erected ; and for his diligence, he was deemed deserving of thanks from the king, and of bless- ings from God. Immediately after the king had appointed workmen for eaeh of the works, and had set his faithful clerk before-named over the said workmen, the day now approaching for holding the council which he had appointed to be held at London on the public affairs of the kingdom, he took with him the venerable abbat Turketul, together with the two old men his monks, Tuigar and Aio, and on the feast of Saint Augustin, the bishop and excellent doctor, returned to London. On the feast of the l^ativity of the blessed Mary, when all tho nobles of the kingdom had been summoned by the royal edict, both archbishops as well as bishops and abbats, as also the other men of rank and dignitaries throughout the kingdom, and they hjd assembled in London for the purpose of treating of the public affairs of the whole kingdom ; after all the busi- ness was concluded, in presence of aU, king Edred sent for Turketul, the lord abbat, and his monks, and gave the monas- tery of Chroyland by his charter, in terms suggested by the said abbat Turketul, his former chancellor and most confidential adviser, which were to the following effect : ®* "Peace in the name of the supreme Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, Amen. I, Edred, an earthly king, nnder the imperial power of the eternal King and everlasting Pnnce, and holding the temporal government of Great Britain, to all Christians, both present as well as to come, the blessing of salvation through Him who is the Author of our salvation. Be it known unto all of you, that, at the devout suggestion, and at the repeated entreaties by Turketul, the beloved clerk and my kinsman, to me made, upon the repair, restoration, and • Probtbly Castor. "* Tlus charter is regarded by Hickes, in his Thesauros ling. Sept. "^ p. xzriu. as spurious. 66 INGTILPH's HISTOSY of the abbey of CROYLAJSm, A.D. 948. liberties of the holy church and monastery of Croyland, in which lie interred the relics of the holy confessor and ancho- rite, Saint Guthlac, I felt no slight sorrow and compassion, both for the spoiling of Holy Mother Church, as also for the diminution of the spiritual benefits which, manifold in number, had oftentimes been bestowed in works of mercy for the good of the souls of my ancestors. At the same tune, I called to mind that a convent of Black Monks, of the order of Saint Bene- dict, had been, in former tiines, there founded by a noble king of the Mercians, Ethelbald by name, the son of Alwy, amply en- riched, and abundantly provided with royal privileges ; the same being fiilly proved to my satisfaction by inspection of the chaiters of the said Ethelbald, made for the security of the said monks. But after the lapse of many ages, the same had been laid waste by the army of the Pagans, and had been burnt with fire and utterly consumed, together with all the decora- tions and many of the archives thereof. Wherefore, the before- named Turketul, who, conformably with the prophetic words of the Psalmist,'® * has hated the congregation of evil-doers, and has loved the habitation of the house of the Lord,' being sti- mulated with pious desires, is endeavouring with the utmost zeal to repair and rebuild the same. This man is so inflamed with ardour for the Divine love, that both in heart and in body he continually strives to devote himself to the welfare of the sheep-fold of Christ. Wherefore, the five aged monks who lay concealed in the said island, of whom two have recently returned from being dispersed in other parts, being informed thereon by the judgment of the said Turketul and others learned in the law, and greatly fearing the losses and various expenses which might at future times imexpectedly arise, have first entirely and spontaneously resigned the whole abbey, together with all its possessions which have been obtained and recovered by the care of the said Turketul, or which have been by my favour acquired, together with six manors of his hereditary possessions, into my [royal] hands, that by means of my fresh bestowal thereof they might hereafter enjoy a more assured and more fi«e possession thereof. But inasmuch as a contract, made in words only, may easily escape the memory, and so be- come matter of litigation, unless at the same time protection is afforded by a writing which shall lastingly bear witness to '0 Psalm xrrl 5. 8. A.O. 918. CHABTE& OF XING BDBED. 67 the transaction, for this reason it is that I do hy my gratuitous consent and assent appoint the said Turketul so often named, who has now assumed the monastic hahit and joined the monks aforesaid, to be abbat of the said monastery ; and both tho abbey, as also all the possessions so recovered and surrendered to me, I do, of my royal gift, convey, give, and confirm hence- forth for ever, as a pure ahns-gift, unto the said monks and all their successors in the same place, underthe same rule and habit serving Grod ; and do determine to set forth the several par- ticulars thereof in manner following, that is to say : '* In the first place, the whole island of Groyland, as the glebe of the church and as the several site of the said monas- tery, the same being distinguished by the following boundaries, namely ; from the triangulax^* bridge of Croyland along the river Welland in the direction of Spaldelyng, as far as Asendyk, where the Asendyk fidls into the river Welland, on the northern side of the stone cross there erected by Turketul before-named. Thence in an easterly direction by the Asendyk, as far at Aswyktoft ; and thence by the Shepishee on the eastern side of the said island, as far as Tedwarthar ; and thence from the en- tiance of the Southee, as far as Namanlandhime, where the said Turketul has ordered a stone cross to be erected, distant firom Southee six perches : by which river a division is made of the two counties of Lincoln and Ghrantebrige ;^ the said cross being distant from the river Nene, which lies to the west thereof, five perches ; and thence along the said river I^ene, as the same runs to the above-mentioned bridge of Croyland ; with several piscary, both in all the waters surrounding the said island, as also in the lakes and marshes situate within the said site : to- gether with the marshes and plantations of alders thereto ad- joiniog^ on the west, and opposite to the said island, to tho comity of Lincoln entirely annexed and belonging, and by the following boundaries set forth, that is to say; from Naman- ^Aiidhime by the river Nene towards the west, as far as the \)o\mdary there set, where a stone cross is erected near tho ^ of the river ; thence as far as Groynes, and thence to Folwardstakyng; thence as far as Southlake, where the South- lake falls into the river Welland; and thence, crossing that y The bridge was so called from affording a passage over three streams nMng to a point in the centre, ^ Cambridge. 68 XNGULPH's KLSTOET OF THE ABBEY OF CEOYLAND. A.D. 948. river, and beginning from Kenulphston near the bank, opposite to Soutblake, where the first abbat after the foundation of the ^d monastery, Kenulph by name, erected a stone cross as a boundary between Croyland and Depyng; in a northerly direction, near Aspath, as far as Werwarlkke ; thence to Ha- rynholt, and thence onwards past Mengerlake and Lurtlake, where are the boundaries that divide Hoyland and Kesteven : thence as far as Oggot, and thence to Apynholt, otherwise known by the name of "Wodelade, where the Wpdelade falls into the river WeUand ; together with all the appurtenances and all the advantages that may arise or be derived within the boundaries aforesaid, both above ground as well as beneath ; and with common of pasture [at dl times of the year, for all kinds of animals, for the use of themselves, and all their men or tenants with them living within the boundaries afore- said, such common of pasture being] in the marshes adjoining, on either side of the river WeUand ; that is to say, on the one side, from the said river as far as the lands of Medeshamsted, and on the other side from the said river as far as the buildings -at Spaldeling ; together with several piscary in the said river WeUand from Kenulphston as far as the bridge of Croyland, [and in the river Nene from the boimdary csdled Fynset, as far as the bridge of Croyland,] and thence in the same river and in the river WeUand united, as far as the Asendyk. The said monks also shaU be at Uberty to enclose for themselves and their men or tenants severaUy out of the said marshes adjoining on the west crofts or meadows in the neighbourhood of the bridge, as much as they shaU think fit. Wherefore I do wiU that ^e said monks shaU hold these estates of my gift and confirmation,, free and absolved from aU secular demands or burdens, as also all Hberties and free customs, together with aU the rights, which are caUed Soch, Sach, Tol and Tem, Infangthef, Weif, ' and Stray, and the things thereto lawfriUy belonging, as my own pure and perpetual alms-gift. ^'Moreover, Ido deUver, give, and confirm unto the said monks the foUowing possessions to the said convent belonging, and the gift in former times of the nobles of my kingdom, that is to say; in Lincolnshire — ^in Spaldelyng, three carucates of land ; in Pyncebek, one carucate of land ; in Cappelade, three carucates of [arable] land, six bovates of [arable] land, and A.D. 948. CHABTEB OF XING £DBED. 69 twelve acres of meadow laad, together with the church of the «aid vill ; in Algare, twelve bovates of land ; in Donnesdyk, two carucates of [arable] land, and twenty acres of meadow land ; in Drayton, one carucate of [arable] land, and six acres of meadow hmd and four salt pits ; in Burtoft, one bovate of land, with Soch and Sach, and the church of Sutterton ; in Bo- kenhale, two carucates and a half of [arable] land, twenty- six acres of meadow land, fifty acres of wood land, and seventy acres at Bnische ; ten bovates of land at Halyngton, with four bovates at Juland, and thirty-two acres of meadow land to th^ same fee belonging at Gemlhorp ; six carucates of arable land at Langtoft (the same being fifteen quarentenes in length, and nine quarentenes in breadth), and one hundred acres of meadow land, and a wood and marsh, two leagues in length, and two leagues in breadth, as also the church of the said vill, and forty acres of the same fee in the fields of Bepyng ; in Baston, at Tetford four carucates of arable land, and forly-five acres of meadow land, together with the church of the said vill, and marsh land, sixteen quarentenes in length, and eight quarentenes in breadth, together with one water-mill and one-half of a mill : in Repyngale, three carucates of arable land, and sixty acres of meadow land : in Lay thorp, one bovate of land : in Kyrkby, three bovates of land, one dwelling-house and three cottages. In l^orthamptonshire— in Wendlingburgh, six hides and a half of land, with the church of the said vill, with Sach and Soch, &c. : in Adington, three hides of land, with the advow- Bon of the church of the said vill ; in Helmyngton, three hides of land; in Glapthom, three virgates of land; in Wyrthorp, one hide and a half, together with one water-mill ; in Peykirke, two virgates of land ; in Badby a manor, and four hides of [arable] land, together with thirty acres of meadow land. In Hnntingdonshire-— in Morbeme, five acres of land, together with the advowson of the church of the said vill ; and in Thiming, one hide and a half of land. In Leicestershire-^in Beby, ten carucates and a half of land, with the church of the said vill ; in Sutton, two carucates of land ; and in Stapilton, two caru- cates of land. In Grantebrigeshire-— eleven acres of land at Cottenham, with the alternate right of advowson of the said church : in Hokiton, seven hides and a half of land, together with the church of the said vill; in Drayton, eight hides 70 INGULPH's HISTOKT of the ABBET of CROYLAJSfD. A.». 948- and a half of land, together with the advowson of the church of the said vill. In Hertfordshire — ^in Staundon, five bides of land. '' I do also will that the said monks shall he free and ab- solved of and from aU. scot, geld, sheriifs aids, hydage, suits in courts of shires, wapentakes, hundreds, and trythings, and all other courts whatsoever, and all secular burdens whatever- I do also conmiand that all fugitives, whom the said monks, on the testimony of four or five trustworthy men, can prove, before the sheriff of the county in which such persons shall be found, to be their villeins, shall be brought back to their abbey by the said sheriff, together with all &eir chattels and effects, all counter-claim or opposition to the contrary notwithstanding. And if the said persons shall have previously thereto done any- thing to the detriment of their masters, then I do will that the same shall be utterly null and void. And if any one of their villeins, or of those holding of them in villeinage, shall be guilty of any offence, for which he ought to lose his chattels, the said chattels are to be delivered in Ml unto the said monks, wherever the trial may take place. I do also will that if the sheriff, or any one of his bailiffs, shall be found to be negli- gent, or to protract their business in contravention of the due course of law and of their liberties, he shall pay a fine to my treasurer to the amount of twenty poimds. " Also, to the end that nothing may be omitted which it is proper to insert in the present charter, and for the purpose of ensuring the rights and liberties of the said monks, at least with regard to those for whom temporal evils in the present life have more terrors than the punishment of hell, which is to last for ever ; I do distinctly command as to all and each of those, of whatsoever grade or condition they may be, who shall in any way endeavour to violate or disturb the autho- rity of this present writing, contrary to the form and effect of my will expressed in the same, or shall by counsel, aid, or favour, attempt to prevent them from peaceably possess- ing any of the gifts hereby granted to them, or enjoying any of the privileges above-mentioned, that the same persons shall be condemned in the penalty of a fine of one hundred pounds of lawful money, payable to my treasury, or to that of my heirs or successors, so often as they shall dare to make such A.O. 948. CHASTER OF XING EDBSD. 71 attempts; as also, that they shall make satisfaction to the said monks for the losses and expenses by the said persons eaused to them, the same to be estimated on the oaths of four or five trustworthy men, by whom the truth of the matter may be best ascertained, and to be settled in presence of my judges, or those of my heirs and successors; that so, those who have spontaneously renounced the world, and have submitted to the yoke of the Lord, and become dead to the world, may, without the tumults or disquiet of the world, have free opportunity of fully devoting themselves to holy contemplation. " The said gifts [exceeding small though they be], moved with duteous feelings towards the said monks, I have established and rendered lasting, to the praise of the Holy Trinity, and as a price of the ransom of my soul, in the year from the In- carnation of [the Everlasting Prince] our Lord Jesus Christ, 948, in presence of the archbishops, bishops, and nobles of my kingdom underwritten. 4- I, Odo, archbishop of Can- terbury, have given to the same my sanction and consent ; + 1, Wulstan, archbishop of York, have devoutly subscribed hereto ; -f I, Alfred, bishop of Sherbum, have desired the «anie;4-I,Kynsy,bi8hop of Lichfield, have consented hereto; + 1, Kynewald, bishop of Worcester, have confirmed the same; -f I, Ceolwulph, bishop of Dorchester, have wished for the same ; H- I, Athelwold, abbat of Abingdon, have approved hereof; -|- I, Dunstan, abbat of Glastonbury, have greatly commended the same ; + 1, duke Oslac, at the instance of my lord the king, have praised the same ; + I, duke Brithnod, have recommended the same ; + I, earl Alcin, have favoured the same ; -f I, earl Aigulf, have signed the same ; + I, earl fiadbod, have given my consent to the same ; 4- 1, sheriff Byngulph, have counselled the same; -f I, sheriff Alfer, have heard the same ; -f I, Farcey, the thane, have been present at the same ; +1, Sigey, the thane, have listened to the same; + 1, Ethelward, the thane, have beheld the same ; -f I, Tur- ketul, although an unprofitable servant, looking to the end of ^y purpose, do, on account of this matter, praise God in all things, and although late in life I have adopted the monastic P^\ with a contrite spirit I have submitted myself to the yoke of the rules thereof, that so at least I might be com* P^^ to offer up the dregs of my old age to my Cxeator ; there* 72 IKGULPH's HISTOBY op the abbey of CBOYLAND. A.D. 948. fore, my soul doth magnify the Lord ; and do you, my brethren^ together with me, magnify the Lord, that, serving Him. in sanctity and justice, the prince of this world being always triumphed over by us, we may so run the race of this present life, as, in that to come, to merit to obtain the reward of vic- tory in the sight of God. Amen." In order that we may hand down some information to pos- terity on the actions of this venerable father, our abbat Turketul, it is proper that, at the commencement of our nar- rative, we should begin at a previous period ; to the end that the flourishing youSi of such a high-bom stripling, being described, according to the trustworthy accounts derived from the chroniclers and the information given to us by our fathers, we may more easily shew, by the evidence of probability, that a holy old age succeeded thereto. In the latter years of kin^ Edward, on the decease of his brother Ethelws^, our Tur- ketul, his eldest son, received his inheritance from his father's brother, the before-named king Edward. The king frequently made him the offer of an alliance with damsels of most noble birth, daughters of his dukes and earls ; but he, feeling by no means inclined to enter the married state, through his prefer- ence of a life of chastity, refused them all, the moment the suggestion was made ; on which, this most sagacious monarch concluded from holy beginnings of this nature, that he would become a man distinguished for his virtues, and made it his study to exalt him to ecclesiastical dignities, and at a future time to promote him to the high office of bishop. Accordingly, on many of the bishops departing this life, in order that his sanctity might be made known unto all those who are in the house of the Lord, if placed on a candlestick, the king very frequently made an attempt to promote him to the episcopal rank of bishop in .the greatest churches of all England, in preference to all his other clerks. He, however, by various excuses, avoided acceptance of aU these honors, as though they had been so many snares of Satan laid for the pur- pose of entrapping souls ; and utterly abhorred the same all the days of his life. For, on the decease of Djuewulph, its bishop, the king before-named offered him the bishopric of Winchester ; but he, protesting that he was not fitted for so high a dignity, entreated Fiidestan, his foster-brother, and A.D. 937. ATHELSTASr SUCCEEDS TO THE CEOWN. 73 prevailed upon him to deign to accept of it ; on which Eridestan became bishop of Winchester. At the same period also, at the suggestion of Plegmund, archbishop of Canterhury, the bishopric of Dorchester was offered him by the king ; on his declining which with a similar degree of pertinacity, and presenting his priest Ceolwulph to the king, the said Ceolwulph was made bishop. And thus did he always reject the pomps of earthly dignities, thus did he all his days repudiate all transitory honors. The king, learning at length to what the most holy aspira- tions of his heart inclined [and tended], and seeing that he cared not for dignities and riches, and was content with his own lands and income only, and sought not those of others, made him his chancellor, to the end, that whatever tem- poral or spiritual business awaited the king's decision, the same should by his counsel and determination be settied, and when settied, receive his irreversible sentence ; a man of such holy iategrity and such deep discernment was he considered to be. Whereupon, by his advice, the king did many good works, and, among the rest, on one day gave seven bishops to seven churches, namely, tiie before-named Fridestan to the bishopric of Winchester ; the before-named Ceolwulph to the bishopric of Dorchester ; Werstan to the bishopric of Sherbum ; Athelstanto that of Cornwall ;"»* Athelm to that of Wells; Adulph to that of Crediton ; and Bemege to that of the South Saxons, whose see is at * * * *;^' aU these being con,se- ciuted on the same day by the before-named archbishop Pleg- mand. The renowned king Edward having filled the measure of his days, his son Athelstan succeeded him. Anlaf, the son of Sitric, the former king of Northumbria, having risen in rebel- lion against him, and a most fierce war being carried on, Con-r Btantine, king of the Scots, and Eugenius, king of the Cum- biians, and an infinite multitude of other barbarian kings and earls entered into a strict confederacy with the said Anlaf ; upon which^ all of these, with the nations subject to them, went ^ Saint Germains. ^ An omission. Selsey, in Sussex, is the place meant. These ap« pomtments were really made in consequence of pope Formosus greatly censuring king Edward and archbishop Plegmund for having kept these Mtt Tscant so many years. 74 INGTJLPH'b HI8T0KT OF THE ABBEY OF CEOTLAXD. A.D. 931. fbrth to engage with king Athelstan at Bmnford,^ in I^'orth- umbria. When, however, the said king of the English ap- proached with his army, although the barbarian before-named had collected together an infinite multitude of the Danes, Norwegians, Scots, and Picts, either through distrust of con- quering, ot in accordance with the usual craftiness of his nation, he preferred to resort to stratagem, when protected by the shades of night, rather than engage in open combat. Accordingly, during the night, he made an attack upon the English, and dew a certain bishop, who the evening before had joined the army of king Aliielstan. The cries of the dying being heard at a considerable distance, that king, who was encamped more than a mile from the place of attack, was, together with all his army, awoke from slumber while lying in their tents beneath the canopy of heaven ; and on learning the particulars, they quickly aroused themselves. The dawn was just breaking, when they arrived at the place of slaughter ; the king's troops coming up fresh and prepared for the onset against the barbarians, while they, on the other hand, had been toiling throughout the whole night, and were quite weary and worn out with fatigue. King Athelstan, who was in com- mand of all the men of Wessex, charged the troops of Anla^ while his chancellor, Turketul, who led on the Londoners and all the Mercians, engaged the forces of Constantine. The discharge of light arms being quickly put an end to, the battle was now fought foot to foot, spear to spear, and shield to shield. Numbers of men were slain, and, amid indiscriminate confusion, the bodies of kings and of common men were strewed upon the ground. After they had now fought for a long time with the most determined courage, and neither side would give Y&j, (so vast was the multitude of the Pagans), the chancellor Turketul, taking with him a few of the Londoners, whom he knew to be most distinguished for valour, and a certain captain of the Wiccii, Singin by name, who was remarkable for his undaunted bravery, (being taller in stature than any of the rest, firm and brawny in bone and muscle, and excelling in strength and robustness any one of the London heroes), flew at their head to the charge against the foe, and,' pene- trating the hostile ranks, struck them down on the right aad on the left. ^^ Or Bninenborgh, near the banks of the Humber. A.II. 938. DEATH OF COITSTANTINE. 75 He had now pierced the ranks of the men of Orkney and the Picts^ and, bearing around him a whole forest of darts and javelins, which he had received upon his right trusty cuirass, with his followers had penetrated the dense masses of the Cumbrians and Scots. At last, amid torrents of blood, he reached the king himself, and unhorsed him ; and when thus thrown to the ground, made redoubled efforts to take him alive. But the Scots, crowding around their king, used every possible exertion to save him ; and, whole multitudes pressing on against a few, they all made Turketul their especial object of attack ; who, as he was often in the habit of confessing in aftier-times^ was beginning to repent of the rashness of which he had been guilty. He was now on the very point of being overwhelmed by the Scots, and their king was just about to be snatched from his grasp, when, at that instcmt, the captain, Singin, pierced him with his sword. Constantine, the king of the Scots, being thus slain, his people retreated, and so left the road open to Turketul and his soldiers. The death of Constantine be- coming known throughout the whole army, Anlaf took to flight; on which they all followed his example. On this oc- casion there fell of the Pagans an unheard-of multitude. Tur- ketul frequently made it his boast, that in this hazardous combat he had been preserved by the Lord, and that he esteemed him- self most happy and fortunate, in that he had never slain a man, and had not even wounded any one, though at the same time every one may lawfully fight for his country, and espe- cially against the Pagans. The news of this victory being quickly spread throughout the whole of Christendom, all the longs of the earth greatly desired to contract friendships with king Athelstan, and in Bome way or other to enter into solemn treaties of peace with Um. Hence it was, that Henry, emperor of the Eomans, sent ambassadors, to negociate for one of his sisters in marriage for ^ son Otho. Hugh, king of France, also sent for another, to be given in marriage to his son ; while Louis, prince of Aquitsone, sent a request that a third might be given to him for a wife. Through the envoys of these potentates, there were sent such vast numbers of royal and costly presents, that for many ages before, the like thereto had never been seen or Heard of by the English nation. Besides aromatic perfumesi 76 nsrouLPH's histoet of the abbey of ceotiand. a.d. 938. besides costly gems, besides coursers bedecked with horse- cloths of gold, most precious vessels of alabaster, and numerons other gifts of the most exquisite beauty ; a piece of the Cross of our Lord was sent, most becomingly enclosed in crystal, also a small portion of the crown of thorns which was placed upon the head of Christ, similarly covered with crystal, the sword of Constantino the Great, on the hilt of which, upon thick plates of gold, was fastened a nail, being one of the four by means of which our Redeemer saved us and all His people ; as also a standard of the most blessed martyr Mauri- cius, and a lance of Charlemagne, esteemed among the Franks as of no small value. With these presents the mighty king Athelstan was ex- oeedingly delighted ; and, among the envoys whose duty it was to escort the damsels, with imhesitating confidence he ap- pointed his chancellor, Turketul, first and foremost, as being most distinguished for his wisdom, and one who had shewn himself remarkable for the most scrupulous and unimpeached fidelity in all the transactions in which he had been engaged : another reason, too, being the fact that he was related by Uood to the damsels. Accordingly, in company with the chancellor, the four noble maidens proceeded towards the sea-shore, damsels sur- passing Diana in the graces of chastity, and outvying even Helen herself in beauty of person. Into their laps, resplendent [with gems], were poured forth by dukes, and by earls, and other nobles, throughout all the land, fall many a jewel, pieces of gold, bracelets, and a thousand necklaces. Sail being set, Eng- land is at length left behind, and after the seas have been traversed in a prosperous voyage, Cologne is reached by the river Ehine. The two elder sisters were delivered into the hands of the emperor Henry ; the first of whom he gave in marriage to his son Otho, and the second to a nobleman of high rank in his palace. Hugh, king of France, received a third sister as the destined wife of his son. The fourth, who was the youngest and the most beautiful of all, was married to Louis, prince of Aquitaine. On the completion of his em- bassy, file chancellor Turketul, laden with costly gifts, toge- ther with his whole retinue enriched with many presents, even down to the lowest page, after enjoying a prosperous V'oya^ib returned to England. A.D, 948. TUUKETUL VISITS CKOTLAND. 77 Thus, having triumphed over all his enemies, and his sisters being most becomingly disposed of in marriage, king Athelstan, with the most devout zeal, turned his attention (at the re- peated suggestions of his chancellor Turketul to that effect) to the exsJtation of the Church of Christ throughout his king- dom. He accordingly restored monasteries, built churches, and made offerings on the holy altars of the most costly deco- rations. Malmesbury, in especial, (at which place he had with due honor entombed his two kinsmen, Elwin and Athelstan, the sons of his uncle Ethelward, who had been slain by the Danes, at the battle of Bruneford), he favoured and ex- alted with a singular degree of attention, and magnified and honoured the place beyond all other monasteries witifi numerous privileges; and at last, when, Atropos prematurely cutting short hia thread, he departed this life, he was interred there, and there he now reposes. He was succeeded on the throne, as already mentioned, by his brother Edmund. In his time. Saint Dunstan, who was then priest of the royal palace, and the most familiar and con- fidential adviser of Ihe chancellor Turketul, and the receiver of his confessions, was, through the persecution of some who were his enemies, expelled by the king from the palace. Afterwards, through the mediation of the chancellor Turketul, who greatly extolled the sanctity of Dunstan, and used every efifort, taking advantage of the favour in which he was held, to soften the king, he was recalled, and presented with the mo- nastery of Glastonbury. On this occasion, the chancellor Tur- ketul gave to Saint Dunstan a chalice, remarkable for its extreme beauty, which has been preserved there down to the present times of the Normans, and is called '^TurketuTs chalice.'' King Edmund being slain, after a reign of six years end a half, Eidred, the third brother, succeeded him on the throne. In the second year of this king's reign, the chancellor Tur- ketul, (who already, before his adoption of the monastic life, had in his holy aspirations become a neophyte), having ob- tained the gracious assent of the king his master, fdUy in accordance with all his desires, one day hurried with the greatest speed irom London to Croyland ; .w:here he most de- voutly visited the three old men before-named, who were then living in obscmity in the said island, and on disclosing to 78 INGULPU'S HISTOKT OF THE ABBEY OP CBOTLAld, shall attempt to strip the mo-
nastery of its said possessions, or shall, contrary to the intention
and wiU of the eibresaid royal charters, disturb the peace of
the aforesaid monks, or attempt to disturb the sam^, by con-
trivance or by design, by counsel or by favour, under whatever
colour the enemy may have sown his devices, and the son
uf iniquity have laid his plans ; we do from that time forward
exconmmnicate the same, do remove their names from the book
of life, and, separating them from the companionship of the
^^ts and driving them afar from the threshold of the gates
of heaven, do, unless they shall, by making due satisfaction,
speedily correct their errors, irremediably consign them for
their demerits to be condemned with the traitor Judas to the
flames of hell. Moreover, we do grant and assign, with the con-
sent of Agelnoth, the archdeacon, he allowing the same to be
done, the spiritual authority over the whole idand of Croyland
and the vill thereto adjacent, in such manner as the said monks
^▼e, from the foundation of their monastery, hitherto held

** AUading to Genesis xlvi. 34, ” Every shepherd is an abominatioii ‘


the same, that is to say ; all the authority which belongs to the
office of archdeacon in cases of punishment inflicted at the in-
stance of any person” or in any way, for all crimes or offences
whatsoever by any person there committed or to be committed ;
imto the aforesaid venerable abbat Turketul and all his suc-
cessors, the future abbats in the said monastery, and their
officers to that duty appointed and substituted in their stead ;
excommunicating and expelling from before the £ace of God,
and from the glorified sight of His countenance on the day of
the great judgment, all those who shall hereafter molest the
said father Turketul, or any one of his successors in any way re-
lative hereto, or who shall violate any of the enactments afore-
said or in any way cause the same to be violated ; and deliTering
them unto Satan, for everlasting and world without end, unless
they shall quickly come to a proper sense of their duty, and
shall with all due penitence make satisfaction unto the afore-
said monastery for their misdeeds. This privilege has been
granted and immutably decreed to the honor of God and the
relief of Holy Mother Church, and in reverence for the holy
confessor Guthlac, in presence of king Edgar, his prelates and
nobles, in the year from the Incarnation of our lird, 966, at
London assembled, -f I, Edgar, monarch of the whole of
Albion, have with the sign of the Holy Cross confirmed the
said privilege. + 1$ Bunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, have
irrevocably, fulminated the said denunciation of ecclesiastical
censure against the violators of royal charters, -f I, Osketul,
archbishop of York, imprecating everlasting danmation against
the adversaries of Holy Mother Church, have confirmed the
said sentence. -|- I, Leofwin, bishop of Dorchester, have con-
sented hereto, -f I, Elfstan, bishop of London, have commend-
ed the same, [-f I, Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, have
praised the same.] + I, Oswald, bishop of Worcester, have
given my consent hereto. -|- I, Elfwold, bishop of Devon,
have advised the same, -h I, Kynsy, bishop of Lichfield, have
heard the same, -f I, Alfric, bishop of East Anglia, have pro-
moted the same, -f I, Godwin, bishop of Rochester, have ac-
quiesced herein, -f I, Athelstan, bishop of Cornwall, have
given my sanction hereto, -f I, Werstan, bishop of Sherbum,
have assented hereto, -f I» Agelnoth, the archdeacon, have
allowed of the same, -f I, Elfstan, abbat of Glastonbury, have
‘- This seems to be the meaning of *’ ad instantiam partis ” here.


granted my consent hereto. + I, Ethelgar, abbat of the new
monastery at Winchester, have given my consent hereto. + I,
Wulfey, abbat of St. Peter’s at Westminster, without London,
have sabscribed hereto. -|- I, Osward, abbat of Evesham,
have ratified the same, -f I, Merwenna, abbess [of Eomsey^
have made the sign of the Holy Gross, -f I, Herleva, abbess
of Shaftesbury,] have set my signature hereto. -|- I, Wid-
wina, abbess of Wareham, have shared herein. + I, duke
Ordgar, have agreed to the same. + I, duke Alwin, have
established the same. + 1, duke Brithnod, have witnessed
the same. + I, duke Oslac, have been present hereat. -f I>
duke Alfer, have taken part herein. + I, duke Elphege, have
heard the same. +1, Erithegist, the thane, have seen the
same. + I, Ethelward, the thane, have seen the same. + !>
Ethebnund, the thane, have listened to the same. + Bone on the
octave of Pentecost, in the cathedral church of Saint Paul.”

King Edgar, being most wisely guided by Saint Dunstan and
his other holy bishops, everywhere repressed the wicked, boldly
subdued the rebellious, loved the just and holy, cherished the
meek and hiunble, restored the ruined churches of God, and,
expelling the ditties of the clerks”* fix»m the convents, for the
praise of the Divine name introduced choirs of monks and
Dims; and, during his reign, he himself and his bishops, in
Tarious parts of England restored more than forty-eight monas*
teiies. In the time of king Edgar, the relics of Saint Swithim,
the former bishop of Winchester, were transferred with great
honor by the holy Ethelwold, the bishop, from the cemetery to
the church : upon the transfer of which, through the merits of
Saint Swithun, innumerable sick people were restored to health.
This holy bishop, Ethelwold, restored the monastery, formerly
called Medeshamsted, which then lay in ruins through the
ravages of the Banes, and, after it was rebuilt, called it Burgh ;
and having appointed as abbat of the said monastery, one of
his monks, Adulph by name, obtained, from this most pious
^ong, a charter for the same, relative to the possessions which
had been obtained by grant from the treasury for the said place,
to the following effect :

“By** the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, King for ever-
lasting, who, at His will, meteth out all the kingdoms of the

^ Secular priests.

** The geuuineness of this charter is suspected by Hiokes.

92 nretJLPH’s history of the abbey ot jrotlastd, a.d. 970.

earth, and who gnideth the reins of the ‘world, I, SSdgar,
under the King who mleth above the stars, presiding over the
kingdom of Great Britain, have oftentimes received the peti-
tions of Ethelwold, the venerable bishop, and beloved by God,
as to the establishment of chnrches of which he has proved
himself an indefatigable refonnder, and more especially as to
the restoration and liberties of the ancient monastery which
was formerly called Medeshamsted, and which lately, by the
aid of God, and at his own instance and ours, has been re-
stored and called Burgh, and which, by reason of its preroga-
tive in claiming the favour of Saint Peter and its ancient noble-
ness, he pre-eminently esteems. For, recollecting that the same
was mightily enriched by its ancient kings Wulpher and
Ethelred, and his other successors, and was established with
royal privileges on the firmest basis, but has since been de-
stroyed by the foreign armies of the Pagans ; he, as a wise
architect of God, has with great zeal made it his study to
repair the house of God, and, after obtaining and redeeming
its possessions in all quarters, has, to the utmost of his ability,
with our royal donation amplified the same. Wherefore I,
by the grace of Saint Peter, and out of affection for so valued
a father, and for the redemption of my soul, do most willingly
grant that the said holy and Apostolic convent shall be for
ever free from all seciilar burdens and services, so that no
one, whether ecclesiastic or layman, shall ever have any do-
minion over the same or the abbat thereof; but that, the
abbat with the household of Christ subject to him, living in
the peace of God and under the patronage of Peter, the keeper
of the gates of heaven, who rules the same, and the Inng in
all cases of necessity giving his assistance thereto, it may for
ever remain free from all worldly bondage, as also exempt from
all episcopal exactions and molestation, by the Apostolic license
and the authority of our most reverend archbishop, Dunstan,
together with its appendages, that is to say, Dodesthorp,
Ege, and Paston.®* The viU also of TJndale,”** together with
all the rights in the vills adjacent, which in English are
called Gathta hundred,^ and with ri(;ht of market and toll, we

•• Eye and Paston, in Norfolk.

** Oundle, in Northamptonshire.

*’ V. r. Eahta-hundred, or the eight hundreds.


do g^ye with the same liberties, to the end that neither king,
nor earl, nor bishop, (except in the case of the courts Christian of
the adjoining parishes,) nor sheriff, nor any person whatsoever,
either great or small, shall presume by any superior authority’
to hold the same, nor yet to transfer the same to any place
from the said vill of TJndale, where [the said court] lawfully
ought to sit. But the abbat of the said convent shall be at
fuU Hberty to hold the same entirely at his own option, toge*
ther with direction of the causes therein and the laws relating
thereto, and shall cause [the said court] to sit both when and
in what place he shall think fit, without any impediment thereto
whatsoever. Moreover, of those lands, which, by our assistance,
or of our gift, orof that of my nobles, have by the before-named
bishop been added to the said monastery, and which are here-
under set forth, that is to say, Barwe, Wormyngton, Asciton,
Keterynges, Castre, Eiglisworth, Walton, Wytherington, Ege,
Thorp, and Dodesthorp, as also the solo right of coinage at Stam-
turd, we do make a free and perpetual grant Also, the said
vills, as well as all the rest wliich belong to the said monas-
tery, together with all their property and possessions, and all
their rights which are called Soch and Sach, are for ever to be
tree from all royal rights and all secular imposts, in things both
great and small, in woods, fields, pastures, meadows, marshes,
venison, piscaries, markets, and tolls, as to the increase of all
things that are provided by the bounty of God. “We do also
grant the fourth part of the lake, which is called Witlesmere,**
ai^d which has been obtained by the bishop Ethelwold, together
with all the waters, fisheries, lakes, and marshes thereto per-
Gaining, and extending to the boundaries lying around the same;
of which, the northern one is the spot where first the Mere-
lade is entered by the river Nene ; the eastern one is at Kynges-
delf ; the southern one at Aldwines Barwe, which place is in
the fens over against the spot that lies mid-way f]x>m Ubbe*
merelade ; and the western one, where the river Opbethe is
skirted by the land : all which are proved in ancient times to
baye belonged to the said holy monastery to a much wider and
^er extent. We do also appoint that one market shall be
held in Burgh, and that no other shall be held between Stam->
ford and Huntingdon ; and in addition thereto, we do grant,
vid do order that there shaH be paid, without any gainsaying,
” WhitUesea Mere, in Cambridgeshire.

abbat, have consented hereto. + I, duke Alfer. + I, duke
Alwin. -f I, duke Brithnod. + I, duke Oslac. -h I,
Ethelward, the thane. + I, Arsnulph, the thane. + 1,
Alfey, the thane. + I, Elfward, the thane. + I, Frithegist,
the thane, -f I, Thured. -h I, Veif. + I, Olfric. + I,
Offord. -f I, Wulstan. -h I, Byngulph. -f I, Elfetan.
+ I, Athelfis. H- I, Wulfear. -f I, Ethelmund. + I^
Thureferd. + T, Alfhelm. -f I, Frava. + I, Frethegist.”

At this period also, having expelled the clerks’* from Sie mo-
nastery at Malmesbury, whom his brother Edwin, after ejecting
the monks, had iniquitously intruded therein, he recalled the
monks, and, appointing Elfric abbat over them, a man at that
time most celebrated for his attention to ecclesiastical duties^
presented him his charter to the following eflfect : —

” I, Edgar, sovereign of the whole of Albion, as also of all-
tlie sea or island kings dwelling around the same, have been,
^ngh the bounty of the grace of God, by the multiplied
8ttbjection to my rule, exalted to a degree which no one of
my ancestors has reached ; wherefore, being mindful of so
great an honor, I have oftentimes careftdly considered what
in egpecial under my rule I ought to present to the Lord, the
King of kings. Accordingly, a spirit of piety, sent from
above to cherish my feelings of zealous devotion, has suddenly
BQggested to my watchfril zeal, to restore all the holy monas-
teries in my kingdom; which, pulled down visibly to the
very timbers thereof, as though through the ravages of mice
and the rottenness of the wood, have become, a tUng of still
greater importance, almost empty within, and deserted by the
worship of God. For, expelling the illiterate clerks, who
were subjected to no rules of religious discipline, in many
places I have appointed pastors of a more holy grade, that is
^ Bay, persons wearing the monastic habit ; and, for the pur-
P^.of repairing the ruins of the churches, I have, by means
of donations from my treasury, supplied them with abundant
Jneans for the payment of their expenses. One of these, by

^ Secular priests.


name Efric, a man most experienced in the performance of
all ecclesiastical duties, I have appointed to be head of that
most famous convent, which, giving it a twofold name, the
English call * Maldemesburgh : * to which, for the welfare of
my soul, and in honor of our Saviour and His mother Mary,
ever a Virgin, as also of the Apostles, Peter and Paul, and of
Aldelm, th(^ glorious bishop, I have, of my munificent libe-
rality, restored the parcel of land, [underwritten], together
with the meadows and forests theri’to belonging. The siiiue,
having been lent by the aforesaid clerks, had been unjustly
taken possession of by the contentious Edelnoth; but, his
superstitious cavils and his subtle discussions having been
heard by my own wise men, and his faulty quibblings haying
.in my presence been detected by them, the same h^ve been
restored by me for the use of the said monastery. In the
year from the Incarnation of our Lord, 974, and of the king’s
consecration, the first. + I, Edgar, sovereign of the whole of
Albion and the neighbouring kings, have with the sign of the
Holy Cross confirmed this chaitcr. -f I, Dunstan, archbishop
of Canterbury, have with the triumphant emblem of the hal-
lowed Cross corroborated this holy gift, -f I> Oswald, arch-
bishop of York, have subscribed hereto. -|- I, EtheLwold,
bishop of Winchester, have signed the same. 4- I, Leofwin,
bishop of Dorchester, have consented hereto. + I, Elfstan,
bishop of London, have sanctioned the same. + I, Turketol,
abbat of Croyland, have set my signature hereto. -|- I,
Ethelgar, abbat of the new monastery at Winchester, have
approved hereof. + I, Adulph, abbat of Burgh, have praised
the same. H- I, duke Alfer, have been present hereat. -h I,
duke Athelwin, have taken part herein. + I, duke Brith-
nod, have beheld the same, -f And others.”

I have here inserted the charter of a monastery situate at
such a distance, to the end that I might shew with what fer-
vency of the Holy Spirit [the heart of the renowned] king
Edgar was inflamed, for restoring ruined churches and mo-
nasteries that had been levelled with the ground ; as also,
because among those who set their signature to the royal char-
ter, after the bishops, the signature <^ our abbat Turketul occupies the first place. Accordingly, the grant of his monastery being thus oon- firmedy and the same being fully supported and rendered en* &.D. 974. SBCBEES OF TUBKETT7L. 97 tirely valid, by means of both the pontifical as well as the royal authority, the venerable father Turketul, now stricken in years, and ML of days, did not, after this, again mingle with the world ; but, each day, while living among the elders of the monastery, eagerly made it his object by his e9quiries to gather information relative to the state and observances of the former monastery. For, using all due vigilance, he made the most ui^ent requests of Aio, who was well versed in, legal matters, and extremely well acquainted with the muniments of the ancient monastery, as well as of Turgar, who from his childhood had beheld with his eyes both monasteries, the former and the new one, having been witness of the destruc- tion of the one and of the building of the other ; while, at the same time, he applied to the other aged monks, and re- quested them to state whatever in their younger days they had heard from their seniors. He also appointed brother Swetman, [the best scribe of the time], to receive all their information, and, with all due diligence and with truthful pen to commit liie same to writing, in order, that, with due care, there might be handed down to posterity, both all the memo- rable facts contained in the muniments of the ancient monas- tery, as also the regular observances of the same. IJpon this occasion, the seniors produced this history, con- taining the memoirs of our house most worthy of notice, to- gether with a few incidents relative to the kingdom of the Mercians and the West Saxons, from the time of our first fomidation by king Ethelbald, until the fourteenth year of the reign of the renowned king Edgar. At the same time also, our venerable father, abbat Tur- ketol, on fully hearing and examining, and completely imder- standing the ancient observances of the ancient monastery, enacted and decreed that the following roles should in all fature time be inviolably observed by all in his monastery of Croyland. Dividing the convent into three grades, he enacted that each grade should recognize and observe its own proper position, in manner following : — '* The young men, from the first year of their entering the monastery, imtil the twenty-fourth, are, in their proper order, to perform all the duties imposed upon them m attending upon the choir, the cloisters, and the refec- tory ; in nnging, reading, and serving, and carrying out all H 98 INOTILFH's HISTOBY OV the ABBET of CBOYLAin). A.D. 974. the regular observances in conformity with the teaching of their master ; the which duties, whosoever shall, both, for him- self as well as his companions, make it his study diligently and duteously to perform, the more will he be considered de- serving to obtain tiie favour of all of his superiors. But if any person, and may such never prove the case, puffed up with pride, elated with his knowledge of any art, putting trust in the vast extent of his literary acquirements, or led astray through friendship for his relations or any other person, shall become a tale-bearer or a contentious traducer, or shall in any way shew himself in the monastery to be a despiser of his elders ; then, like an Alecto coming from the depths of hell, let him be carefully avoided by all, and let him obtain of his supe- riors no favour in the chapter, no indulgence in the refectory, jpLOT any solace in the infirmary, to the end that he may learn to correct his errors ; but let him, like a bull that tosses with his horns, be shut up at home, lest, from being a lion's whelp, he may turn out to be a lion that cannot be tamed ; and bo, at the beginning, let due chastisement be awarded him at the discretion of his superiors. But as to those who shall shew themselves affable and agreeable, chaste and peace-makers, meek and modest, attentive and obedient, the same, being worthy of all favour, are frequently to be allowed the enjoy- ment of comforts. " Moreover, those who shall have passed twenty-four years from their adoption of the monastic life, shall, during the next sixteen years, occupy the middle rank. These are to be re- leased from the duties of the lesser chantries reading the Epistle and the Gospel, and other minor employments ; they shall, however, in their regular order, as the time comes round, perform the other duties of the choir, the cloister, and the re- fectory, but shall have frequent assistance from the juniors therein ; taking care, however, that, for the benefit of incul- cating a lesson of obedience, they perform these duties them- selves once or twice a week at least, while on the other days they are assisted by the juniors. " As upon these are to devolve all the weighty cares of busi- ness, and prudence and foresight are to distinguish their coun- sels, as the management of the whole place is especially to be confided to them ; it is proper that, according to the manner in which they perform their duties, (besides the remuneratioD A.S. 974. SECHESS OF htbketul. 99 from God, whicli monks are in especial to look for,) they should experience the countenance of their superiors towards them, either as rigid or affable, benign or austere ; and that, together with their burden, they should receive due honor, and favour or censure in proportion to their merits. '' In the third rank are to be placed those who have at- tained their fortieth year since admission, and who, up to the fiftietli year, are in their proper order to be called * seniors.* These are to be excused from all duties of the choir, the clois- ters, and the refectory, except the performance of those masses which are sung from notes ; in which masses the juniors of the first rank, and those of mid rank in the second class, are daily, with all duteousness, to offer to take upon themselves their burdens. And farther, after the completion of their forty-second year, they shall be excused from all out-door duties, such as those of steward, proctor, cellarer, almoner, cook, master of the workmen, and pittancer ;^ unless the abbat shall, in case of any urgent necessity, think proper to assign any of the offices aforesaid to any one of the seniors. These persons, as being veteran soldiers, who have borne the heat and the bur- den of the day in the service of God, and have for the good of their monastery expended their flesh and blood, are deserving of all honor, and are to suffer want of nothing whatever. In lespect to this class, this is in especial to be attended to, that they have by the most becoming means provej^ themselves worthy of the favour of this dispensation, and that, from their first entrance into the monastery up to that age, they have been convicted of no offence for which they have been deemed deserving to sustain such punishment as is awarded to any grave fault. "Each one, when he has attained fifty years from the time of his admission, is in his due order to be called a * Sempect,' and is, at the nomination of the prior, to have a fit and proper room in the infirmary, and to have a lay clerk or servant espe- cially devoted to his service ; who is to receive at the expense of the abbat a supply of victuals [for himself ] in the same mea- sure and amount as would have been supplied to the servant of an esquire in the abbat's hall. To each Sempect, the prior ^ ** Pitantiarius." — He was the person whose daty it was to serve out their pittances of food to the monks. H 2 100 DTGULPH's history 07 THE ABBBY OF CBOTLAXD. A.I>. 974.

shall every day assign one younger brother to sit with him* at
table, both for the aake of instruction for the youth, as also by-
way of company for the aged man ; and to these, yictaals
shdl be supplied from the kitchen of the sick, as though they
were on the sick list.’ The Sempect shall, at his own will and
inclination, [sitting and walking], coming in and going oat,
be at liberty to enter and depart from either choir, cloister,
refectory, or dormitory, or the other outbuildings of the mo-
nastery, either in his frock or without it, just how and when
he shfiJl please. Nothing relative to the affairs of the monastery
that is disagreeable shall be mentioned in his presence. iN’o
person shall presume in any way to offend him, but with the
greatest peace and tranquillity of mind he shall await his end.”
[He also at the same time decreed and enacted, that who-
ever should thereafter chance to be prior of Croyland], should
have liberty and power, in the chapter held eadi day, to en-
join penances upon the monks, and, when enjoined, to diminish
or increase the same, according as he should see the countenance
of the penitent bearing signs of compunction and contrition^
or otherwise. ** All licenses, also, in the refectory, and all
the comforts of the infirmary, are to be left to his discretion
and determination ; and just as hitherto it has been customary
to make provision both as to victuals as well as other neces-
saries, whether he is at home or whether abroad, in the
same way provision shall always be made for the future. Un-
less he shall have been found guilty of some offence, having
first been, as our holy rules enjoin, thrice admonished to amend
his life, he who sha 1 once hold the office of prior of Croyland,
shalL always remain prior thereof to the day of his death ; and
because, in the midst of the brethren, their ruler ought to be
held in honor, except the * inclination,** all honor and respect
shall be shown to him. To the prsecentor of the lists,’ and
to his appointments in the choir, both the abbat and prior, as

* Hence the name given to the old men, from the Greek ovinraiKviit,
a ** partner,” or ** companion.**

‘ i. e. Yictuth of a more delicate kind.

* ” Indinatio,” a pecaliar kind of bow, which was made to the abbat alone.

* It was the dnty of the ” Pnecentor tabulamm” to make out the lists
of the persons whose place it was, daring the week, to perform the public
duties of the monastery. These lists were hung up in the chapter-house,
or some other public place, for the view of the inmates. He also kept
time during the chaunting, with an instrument made of bone, called


well as all the rest of the comnmiuty, are to pay all humble

To the office of sacrist, also, he then, by way of augmenta-
tion of his portion, assigned the duties of archdeacon over the
whole district of Groyland, so long as, without any respect for
persons, he should, with the fear of Gbd, reasonably and ca-
nonically Mfil his duties. He also, on this occasion, gave to
the office of sacrist a golden chaUce, and two water vessels of
silver gilt, skilfully wrought with embossed workmanship
in the form of two angels ; as also two silver basons, of wonder
fill workmanship and size, most exquisitely engraved with
representations of armed soldiers thereon. All t^ese vessels,
Henry, emperor of Germany, had formerly presented to him,
and, up to the present time, he had always preserved the same
in his own chapel.

He also, at the same time, assigned to the office of chamberlain
of the monks his manor of Beby, together with the church of
the said vill, imprecating a curse from God on such persons as
should, to the injury of the convent, withdraw the said manor
and church from the fulfilment of the said purpose, or procure
the same to be done.

These most holy statutes, after being publicly proclaimed in
his chapter, and assented to with the acclamations of all, and
received with the greatest obedience, our father, abbat Turke-
tul, caused to be written out, and conmianded them to be placed
at the end of the rules of Saint Benedict ; in order that all, when-
ever they wished, might be enabled to read his laws, and that
it might not befall any one through ignorance to contravene
the same.

The aforesaid history of the former monastery having been
accordingly published by the five Sempects before-mentioned,
and the said enactments of the venerable abbat Turketul being,
after lengthened consideration, digested and reduced into writ-
ing; the before-named fiither, being now broken down by old
age, and, in especial, weakened by many wounds, as also by the
immense labours which in his earlier years he had undergone,
was in daily expectation of the closing hour of death, and so,
like a good workman about to receive from his Lord his penny
in the evening for the faithM performance of his duties, witi^
most ardent longing he sighed for the end of his toils, and
the approach of the evening of eternal reward, At the same


time, he frequently and most fervently [celebrated the ser-
vice of the mass], watched with prayers and devotion, gave
himself up to holy meditations and sorrowing, relieved aU the
poor in their respective distresses, gave victuals to all beggars
and needy persons, and applied himself to other works of
brotherly love as well ; while each day he held in loathing
the present life, and, without ceasing, longed for that to come.
He also made it his care to neglect no part of the regular ob-
servances, while, at the same time, he always declared that he
was an unprofitable servant, and, with all earnestness of spirit,
desired the mercy of Christ ; and did, with indefatigable de-
voutness, as though with an urgent hsmd, day by day, knock at
the gates of Parafise, and by every Christian title lay claim to
admission to the kingdom of heaven.

The infants, also, and sons of the nobles, who were sent to
be trained as monks, and who repaired to the secular clerks at
Fegeland for the purpose of being instructed in literature, he
visited once at least each day, that they might not chance to
be treated with negligence in any respect, and thus bestowed
his attention upon the studies and labours of each. On these
occasions, a servant attending him with the same, he rewarded
those who distinguished themselves above the rest by their in-
dustry, with figs, raisins, nuts, almonds, or, ^more frequently,
with apples and pears, or other little presents, in order that,
not so much by [harsh] words or blows, as by frequent encou-
ragement and rewards, he might induce all to show due dili-
gence in the prosecution of their studies.

As for the Sempects of the monastery, who had through the
Word of Life begotten him for the service of God, he always
held them in the highest veneration, cheering them every day
with familiar conversation, and showing them kind atten-
tions by sending them some especial present from his own
table. On one occasion, the lord Clarenbald, the chief of the
Sempects (who was a man of very advanced age, and greatly the
senior of all the rest in the length of time which had elapsed
since he had entered the monastic order, having now com-
pleted the hundred and sixty-eighth’ year of his age), fell ill
and lay on his bed, awaiting the casting off of the flesh, which
was now close at baud, and about to receive at the hands of the
Lord his reward for having undergone such lengthened labours
7 Another reading has the ” one hundred and forty-eighth.**


in His holy service ; upon which, the venerable father, abbat
Torketul, himself peribrming the duties of a servant, would
not leave him either day or night, but lay down by lus side,
chatmted the daily service in the ears of the sick man, and,
with his own hands, performed all the requisite duties, just like
the most active youth ; and after he had received the last
unction aud had departed, he interred him, performing the
solemn service at his obsequies, in the middle of the choir.

In the following year died the lord Swarting, after the com-
pletion of the hundred and forty-second year of his age. The
venerable abbat Turketul watched him in his illness with an
equal degree of attention, and, after his death, committed him
to the tomb, by the side of the lord Clarenbald, honoring him
with similar respectful obsequies. In like manner, with similar
attentions, he buried the lord Brune £uid the lord Aio, who, with
Swarting, all died in the same year, it being the fourteenth
year of 3ie reign of the renowned king Edgar — the two former
being interred together. At length, in the following year, last
of all, died the lord Turgar, a venerable old man, alter having
completed the hundred and fifteenth year of his age. These
five aged Sempects had seen both monasteries — the old one,
which had been destroyed by the Danes, and the new one,
which had been lately restored.

In the year £x)m the Incarnation of our Lord, 975, being the
sixteenth and last year of the reign of king Edgar, after cele-
brating with much devoutness the feast of the Apostles Peter
and Paul, our venerable father, the lord abbat Turketul, caught
a fever from the effects of the intense heat of the Dog-star in
that year — a thing not in accordance with his usual robust
health ; and, after having struggled against it most stoutly for
three days, on the fourth he took to his bed ; upon which, he
Bummoned the whole convent, both the monks, forty-seven in
number, and the four lay brethren, to his chamber, and bade
the lord Egelhc, at this time his steward, in the presence of all,
to show how the house was provided with treasures as well as
jewels, and to answer to the community, after his death, for
the whole thereof, according to the list of them [then shown].
The treasures belonging to the monastery that were pro-
duced on this occasion, amounted to a sum of nearly ten thou-
sand pounds. The relics were very numerous and extremely
precious, being the same which, on various occasions, Kenry,

104 INGVLPH’s HISTOBT of THS abbey of CBOTLAND. A.D. 97&«

emperor of Germany, Hugh, king of the Franks, Loiub, prince
of Aqnltaine, and many other dukes and earls, nobles and pre-
lates, desiring to gain tiie good will £ind Mendship of the kmgs
of England, had bestowed on him while he filled the office of
king’s chancellor. Among these he set especial value on the
thumb of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle, so much so, that he
always carried it about him, and in all times of danger, tem-
pest, and lightning, crossed himself therewith : the duke of
Beneventum had given it to the emperor, on the occasion when
he had first girded him, in his youth, with the military belt ;
and the emperor, in his turn, had presented it to the chan-
cellor. There was also some of the hair of Saint Mary, the
Mother of God, which the king of France had given to him,
enclosed in a box of gold ; a bone, likewise, of Saint Leodegar,
the bishop and martyr, given to him by the prince of Aquitaine;
as weU as many other relics, of which some have been purloined,
while some are still preserved in these, the Norman times.

There were also m£my vessels of gold and silver, the whole
of which he had given for the use of the monastery, into the
charge of the steward and proctor thereof. For the two
Egelrics were, one of them the steward, the other the proctor,
of the monastery; being his kinsmen according to the flesh,
and his brethren according to Gbd, men most religious and
most devout. The steward was most skilful in the manage-
ment of worldly matters, while the proctor was a scholar,
imbued with a most profound knowledge of all brcmches of
literature. These, and the prior AmMd, as long as he lived,
were the principal advisers of the abbat ; and he did nothing,
great or small, without first taking their advice.

His fever increasing day by day, and he being now reduced
to the last extremity, after partaking of the holy mysteries of
Christ, he embraced with both arms the cross, which the at-
tendants had brought from the church before the convent, for
him to kiss. With what sighs, with what tears, with what
sobs, and how repeatedly, he kissed it, cannot, in a few words,
be described : words so full of devotion did he utter upon each
of the wounds of Christ, as to move all the brethren who stood
around to shed most abundant tears, and the remembrance of
his devoutness did not fade from the memories of many of them
all the days of their lives.


The day before his death he delivered a short disconrse to
his brethren, who were present, on the observance of their
monastic vows, on brotherly love, on precaution against negli-
gence in things temporal as well as spiritual, and on diligently
taking care of our fire — whether it was that he thereby meant
brotherly love, or whether he alluded to the destruction of the
place by fire, against which he wished proper precautions to be
taken ; for frequently [and fervently], moved as it were with a
spirit of prophecy, he spoke these words of warning : ” Take
ye especial care of your fires;”‘ — and, at length, dismissing
them, he commended himself to the pr^ers of all. Last thing
of aU, he bade them fSarewell, and [Inwardly] supplicated
God in behalf of them all. When the vital powers had now
quite failed, and his languor had increased more and more, on
flie fifth day before the nones of July, being the day of the
translation of Saint Benedict, his father and patron, after per-
forming the regular offices of the day, at the completing ser-
vice^ he also completed his days, and departed this life, quitting
the labours of the abbacy for the bosom of his father Abraham.
He was buried in his church, which he had erected from the
fomidation, near the great altar, on the right-hand side thereof^
in the sixty-eighth year of his age, and the twenty-seventh
of hiB monastic life, being interred by his neighbours, the
fathers, Adulph, abbat of Burgh, and Godman, abbat of

He was succeeded in the office of abbat, all concurring in
the election, by Egelric the elder, his kinsman, who had, under
him, been steward of the whole monastery, a most religious
man, and one remarkably well-skilled in the careful manage-
ment of temporal concerns, and of singular experience and
admirable prudence in bringing all secular matters to a pro-
sperous issue. Por, as he was related by blood to Alfer, duke
uf the Mercians, and distinguished by his intimate acquaint-
anceship, he suffered no molestation whatever under king
tdward, who succeeded his father, Edgar, on the throne, al-
i hough many monasteries were most grievously afflicted ; nor
was he in the slightest degree harassed by him.

In the discharge of his duties, as steward of the whole
monastery, in the latter years of the lord abbat Turketul, he
did many good services. For it was he who urged and induced

‘ ” Ignem vestrum optime custodite.”

* Tiie service of the ** completorium,” or ” complins,*’ the last of the day.


the lord abbat Turketul to go to London, and obtain the
charter of king Edgar, and the ecclesiastical censure against
the violation thereof, from Dunstan, archbishop of Ccuiterbury,
and Osketul, archbishop of York, together with the grant and
confirmation of spiritual rights over the whole parish of Croy-
land ; by which means provision was made for ensuring the
peace and quiet of the whole monastery, and the entire com-
munity was most effectually protected against violence, both
spiritual as well as temporal. Hearing, also, that the holy Athel-
wold, bishop of Winchester, was most strongly urging king
Edgar to restore the monastery of Medeshamsted, which was
in Qie vicinity [of Croyland], to its former state ; as the ad-
joining forests were still remaining in the king’s hands, and
the proceeds applied to the purposes of the treasury, he made
use of the license granted by the royal charter, and had trees
and timber carried from the said woods, in cars and carriages,
carts and waggons, and every kind of vehicle, to the monastery
of Croyland. With this, some very handsome buildings were
afterwards erected in the monastery of Croyland, and many
very fine pieces of timber were preserved there for the emer-
gencies of the monastery at a future period.

For, with this timber, while Turketul, the lord abbat, was
still alive, the roof of the church was finished ; and its tower
was stoutly supported and compactly held together with beams
of remarkable length. After the death, also, of the lord abbat
Turketul, he erected out of the same timber a great number
of buildings of exceeding beauty, such as the infirmary of the
monks, of very becoming proportions both in length and
breadth, and wonderfully constructed of beams and planks
fitted in joints with carpenters* work. He erected the chapel,
also, of similar workmanship, together with a bath-room and
other requisite out-buildings. These were all made of planed
planks (because the foundation, being weak, was not able to
bear an erection of stone), and covered with lead. He then
built a hall for guests, and two very fine chambers of similar
workmanship : he also made a new brew-house and a new bake-
house, all of the very finest workmanship, in timber. He also
erected a large granary of similar construction, in the upper
part of which all kinds of com were stowed, while in the
lower part malt was kept. He also built a large stable, in
the upper part of which there were chambers for all the ser-


vants of the abbey; while, in the lower part, there were stalls
for the abbat’s horses at one end, and stalls for the use of the
guests at the other. By these three buildings, that is to say,
the stable, granary, and bake-house, the whole western side
of the court-yard of the abbey, loo^g towards the vill, was
bounded; while the southern side was bounded by the hall for
the guests, and its chambers. The eastern side consisted of
the shoemakers’ workshop, the hall of the professed brethren,
as also the kitchen, hall, chamber, and chapel of the abbat,
which bounded the cloisters of the monks on the west ; while
the northern side of the abbey was protected by a large gate,
dose to which, on the eastern side, was the almonry for the
poor. All these places, except [the haU] for the abbat, and
his chamber and chapel, adjoining to the cloisters, and the
before -mentioned almonry for the poor, which the lord Turketul
had built of stone, were of wood, of similar workmanship, and
covered with lead.

In years of drought, also, he put their marshes into a state
of cultiyation, in four places, that is to say, at the four comers
thereof, and for three or four years had fruit a hundred-fold
for all the seed sown. The cultivated lands of Tedwarthar
proved the most fruitfdl of all, and the monastery was enriched ‘
beyond measure in consequence ; and so great was the abun-
^iance of com, that it was able to relieve the whole of the
adjacent counixy therewith ; while, from the resort thither of
countless multitudes of needy people, the vill became very
greatly increased.

He also had two large bells made, which he called Bartho-
lomew and Bettebn ; also two of middle size, which he called
Turketul and Tatwin ; and two small ones, to which he gave
the names of Pega and Bega. The lord abbat Turketul had
previously had one very lai^ bell made, called Guthlac, and
^hen it was rung with the beUs before-named, an exquisite
barmony was produced thereby ; nor was there such a peal of
bells in those days in all England.

Alter having spent ten years in the most strenuous dischai^
of his pastoral duties, abbat Egelric departed this life on the
second day before the nones of August, and was buried in the
chapter house, almost at the same time at which the holy Athel-
^old, the bishop of Winchester, departed unto the Lord, that
J8to say, m the year of our Lord, 984.


He was sacceeded in fhe office of abbat by his relatiye, the
other Egekic, called Egebic the younger, a man more devoted
to books and holy literature than skilled in the management of
temporal affairs ; but, during all his time, most deyoutly aad
most zealously did he watch the interests of the monastery. In
his fourth year, the holy Dunstan, the archbishop, departed unto
the Lord. This abbat Egelric gave to the common library of
the monks of the house several large volumes, containing the
original works of divers learned men, forty in number ; while
the smaller volumes, consisting of various tracts and histories,
exceeded three hundred in number. He also presented to
the office of sacrist numerous vestments ; for instance, for every
altar in the church two chasubles, that is to say, one for use on
the Lord’s day, the other on principal festivals. He also pre-
sented to the choir four-and-twenty copes, that is to say, six
white ones, six red, six green, and six black. He also gave two
large pedals,* embroidered with lions, to be placed bBfore the
great altar on principal festivals, and two smaller ones, covered
>vith flowers, for the feasts of the Apostles. He also presented
many paUs for the purpose of being suspended on the walls by
. the altars of the Saints on feast days, many of which were of
silk, while some were embroidered with birds in gold, some in-
terwoven, and some plain. He also had six chalices made, and
presented them to the different altars and chapels. He also had
made for the choir six responsories, and four antiphonars, with
eight missals for the different altars He also Aimished the
various offices of the monastery with certain vessels of brass
that were requisite. He also supplied the whole convent, en-
tirely at his own expense, for one whole year with tunics, for
another whole year with hoods, and for a third year with frocks,
in addition to those articles of dress which the lord Turketul
had granted to the convent, to be received each year from the
church and manor of Beby. After he had most ably governed
the monastery for a period of eight years, he departed this
life on the flfth day before the nones of March, in the year of
our Lord, 992 ; in the same year, and at the same time of the
year, at which the holy Oswald, archbishop of York, departed
unto the Lord ; who, a few years before, assisted by earl
Alwin, and Leofwin, bishop of Dorchester, had founded the
monastery of Ramsey.

* Carpets for the feet, made of tapestry work.


Abbat Egelric being buried in the chapter-house, near the
other Egekic, he was succeeded in the office of abbat by the
lord Osketul, who, in the time of the lord Turketul and the
two abbats Egelric, had long been prior, in succession to prior
Amfrid — a simple and upright man, very kind and affectionate
to all, well-skilled in literature, and of very noble descent.
So much did he devote himself to alms-giving to the needy,
that he was called the ‘* Father of the poor ;’* and so great
was his authority with the multitude, that whatever he said
was to be, was thought to be a prophecy ; while so highly was
he honored by the chief men of the land, that he was re-
vered by them as a father.

The renowned king [Edgar], who was the flower and grace
of all his predecessors, the sovereign of the western regions of
the world, and the glory and rose among kings, departed this
life in the year of our Lord, 975, being the sixteenth year
of his reign over the whole of England, and the thirty-second
of his age, and was buried at Glastonbury. He was suc-
ceeded on the throne by [Edward] his flrst-bom son, an inno-
cent and most religious youth, and one who, in character,
greatly took after his father. A tyrannical faction, especiallv
supported by the favour and influence of the queen, abused his
holy simplicity and innocence to such an extent, that, in
Mercia, the monks of some of the monasteries were expelled,
and clerks were introduced there, who immediately distii«
bated the manors belonging to the monasteries among the
dukes of the land ; in order that, being thus obligated to take
their side, they might defend them against the monks.

On this occasion, the monks being expelled from the mo-
nastery of Evesham, the clerks were introduced, and the
tyrants of the land were bribed with the lands of the church;
whom the queen, taking part with the clerks with all the
wickedness of a step-mother, favoured, for the purpose of cast-
ing odium upon the king. The king, however, and the holy
bishops, persisted in supporting the monks ; but the tyrants,
supported by the favour and influence of the queen, triumphed
over them. Hence arose great tumults in every comer of
England. At length, after a reign of four years, he was slain
at Corvesgate,^^ by the counsel and sanction of his said step-
mother, and was buried at Wareham, but afterwards, through
the care of duke Alfer, transferred to Shaftesbury.
^^ Cozfe Castle.

110 IKOTTLPh’s history of the abbey of CBOYLAND. A.D. 992.

He was succeeded by liis brother Ethelred, who was the son,
however, of his step-mother, the before-named Alfleda, being
then a boy ten years old. Then, of a truth, might the pro-
verbial saying have been quoted — *’Woe unto thee, O land,
when thy king is a child !” ” He was crowned at Kingston,
by Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, and Oswald, arch-
bishop of York.

After the ceremony of coroijation was performed, he was
thus addressed by the holy Dunstan : ” Because thou hast as-
cended thy throne through the death of thy brother, whom
thy mother slew, therefore, hear the word of the Lord. Thus
saith the Lord, ‘ The sword shall not depart from thy house,
but shall rage against thee all the days of thy life, and shall
slay those of thy seed and thy race, until thy kingdom shall
be transferred to another kingdom, whose customs and whose
language thy race knoweth not: nor shall the sin of thy
mother be atoned for, except with prolonged vengeance, and a
vast effusion of blood ; as £dso the sins of those most guilty
men who have aided her wicked designs, so as to lay hands
upon the Lord’s anointed, to the shedding of the innocent blood.’ ”

The same holy man had also given utterance to another pro-
phecy as to the same child. While he was baptizing the intiant,
it bewrayed the font, on which Dunstan exclaimed, ” By Saint
Mary, this child will turn out but a worthless man !” He is
said to have uttered a third prophecy after he had been
crowned king, and while he was with his army besieging Eo-
chester. For, a misunderstanding having arisen between him
and the bishop of that city,, he had come with his army and
laid siege to it. On this, the holy Dunstan, the archbishop, en-
treated the king to break up the siege, and not provoke the
anger of Saint Andrew the Apostle, who was the especial pa-
tron of the said church. He, however, caring but little for
his entreaties, persevered with the siege ; on perceiving which,
the holy man sent him one hundred pounds. The king, on
receiving the money, recalled his army, and withdrew from
the siege ; upon which, the holy man, surprised at the cupidity
thus displayed, by a messenger sent him back this answers
“Inasmuch as thou hast preferred money before God, silver
before the Apostle, and cupidity before nrf, thy servant,
the evils shall speedily come upon thee, of Jrhich the Lord
” Ecd. X. 16.


hath spoken : but, while I am alive, they shall not come to
pass ; for so the Lord hath spoken.” However, directly after
the death of the holy man, the said prophecies began, day after
day, to be fulfilled, and innumerable evils to afllict the whole

For, in the first place, the Danish pirates began with fre-
quent assaults to harass our shores on every side of the land ;
and next, their unconquerable armies, coming over in mighly
fleets, began lawlessly to attack both cities and castles. At the
same time, also, a dreadfcd famine severely afflicted and distressed
the natives ; after which, a disease, which bears the name of
*’ dysentery,” began to rage both among beasts of burden and
men ; while a pestilence, attending close upon the other afflic-
tions, struck down many thousands, both of the rich and the
poor. All their enemies, too, from the very first, ^* were always
victorious over the English, and in every contest proved the
conquerors. Accordingly, in the time of Osketul, the lord abbat
of Oroyland, while the Danes were thus molesting the whole
territory, the natives of the vills and villages took refuge in
the cities and castles ; while many of them fled to the marshes
and out-of-the-way spots near the lakes, and, to the best of
their ability, took precautions against the incursions and de-
predations of the Demes.

Accordingly, it so happened, that a certain great lady, Lef-
wina by name, the lady of a vill, which bears the name of
Ehophesbyry, and sister by parentage to Osketul, the lord
abbat of Croyland, came to Wittlesey, at that time her vill,
and brought with her certain holy relics, the most holy remains
of Saint Neot the confessor, from Elnophesbyry, because they
lay at that place without becoming honor, and were exposed
to the ravages of the Danes ; these she brought with her in a
shrine formed for the purpose. Sending a speedy message ta
her brother, the lord abbat Osketul, with suppliant prayers
she entreated him, that he would be pleased to come to Wit-
tlesey with a suitable retinue of his brethren, and with all due
reverence convey the said relics of Saint l^eot the confessor
with him to his monastery. Overjoyed and exulting, he took
with him some of his brethren and proceeded to Wittlesey ;
whence with all due honors and the melodious singing of
psahns, he transferred the said holy relics to Croyland, and
^’ This seems to be the meaning of ” in capita/’ but it is doubtful.


there, with becoming devoutness, placed them near the altar
of Saint Mary, the mother of God.

At this period, all the monastaries of the land began to be
subjected by kis^ Ethelred and his chieftains and thanes to
most grievous exactions, and to be harassed beyond measure
by the collection from them of immense sums of money, in
order to satisfy the tribute paid to the Danes. After plunder-
ing the treasuries and carrying away the sacred chalices as
well as the other valuables of the monasteries, even the very
shrines of the Saints were ordered to be spoiled by the col-
lectors. Accordingly, the venerable father Osketul, the lord
abbat of Croyland, paid at different times four hundred marks
for the said tribute ; but at last, after having filled the pasto-
ral office with zeal and sanctity for a period of twelve years,
through the relief afforded by a holy death, he finally escaped
the royal exactions and all the fears of this world, by putting
off the flesh : this happened on the twelfth day before the ca-
lends of I^ovember, in the year of our Lord, 1005.

He was succeeded in the office of abbat by the venerable
father, abbat Gk>dric, who was elected and made abbat in the
days of straights, tribulation and misery, just as in former
times the abbat Godric, who bore a similar name, had pre-
sided over the said monastery in the time of its desolation and
ruin. He most laboriously ruled the said monastery for fourteen
3 ears, during the reign of the before-named kmg Ethelred.
in the time of this abbat, the Danes having obtained the
mastery of nearly the whole land, intolerable taxes were im-
posed by king Ethelred, and his dukes, Edric, AlMc, Godwin,
and many others, for the purpose of paying the tribute to
the Danes ; while other most grievous exactions were made
for the purpose of replacing the expenses incurred by those
nobles ; added to which, on the part of Anlaph, and Sweyn,
and their armies, depredations, spoliations, and destrucliQn
went on without ceasing. Many a monastery was often drained
of every penny, while still the exactors refused to believe
that they had extorted the very utmost jforthing ; for so it
was, that in those days, the more the religious were oppressed,
the more they were supposed to have, tiie greater abundance
they were supposed to possess.

Hence it was, that the venerable father, abbat Godric,
in his first year paid to king Ethelred two hundred marks ;


while, in a similar manner, for their expenses, his dukes ex-
torted two hundred marks ; besides smaller exactions which,
the king’s thanes continually rushing in, were daily incurred.
A second, third, and fourth year the sdme thing again took
place. In his third year also, two hundred pounds were ex-
acted towards building gaUies at all the ports, and supplying
the naval armament with provisions and other necessaries.
Again, in his fourth year, Turkill, the Danish earl, having
made a descent with a very strong fleet, he sent for one hun-
dred pounds, and payment thereof was levied by means of the
most cruel exactions. The Danes, making incursions through-
out the provinces, stripping the inhabitants of all that was
moveable, and burning all that could not be carried away,
pillaged Drayton, Cottenham, and Hoketon, manors belonging
to Croyland, and ravaged them, together with the whole county
of Cambridge, with flames. These, however, were but the
precursors of evils.

For, whereas, every year before, four hundred marks had
been paid through the exactions of the king and to defray the
expenses of his dukes, king Sweyn now came with a new
fleet, and a most fierce army, and laid waste every quarter.
Rushing onward from Lindesey, he burned the villages, em-
bowelled the peasants, and with various torments put to
death all the religious ; after which, he committed Baston and
Langtoft to the flames. This was the year of our Lord, 1013.
At this period, the monastery of Saint Pega, and its manors
adjoining, that is to say, Clinton, Korthumburtham, Makesey,
Etton, Badyngton, and Bemake, were all at the same time
committed to the flames, and all the retainers slaughtered or
carried away captive. The abbat, however, together with all
the convent, escaped by night, and, coming in a boat to Croy-
land, were thus saved.

In a similar manner, the monastery of Burgh, and the ad-
joming vills, with its manors of Ege, Thorpe, Walton, Wythe-
ryngton, Paston, Dodisthorp, and Castre, after being first
stripped of everything, were committed to the flames ; but the
abbat, with the greater part of his convent, taking with them
the sacred relics of the holy virgins, Kyneburga, Kineswitha,
and Tilba, went to Thomey. The prior, however, with some
of the brethren, taking with him the arm of Saint Oswald, the



king, made his escape to the island of Ely; while the sub-
prior, with ten of the brethren, repaired to Croyland.

It happened, fortiinately, that this year the inundations had
increased to an unusual degree in consequ^ice of the frequent
showers, and consequently rendered the neighbouring fens, a3
also the marsh-lands adjoining thereto, impassable. Accord-
ingly, all the population repaired thither, and infinite multi-
tudes flocked to the spot ; the choir and the cloisters were Med
with monks, the rest of the church with priests and clerks^
and the whole abbey with laymea; while the cemetery vas
filled night and day with women and children under tents.
The stoutest among them, as well as the young men, kept
watch among the sedge and the alder-beds upon the mouths
of the rivers; and every day, not to speak of other ex-
penses, one hundred monks sat down tor table. Besides all
this, king Sweyn by messenger imposed a fine of one thou-
sand marks on the monastery of Croyland, azid, under pain of
burning the whole monastery, appointed a certain. (£ty for
the payment thereof at Lincoln ; while, within three months
after payment of the said sum, these most wicked extortioners,
by the most terrible threats, again exacted a thousand marks
for the purpose of finding provisions for their army.

The cruel martyrdom of Saint Elphege, the archbishop of
Canterbury, is now well known and published everywhere.
Because he refused to pay an excessive sum of money which
had been imposed on him as the payment of his ransom, the
Danes with brutal fury slaughtered him, inflicting the most
dreadful torments. All bewailed these cruel times, and thought
that happy were they, who, in whatever way, had departed
this life ; abbat Godric, in especial, on whom devolveid the
charge of so vast a multitude, and whom king Ethelred beheved
to be in possession of heaps of silver. On the other hand,
Sweyn^ the Dane, and the whole of his army were always utter-
ing multiplied threats and devising stratagems against him, as
being the chief of all those who had made their escape fiom
out of their hands.

At last, in consequence of the expenses within and the ex*
actions without, the entire treasury of the lord abbat Tor-
ketul was exhausted, and the granaries of the two Egehics
levelled with the ground ; while at the same time, the king’s
coUectoi^s were dally making their assaults for money, and de-


claring that he, as being a traitor to his conntry, and a sup-
porter of the Danes, ought at once to be brought before the
king in fetters as he deserved, and to be given up to punish-
ment for his misdeeds. Being consequently stricken with in-
ternal grief of heart at so many terrible threats, the venerable
father, abbat Godric, summoned the whole of his convent, and
informing them that the money of the monastery was ex-
hausted, begged and entreated them to advise him thereupon,
and determine what ought to be done against such a wicked

At length, after a prolonged deliberation, this resolution was
agreed to by them all, that they ought to hire the services of
one of the thanes or servants of Edric, duke of the Mercians,
and, when money failed, grant him their lands and tenements
for the term of his life, and so lay him under the obligation of
being their protector against imminent dangers. For, next to
the king, tJiis Edric was the most powerful person in the
country, and on most intimate terms both with king Ethebed
and with Sweyn, king of the Danes, and afterwards with
Cnnt^ his son. Accordingly, one of the most influential of the
servants of the said duke Edric was hired, a person whose
name was Norman, a man of most illustrious family, being the
son of earl Leofwin, and the brother of Leofric, the noble earl
of Leicester ; the manor of Baddeby being gremted to him at
bis request, for a term of one hundred years. On receiving the
said manor, to hold the same of Saint Guthlac, at the annual
rent of one peppercorn, to be paid yearly at the feast of Saint
Bartholomew, he faithfully promised, tmd bound himself by
deed made to that effect, to be the guardian and protector of
the monastery against all adversaries.

This availed the monastery for some time, that is to say,
all the days of his life. But in the flrst year of king Cnute,
m the perfidious duke Edric alleging it as a ground for deserts
on his part that he had betrayed Ethelred, and had similarly
betrayed Edmund, being thus convicted of treason by his
(wm lips, h6 received the traitor’s reward of being hanged,
and then thri^wn into the river Thames. Many of his depen-
dants being also put to death wi& him in a similar manner,
fiist and forenaost among thiem, Norman was slain ; the whole
of whose lands, as the king greatly loved earl Leofric, his bro-
ther, he granted to him, in order that he mighit ‘Uiereby make

I 2


some small compensation for the death of his brother. Through
this grant, Baddebey came into the hands of the said earl
LeoMc ; and at last, the confessor of the said earl^ the prior
of .the monastery of Evesham, Avicius by name, connselling
and repeatedly advising him thereto, it was assigned to the
monastery of Evesham for the remainder of the term granted
to his brother, and is still retained by it, though the term has
expired.” For this earl Leofiric was a very devout man, and
remarkable for his numerous alms-deeds, and a founder and
enricher of many monasteries. Among these, at the suggestion
of his wife, Godiva byname, both the most beanteous [in
person] of all the women of her time, as well as the most holy
in heart, he enriched the monastery of Coventry to an immenflft
extent with numerous and most costly ^fts.

King Ethelred, after having most wretchedly sat upon the
kingly throne for a period of thirty-seven years, fSaUing sick at
London, died there, while besieged by the Danes, and was
buried in the church of Saint Paul. He was succeeded on
the throne, upon the election of the Londoners and West Sax-
ons, by his eldest son, Edmund, who, for his valour, was
called ** Lx)nside.*’ Most bravely fighting against Gnute, who
had succeeded on the wonderful and shoeing death of his
father, Sweyn, at Gaynesburgh,^^ he at last made an equal divi-
sion of the kingdom with the said Gnute. But just when
these two most valiant youths had begun to reign together on
the most peaceful terms, Edmund was slain through the
treachery of the before-named perfidious duke Edric, and by
the consent of all, Gnute was crowned king of the whole of
England. In the same year, also, the before-named betrayer
of the kings, Edric, the perfidious duke of the Mercians,
perished by a deserved end ; being hanged, as we have already
stated, and thrown into the Thames to be devoured by the
fishes. The before-named I^orman, together with some others
of his dependants, was also put to death. This was in the
year of our Lord, 1017.

King Gnute beginning to rule, profound peace was every-
where proclaimed, and flourished once more throughout all the
provinces of England ; upon which, the venerable fiither Godrio,

‘^ This must be an interpolation, if Ingulph wrote this history, as he
died A.D. 1108, before the hundred year^ had expired*

14 Gainsborough, in Lincolnshire.


abbat of Oroyland, sent to their homes all the monks be-
longing to other places who had been staying at his mona^
tery. On this occasion, the abbat of the church of Saint Pega»
on returning to his monastery with his monks, and beholding
eyarything destroyed and burned to the ground, fell to the
earth the very instant that he entered, and being carried by
his brethren to a small house adjoining to his vill, died five
days after, and was buried in his church. Abbat Baldoc being
thus dead, Wulgat succeeded him, a man of remarkable pru-
dence in worldly matters, and extremely religious in spiritual
ones. Ke afterwards most strenuously pleaded his cause
against LeoMc, the abbat of Burgh ; but the court of the king
giving too much favour to the more powerful person, and pro-
nooncing judgment against the poor one, he at length lost the
site of his monastery. So plentiful was the money of the
abbat Leofric, so great the influence of the earl Godwin. But
more of thifl hereafter.

In the second year of king Cnute, when the storms of bat-
tles had ceased, and the serenity of peace had begun to shed
its prosperity upon the times, the venerable father, abbat God-
ric, having amid many labours sailed over the great sea of
this life, entered the haven of eternal rest; and, after having
most laboriously governed the monastery for fourteen years,
departed this li£e on the fourteenth day before the calends of
February, and was buried in the chapter-house, over against
the lord Osketul.

He was succeeded in the office of abbat by the venerable
father, the lord Brichtmer, who was a kinsman of the lord abbat
Osketul, and under his predecessdr, abbat Godric, proctor of
the monastery ; and had very frequently, with wondrous fa-
vour, escaped in safet}’ many perils from both king Ethelred
and the forces of the Danes. In the fourth year of this ab-
hat, there came a young man of most remarkable devoutness
and of very high birth, one of the kindred of Leofric, the earl
of Leicester before-mentioned, “Wulfsy by name, who, in his
love for a solitary life, became a recluse among us, and for
many years lived a most holy life.

The venerable father Brichtmer, on seeing that king Cnute
was established in his rule over England, and that he treated the
whole of the English in the most courteous and most friendly
loanner, while he also, with especial devoutness, showed his


affection for the Holy Churcli, and with filial dateousness ho-
nored the same ; seeing also that he bestowed benefits on the
monasteries and many places of the Saints, and indeed pro-
moted some of the monasteries to the highest honoF ; he re-
solved at once to take the opportunity and wait upon the king,
– and, (as he feared the power of certain of l^is adversaries, who
during the time of the war had greatly increased,) obtaiA the
confirmation of his monastery from &e said king; a thing
which he accordingly did. For repairing to the royal court
and finding favour with the king, he obtained the said oonfiiF-
mation; in attestation of which, he was presented with a
most beautiful chalice by the king, in thjBse words ; —

“Cnute, king of the whole of England, Denmark, and
Norway, and of great part of Sweden, to all provinces, nations,
and peoples subject to my power, both smaU and great, greet*
ing. Whereas my forefathers and kinsmen have oftentimes
oppressed the land of England with harsh extortions and with
direful depredations, and (I confess it) have therein shed inno*
cent blood ; it has been my study from the beginning of my
reign, and ever will be henceforth, to make satisfaction as well
to heaven as to this world for these my sins, and those of my
kinsn^en, andifTith all becoming deyoutness to improve the
state of the whole of Mother Church, and of each monastery
lender my governance existing, whensoever the same shall in
any way stand in need of my protection ; and so, by means of
these and other good works, to render all the Saints of God
propi^QUs tq i)ae in my necessities, and favourable and consi-
derate to ipy prayers. Wherefore I do, as an earnest of this
my determination to make ^due satisfaction, offer unto Saint
Guthlac of Croyland, and tho other Saints of the same place,
one chalice, part of my substance, and do confirm unto Briihmer,
the abbat, and l\is monks, the whole of their monastery at
Croyland, together with the island lying around the same, and
the two marshes thereto adjoining ; that is to say, Alderlound
and Goggisloundji with i^ same limits and boundaries by
which, in the charter of the late renowned king Edred, its
restorer, the said island and the said two marshes are fully
described. I do also confirm all churches and chapels, lands
and tenements, liberties and privileges, in the charter of the
said king contained, with the whole of which the said king
Edred endowed and enriched the said monastery of Croyland


in honor of God and of Saint Guthlao, His confessor, who in the

body there reposes, and by his charter confirmed the same. And

fiirUier, let no one of my subjects from henceforth dare to

molest the said monks, or in any way to disturb them in any

of the mutters aibresaid : and if any person shall presume so to

do, or shall attempt to take possession of the same, he shall

either feel the edge of my sword, or shall suffer the punishment

of the sword which is the due of the sacrilegious, receiving

sentence without forgiveness or ransom, in accordance with the

circumstances and extent of the injury done to the baid monks.

I, king Canute, in the year from the Incarnation of our Lord,

103i, have at London confirmed this my charter with the sign

of the Holy Cross, -h I, Egelnoth, archbishop of Canterbury,

have confinned the same with the sign of the most Holy Cross.

+ I, AlMc, archbishop of York, have ratified this charter of

the king. + I» Lefsy, bishop of Worcester, have signed the

same. + I, Elfward, bishop of London, have applauded the

same. + I, Brichtmer, bishop of Lichfield, have established

the same. + I, Brichtege, abbat of Pershore, have taken part

herein. + I, Wulnoth, abbat of Westminster, have signed the

same. + I, Oswy, abbat of Thomey, have approved hereof.

-I- I, earl Godwin, have consented hereto. + I, earl Leofric,

have attended hereat. + I, Edwin, brother of [earl] Leofric,

have been present hereat. + I, Harold, son of earl Godwin,

have taken part herein. -|- I, Algar, son of [earl] LeoMc, hate

assisted hereat. + I, Turkill, &e king’s thane, have heard

the same. + I> Alfget, the king’s thane, have beheld the


In the fourteenth year of his reign, king Cnute repaired to
Borne, and was honorably received by pope John [the Fif-
teenth, and by the emperor Conrad, who then was there, and
many other kings] and princes of the whole of Christendom,
who were then assembled at llome at the festival of Easter on
a visit, together with our lord the pope. On his return to
England through Denmark, during his journey he directed a
letter to the archbishop and all the people of England, inform-
ing them beforehand of his prosperous journey. It was sent
hy the hand of the abbat of Tavistock, Living by name, and
was to the following effect ;

“Cnute, king of the whole of Denmark, England, and
Xorway, and of part of Sweden, to Egelnoth, the metropolitan,
and Alfric, archbishop of York, and all the bishops and pri-

120 INGULPh’s HISTOBY of the abbey of CBOYIAND. A..B. 1031.

mates, with the whole nation of the English, nobles as well as
commons, greeting. I do hereby notify unto you, that I
have lately proceeded to Rome to pray for the pardon of my
sins, and for the well-being of the kingdoms and peoples
which are subject to my rule. To undertake this journey I had
long since made a vow to God ; but, in consequence of busi-
ness and the affairs of my kingdom offering an impediment
thereto, I had not hitherto been able to undertake the same.
“Wherefore I do now most humbly return thanks to Almighty
God, for that He hath granted that I should consider it to be
greatly to my advantage during my life to visit the beloved
Apostles Peter and Paul, and every holy place, the existence of
which within the city of Eome or without I was able to learn.
Be it also known unto you, that a great assemblage of the
nobles among the faithful was held there at the solemn festival
of Easter, together with our lord the pope and the emperor
Conrad ; that is to say, all the princes of the nations from
Mount Garganus” unto the neighbouring sea; all of whom
have received me with every mark of respect, and have honored
me with precious gifts and various presents, both vessels
of gold and silver, as well as palls and vestments of most
costly price. I accordingly discoursed with his lordship the
emperor, and his lordship the pope, and the princes who were
there present, as to the necessities of the whole of my people,
English as well as Danes, to the end that more just laws and
more sure protection might be afforded them in their joumies
to Rome ; and that they might not be delayed on the road by
so many shuttings up of the mountain passes, and harassed by
having to pay unlawful tolls. My demands, too, were granted
by the emperor and king Robert, in whose hands are most of
the mountain passes ; and all the princes, by their proclama-
tions, enacted that my subjects, merchants as well as other
persons travelling thither for the purpose of offering up their
prayers, should, without ^y molestation at the mountain
passes or any demand of tolls, go to Rome and return thence in
full security and under just laws. I again made complaint to his
lordship the pope, and stated that it greatly displeased me that
my archbishops were mulcted in such enormous sums as were
demanded of them, when, according to custom, they repaired
to the Apostolic See, for the purpose of receiving the pall ; on
^3 A mountain and promontor)r of Apulia, in the south of Italy

A.D. 1031. LETTEli OF KLSQ CSVTE. 121

which a decree was made that the same should thenceforth be
put an end to. Eveiy request which I made for the benefit
of my people, of his lordship the pope, of the emperor, and of
king Eobert and the other princes, through whose lands we
have to pass on our way to Eome, they most willingly granted,
and by oath as weU established the same, upon the testimony
of four archbishops, and twenty bishops, and a countless multi-
tude of dukes and nobles who were there present. Wherefore
I do render unto Almighty God extreme thanks, because that
I have successfully carried out all that I desired to do, and as
in my mind I had determined, and have to the utmost satisiied
my wishes.

“Now, therefore, be it known unto you, that I have suppli-
antly vowed before God, henceforth in all respects to hve justly,
to govern the kingdoms committed to me, and their peoples, with
piety, and in all things to observe equity and justice ; and if,
in the wantonness and carelessness of my youth, I have hitherto
done anything but what is just, it is my determination, by the
help of God, henceforth to make amends for the whole thereof,
^erefore, I do entreat and do command those of my advii^ers,
unto whom I have entrusted the interests of the people, in no
way, either through fear of me, or for the favour of any influ-
ential person, to consent henceforth to any injustice, or to suffer
any such to spring up throughout all my kingdom. I do also
command all the dignitaries and sheriffs throughout my kingdom,
as they vdsh to ensure my friendship, as well as their ovm
well-being, to do injustice by violence to no man whatever, rich
or poor; but let all those who are noble, as well as those who
are not, have the liberty of obtaining their rights according to
the justice of the laws ; from which no deviation shall be al-
lowed, either to gain the favour of the king, or for the sake of
any powerful person, or in order to accumulate money for me ;
because I have no necessity for money to be collected for me
through iniquitous exactions. Wherefore, I do wish it to be
made known unto you, that, returning the same way by which
I came, I am on my road to Denmark, for the purpose, with
the sanction and consent of all the Danes, of making peace, and
a lasting treaty with those nations, who, if it had been pos-
sible for them so to do, would have deprived me both of my
l^iiigdom and my life ; but were not able, inasmuch as God
crushed their might ; and may He, in His mercy, preserve ua


in our kingdom and honor, and annihilate the power of all oni
enemies. And ^rther, when peace shall have been conduded
with the nations which are round about us, and all this my
kingdom here in the East shall have been set in order and
brought to a state of tranquillityi so that we can, on no ddei
entertain fear of war or hostility on the part of any one, it is my
determination, at the earliest period possible, at which, this
summer, I can make the necessary preparations for sailing, to
come to England. This letter I have now dent before me, to
the end that all the people of my kingdom may rejoice at my
welfare; and because, as you yourselves are aware, I have never
been sparing of myself or my exertions — ^nor will I be sparing
of the same in fartiiering the advantages and interests of all my
people. Wherefore, I do now entreat all you my bishops and
officers throughout my kingdom, by the fidelity which you owe
to me and to God, that you will take care, that, before I
return to England, all the debts which, in conformity with
ancient usage, we owe to the Church, are discharged ; that is to
say, plough-alms,^* the tithes of animals bom in the present
year,” and the pence owing \jo Saint Peter at Kome, whether
from cities or Mhetherfrom vills ; in the middle of August, the
tithes of the produce of the eaith ; and, on the festival of Saint
Martin, the first fruits of seeds payable to the church of the
parish where each one resides, and which in English are called
* Kyrkeset’ ” If these and other things are not paid when I
return [to England], the royal rigour shall strictly, and in con-
formity with the laws, punish the person who shall be guilty
of such faultincss, without any pardon being granted what-
ever. Farewell.’*

In the year of our Lord, 1032, king Cnute, returning from
Rome by way of Denmark, landed in England at Sandwich.
The lord abbat Brichtmer met the king at that port, and pre-
sented to him two choice palfreys, which he courteously re-
ceived, and repeatedly returned him thanks for the same. He
also gave to our abbat a full suit of silk, embroidered
with eagles in gold, and a thurible of silver gilt ; which,
having been lately broken through old age, has been repaired

^* k penny for each plough, or, in other words, for as much land as a
plough could till, to be distributed to the poor ; payable within fifteen
days after Easter. ^7 Payable at Whitsuntide.

. . lb .01 *. kirk-shot.” It generally consisted of a certain quantity of corft.


by &eiord ^!cliioth, otio: aacrist. He also gave twelve white
bears’ skioB, some of which have remained before the different
altais even nnto our times.

Abbat Brichtmer, being strengthened in every way by the
royal favour, and having first obtained the royal confirmation
for his monastery, built many manor-houses for Croyland, which
had been lately destroyed by the Banes. He built, at Staundon,
a very fine hall, with chambers and other requisite buildings^
for the reception of his retinue, when he or his monks should
liaye occasion to visit London on the business of the monastery*
He did the same at Drayton, and the same, too, at Morbum.
Upon the other manors which had been laid waste by the
Banes, Ck>ttenham, Hoketon, Wendling, Adyngton, Elmyng-
t»n, langtoft, Baston, Bukeidiale, and Halyngton, he erected
bams, cow-houses, stables, sheep-folds, and kitchens. In his
eighteenth year, king Cnute, having so nearly concluded the
twentieth year of his reign, departed this life, and was buried
at Winchester.

His two sons, Harold and Hardecnute, entering upon a con-
tention for the kingdom, a mighty war seemed on the point of
commencing. !Fpr the Danes and the Londoners made choice
of Harold, the son of Elfgiva of Northampton, but who
was said to be only a pretended” son of king Cnute ; whilei^
on the other hand, the English, with the whole of the remaining
part of the country, preferred Edward, the son of king Ethel-
red, or, at least, Hardecnute, the son of king Cnute by queen
Emma. Upon this occasion, a vast multitude of men and
women, smitten with alarm, together with their children and
«U their moveable property, took refuge at Croyland, being
attracted, upon the mere apprehension of the approach of war,
to the slimy retreats of the marshes, and the alder-beds, and
the mud of the lakes, as though some very strong castle

These new-comers everlastingly disturbed the whole mo-
nastery with numerous quarrels and bickerings, and rushing^
all day long into the cloisters, continually occupied themselves,
either through the servants of the monastery, or in person, in
plying the ears of the monks; endeavouring, by means of
winning word*, to gain over the masters of the place, and so

^ It was suspected that she had imposed on the kin^ the children of a
priest and a cobbler as his’ own.


induce them to look favonrably upon their state of indigence.
The consequence was, that the monks abandoned the cloisters,
hardly ventured to descend from the dormitory to the choir for
the performance of Divine service, and were scarcely able to
meet in the refectory for the purpose of taking their food at
the common table. But, more than all, they annoyed and
distracted Wulfsy,^’ the anchorite and recluse among Hie
clerks of Pegeland ; for day and night they were consulting
him about different matters, and by their multiplied clamours
nnd invocations, forced him to become quite weary of his life. At
last, however, having his eyes bound with a bandage,^ lie re-
tired to Evesham, and, taking up the life of a recluse in a cell
near a certain chapel at that place, there still abides.

The kingdom of England was now divided between the two
brothers, sons of the same father. Hardecnute received the
southern provinces beyond the river Thames, while Harold
took the northern ones, together with London, and the whole
of the territory beyond the said river. Hardecnute, on receiv-
ing his portion, repaired to Denmark, where, making a longer
stay than was proper or necessary, Harold was proclaimed king
over the whole of England. He presented to our monastery
the mantle used at his coronation, made of silk, and embroi-
dered with flowers of gold, which the sacrist afterwards
changed into a cope. And still more kindnesses would he have
shown us, so great was the favour that the lord abbat Bricht-
mer had found with him, had not a speedy death prematurely
carried him off, while still pausing upon the very threshold
of his reign. Four years being completed, and the iiile of
the kingdom being but tasted of, as it were, he departed this
life, and was entombed at Westminster. He was succeeded on
the throne by Hardecnute, who was his brother, but the son
of queen Emma, and who was sent for from Denmark. Imme-
diately he entered the kingdom, he ordered the body of his
brother, Harold, to be taken from the tomb, and, after being
decapitated, to be thrown into the adjacent river Thames.
The English and the Danes, however, taking it out of the river,
had it buried in the cemetery of the Danes at London. Harde-
cnute, after a reign of two years, amid feasting and cups,

” See further mention made of him by Peter of Blois.
^ That he might not behold the things of this world.

A.D. 1043. EDWABD i.SC£I!n>S THE THRODE. 125

belched forth his spirit at Lamithe,^* near London, and rests
at “Winchester, by the side of his father.

After his death, the choice of all fixed npon Edward, earl
Godwin especially recommending him ; and, accordingly, Ed-
ward, son of queen Emma, but by Ethelred, the former king
of England, was crowned at London, in the year from the
Incarnation of our Lord, 1043, upon the holy day of Easter ;
and reigned nearly twenty-four years. To him was given in
marriage the daughter of earl Godwin, Egitha by name, a
young lady of most remarkable beauty, extremely well- versed
in literature, a maiden of exemplary purity of life and man-
ners, and of most holy humility ; while in no degree did she
partake of the barbarous disposition of her father or brothers,
but was meek and modest, trustworthy and honorable, and an
enemy to no one. It was for this reason that the following
Elegiac line was composed with reference to her : —

** As roses thorns, Egitha Godwin did beget.” ‘

Frequently have I seen her,® when in my boyhood I used
to go to visit my father who was employed about the court ;
and often, when I met her, as I was coming from school, did
8he question me about my studies and my verses ; and most
readily passing from the solidity of grammar to the brighter
studies of logic, in which she was particularly skilful, she
would catch me with the subtle threads of her arguments.
She would always present me with three or four pieces of
money, which were counted out to me by her hand-maiden,
and then send me to the royal larder to refresh myself.

King Edward, though bom in England, was brought up in
Normandy, and from his long stay there, had almost become
changed into a Gaul ; he consequently brought over with him,
or attracted, great numbers from I^ormandy, whom he pro-
moted to many dignities, and greatly exalted. The principal
among these was Eobert, a monk of Jumieges, who was made by
him bishop of London, and afterwards raised to be archbishop
of Canterbury ; as also William [and Wulfelm], the king’s

*^ At Clapham, which was formerly in the parish of Lambeth : it pro-
bably received its name from Osgod Clappa, the nobleman at whose
house this king thus suddenly died.

** ” Sicut spina rosam, genuit Godwinus Egitham.”

^ This is the first instance in which Ingtdph speaks of himself as a
personal witness of any of his factai.

126 ixgulfh’s hjsiosy of the abbet oe cboylanb. A.D. 1048;

chaplains, the first of whom was afterwards made hishop of
London, and the latter hishop of Dorchester. The consequence
was, that nnder the governance of the king and of the other
I^ormans who had been introduced, the whole land began to
forsake the English cnstoms, and to imitate the manners of the
Franks in many respects ; all the nobles in their respective
courts began to speak the Gallic tongue as though the great
national language, executed their charters and deeds after the
manner of the Franks, and in these and many other ways
showed themselves ashamed of their own customs. But of
this, more hereafter.

In the sixth year of the reign of king Edward, that is to
say, in the year of our Lord, 1048, the venerable father
Brichtmcr, the lord abbat of Oroyland, fell sick, after having
most diligently filled the pastoral ee of Canterbury.


by his rivals, and offcentimes buffeted to and fro by land and
by sea ; though, the Lord prospering his designs, he always
remained unconquered, and was beloved with the most sin-
cere affection by the people of his land ; he was buried at
Coventry, near his father, and left three children, two sons,
namely, Edwin and Morcar, who were afterwards earls, and one
daughter, who is now surviving, the countess Lucia.

In the year of our Lord, 1060, Kynsy, archbishop of York,
departed this life, and was interred at Burgh, of which place
he had formerly been a monk. He was succeeded b)’^ Aldred,
bishop of Worcester. To this Aldred, king Edward had en-
trusted the bishopric of Hereford to keep ; and accordingly,
on his promotion to the see of York, king Edward gave Qiat
bishopric to one Walter, chaplain to queen Egitha, by birth a
native of Lorraine.

In the year of our Lord, 1061, Wulketul, the lord abbat of
Croyland, began to build a new church, as prosperous times
were coming on ; for the old one, which the venerable lord
Turketul had formerly erected, threatened immediate ruin.
The renowned earl Waldcv aided him with the most ardent
zeal, and on this occasion, gave to our monastery of Croyland
his viU of Bemak, assigning it for the building of the church ;
for he was troubled with the remorse of an upright conscience,
because it had formerly been the property of t£e church, and
because, as there was an excellent quarry there, it was con-
sequently especially adapted to the necessities of the monas-

In the year of our Lord, 1062, Saint Wulstan, formerly a
monk of Burgh, after that, prior of Worcester, and then
abbat of Glocester, was at length made bishop of Worcester.
At this time, a nobleman, the lord of Brunne^ and of the ad-
joining marshes, Leofric by name, a person of high lineage,
and renowned for his military prowess, showed himself, in
many respects, a beneficent adviser and friend to our mo-
nastery ; he was a kinsman of Eadulph, the great earl of Here-
ford, who had married Goda, the sister of king Edward, and
who lies entombed at Burgh. This Leofric, by his wife Ediva,
Vho was of like noble blood (being granddaughter in the fifth
degree of the mighty duke Oslac, who formerly lived in the

‘* fiourne


time of king Edgar), had a son, Howard^’ by name, at this
period a young man remarkable for his strength of body. He
was tall in person, and a youth of singular beauty, but too
fond of warfare, and of a spirit fierce and uncontrolled beyond
expression. In youthfiil sports and wrestling he also ma-
nifested such indomitable ardour, that many a time ‘* his hand
was against every man, and every man’s hand was against
him.”” The consequence was, that when the youths of simi-
lar age engaged in wrestling and other sports of a like nature,
if he could not gain a triumph over them all, and his fellows
did not offer him the laurel crown as the reward of victory, he
would very often obtain with the sword that which by the
mere strength of his arm he was unable.

For this reason, the neighbours made great complaints
against the youth, and so greatly did they provoke his father,
Leofric, against his own offspring, that, in the extreme bitter-
ness of his anger, he discovered to king Edward many youth-
ful pranks which he had played off upon his father, of a nature
that could not be borne, and acts of excessive violence against
his neighbours ; and thus, as though he had been his enemy,
he procured his outlawry.

This most valiant youth, Heward, on being thus outlawed,
first repaired to I^orthumbria, then to Cornwall, thence to Ire-
land, and afterwards to Flanders ; and, everywhere behaving
himself with the greatest bravery, in a short time acquired a
most glorious and illustrious name. He exposed himself with
intrepidity to every kind of peril, and had the good fortune
always to escape ; in every military conflict he would ever op-
pose himself to tie bravest, and by means of his undaunted
spirit, proving victorious, left it a matter of doubt whether he
was more fortunate or more brave — so surely did he overcome
all his foes, so surely did he escape from the greatest dangers.
Becoming thus renowned and invincible in many and mighty
battles, hSs fame was even spread among his adversaries, and
his valiant deeds reaching even England, were sung there ; and,
by the wonderful grace of Grod, the feelings of his father and
mother, and all his relations, and neighbours, and the whole of
his fellow-countrymen, towards him were changed into those of
the most ardent affection ; a change wrought, no doubt, by tho
* More commonly called Hereward. ^^ Gen. xvi. 12.


right hand of the Most High, which substituted such kindly
feeKng for aversion so extreme.

At lengthy in Flanders, he married a damsel of noble birth,
TurMda by name, and by her had an only daughter ; who ii$
now surviving and living in our neighbourhood, and has been
lately married to an illustrious knight, one on the most inti-
mate terms with our monastery, Hugh Evermue byname, lord
of the vill of Depyng, having brought with her her patrimonial
estate of Brunne and ita appurtenances. Her mother, TurMda,
coming to England, with her husband, on seeing the mul-
tiplied changes of this transitory world, at last, with the per-
mission of her husband, abandoned all the pomps of the world,
and received the monastic habit, in our monastery of Croyland,
at the hands of Wulketul, the lord abbat. After having long
lived a most holy life under that garb, she died recently, hardly
four summers since, and lies buried in our monastery.

Her &ither, Howard, after returning with his said wife to
his native land, fought mighty battles, and underwent a thou-
sand perils, in engagements with both the king of England,
and his earls and barons, his chieftains and commanders. After
undergoing these numerous perils and showing the most un-
daunted prowess, as we still hear sung in our streets, and after
having with a powerful right-hand avenged his widowed mo-
ther, made peace with the king, and obtained his patrimonial
estate, he ended his days in peace, and was very recently, by
his especial choice, buried in our monastery, by the side of his
wife. But of these matters more hereafter.

In the year of our Lord, 1063, Harold, earl of Wessex, by
command of king Edward, conducted a most formidable expe-
dition against the Welch, who were constantly making inroads
and repeated depredations upon the neighbouring districts.
Seeing that the activity of the Welch proved remarkably effec-
tual against the more cumbrous movements of the English,
and that, after making an attack, they quickly retreated to the
woods, while our soldiers, being weighed down with their
arms, were unable to follow them, he ordered all his soldiers
to accustom themselves to wear armour made of boued leather,
and to use lighter arms. Upon this, the Welch were greatly
alarmed, and submitted in every respect, utterly throwing otf
all allegiance to their king. Griffin.


In the year of our Lord, 1065, Griffin, king of the Welch,
was slain by his people, and his head, together with the beak
of his ship, was sent to Harold ; on which, king Edward
gave to his brothers, Blethgent and Buthins, and, in considera-
tion of their swearing fealty and paying due service to the
kingdom of England each year, granted to them, Wales, to hold
the same in peace to themselves and to their posterity. In the
same year, king Edward, being now enfeebled by old age, and
perceiving that Edgar, the son of the lately-deceased Clito
Edward, was unsuited, both in disposition as well as body, for
occupying the royal tlurone, and that the numerous and wicked
progeny” of earl Godwin was daily waxing stronger and
stronger upon the earth, turned his thoughts to his kinsman,
William, duke of Normandy, and, by a distinct announcement,
appointed him his successor on the throne of England.

Eor duke William had at this period proved victorious in
every battle, and triumphant on all occasions over the king of
France ; and was preeminently distinguished among the earls
neighbouring to Kormandy, being invincible in the exercises
of arms, a most upright judge in the determination of suits,
and most religious and most devout in the service of God.
Hence it was that king Edward sent to him Eobert,*’ arch-
bishop of Canterbury, as envoy on his behalf, and informed
him, by the mouth of his archbishop, that, both as the due of
his relationship, as well as the reward of his virtues, he had
been named as the successor to his throne. In addition to this,
Harold, the master of the king’s household, went to Nor-
mandy, and not only made oath that he would, after the king*s
death, preserve for duke William the kingdom of England,
but even pledged his word that he would marry the daughter
of duke William ; after which, receiving magnificent presents,
he returned home.

In the year of our Lord, 1066, a comet appeared in the
heavens, which portended great changes in the kingdom,
the slaughter of iSae people, and multiplied miseries inflicted
on the land. On this occasion was repeated the rhyming
couplet —

* Ingalph is probably prompted here by his dislike for Harold.
^ Stigand, the then archbishop was only an usurper.

138 ingulph’s histohy op /he abbef of CEOYLANB. A.D. 10G6.

‘* Anno milleno sexageno quoque seno,
Anglorum metse crinem sensere cometse/’^

For, as the philosophers say, ” Those who see its tail, will
have bad fortune to bewail.*^

About the time of the [N’ativity of our Lord, king Edward
fell sick unto death, and [had the church of “Westminster con-
secrated on the feast of the Holy Innocents ; but, the malady,
daily increasing, he died on the vigil of the Epiphany of our
Lor4, and] was interred at Westminster, having nearly com-
pleted the twenty-fourth year of his reign. On the morrow
of the royal funeral, earl Harold, showing himself, contrary to
his dignity and his oath, a contemner of his plighted faith,
and wickedly forgetting his solemn promise, intruded himself
upon the royal throne, and being solemnly crowned by Aldred,
the archbishop of York, reigned nine months.

On this, William, duke of Normandy, sent ambassadors, de-
clared that Harold had violated his engagements, published
the terms of his agreement, demanded of him the perform-
ance of his promises, and requested that some fair terms should
be adopted. King Harold, however, would hardly listen to
the ambassadors, denied that he had violated his engagements,
denied the existence of any such agreement, excused himself
for non-performance of his promises, and scoffed and laughed
at all fair terms that were offered. While these negociations
were daily going on, and throughout the whole summer there
W61S nothing but messengers running to and fro without any re-
sult therefrom, William addressed his complaints to the pope,
and consulted him thereon, and, receiving encouragement from
him, was even presented by him with the standard of lawful

Harold, however, cared but little for the opinion of t]ae
pope, but visited his harbours, assembled his troops, and, in
especial, led an expedition against his brother, earl Tosti, who
was then repeatedly harassing his shores, and expelled him
thence. Just then, behold ! Harold, king of Norway, whom

*o This Leonine couplet is also given by Hoveden. It may be ren-
dered by the homely words —

” In the year one thousand and sixty-six,
A comet all England’s gaze did fix/’
*^ Literally, ” Whither it directs its hair, thither does it direct cala-
mity” — a pun being made on the resemblance of ” crinem,” the ” hair,”
or •’ tail,” of a comet, and ” discrimen,” ” danger.”


the said Tosti had joined, entered the mouth of the river
Humber with a fleet of two hundred ships ; and they all came
up the little river Ouse, nearly as far as York. The fleet
being there left under the care of a guard, they attacked thef
city of York, and took it, spreading slaughter and devastation
on every side. The two brothers, earls Edwin and Morcar,
collecting a small band of their fellow-countrymen, flew to
its assistance, but being unprovided with arms, were quickly
repulsed by the armed troops. At last, Harold, king of the
English, with a strong body of troops, attacked them in open
battle, at Stamford Bridge; and although the Norwegians
offered a very stout resistance, he at last gained the victory,
king Harold and earl Tosti, the leaders of the army, to-
gether with a vast multitude of the barbarians, being slain.
The guard left with the fleet, Olaf, son of king Harold, and
Paul, earl of the Orkneys, together with a fleet of twenty ships
only, were the only persons left at liberty, and allowed to re-
turn home.

But while Harold was exulting in this victory gained over
the Norwegians, news was being daily brought by fresh mes-
sengers that the Kormans had effected a landing in the southern
parts of the kingdom. The king, overjoyed at the victory of
yesterday, dreamed that similar fortune would attend him in
foture. He, therefore, applied the spur, and outstripped all
Mb people, nor was he attended by any part of his whole army,
except a very few persons. Arriving with all speed at Hastings,
and collecting there a miscellaneous rout of the country-people,
he refused to await the arrival of his army, but employed
them, raw and undisciplined as they were, for his troops, and
80 drew up his line of battle. The fates urging him on, upon
the following day he engaged with the duke, and fighting with
the greatest valour, remained unconquered throughout the
vhole day until the evening. Eepeatedly engaging hand to
hand with the foe, like a compion soldier, and laying about
him Taott stoutly, right and left, he fought on, till at last, just at
twilight, he fell, struck by an arrow, on a little eminence,
▼hither he had rallied his men. There fell king Harold, and
his earls, his brothers Gurth and Lefwin, and all the rest of
the nobles of England in his army.

The most victorious duke William, having now obtained the
palm of conquest, after having in a short time traversed the
Western coasts of England, attended bj- numerous bishops,

140 htgulf&’s histobt ot the abbey of croyulvd. a.d. 1066.

proceeded to London; and was jojfdlly received there, and, amid
multiplied acclamations, decle^red king. On the day of the
Nativity of our Lord, he was crowned hy archhishop Aldred,
and ascended the royal throne. For he was unwilling to have
the duties of the coronation performed hy archhishop Stigand
(to whose dignity that duty ought hy right to helong), hecause
he had heard that it was aUeged hy the pope, the successor of
the Apostles, that he had not received the pall canonically
This same Stigand had resigned the hishopric of East Anglia,^
and, ahusing the sunple-mindedness of a most upright king,
and thinking that he might hy money pervert all right, had
seized upon the see of Winchester; and then, while arch-
hishop Sohert was still living, had ascended the archiepiscopal
chair of Canterhury, still retaining in his hands the hishopric
of Winchester. Being accused of this, and publicly condemned,
he was afterwards deposed at a synod held at Winchester ; on
which, that most reverend patriarch, the ahhat of Caen, Master
Lanfranc, a person esteemed most holy for his religious charac-
ter, a [most praiseworthy and] famous professor of all liberal
arts, and one well versed in temporal matters, was canonically
consecrated archbishop of Canterbury. But more of this

Many of the chief men of the land, for some time, offered
resistance to William, the new king, but, being afterwards
crushed by his might and overcome, tiiey at last submitted to
the sway of the Kormans. Among these, the before-named
brothers, earls Edwin and Morcar, were both slain by stra-
tc^m ; Eoger, earl of Hereford, was condemned to perpetual
imprisonment ; Eadulph, earl of Suffolk, was driven from the
country ; earl Waldev was secured by William giving him his
niece in marriage; Agelwin, bishop of Durham, was impri-
soned at Abingdon, and his brother and predecessor, Egehric,
was, in like manner, incarcerated at Westminster ; wMle all
the rest who made resistance were either deposed and de-
prived of their prelacies, driven beyond sea and exiled, or dis-
tributed through the monasteries, there to be imprisoned^ or
else, at last, unwillingly bowed their heads to the new king.
I am hurriedly and summarily making mention, in this
way, of the exploits of this most glorious king, because I am
unable here to follow him year by year, and to set forth his
progress step by step. The king then proceeded to distribute
^ The bishopric of Helmham.


among his Normans the earldoms, baronies, bishoprics, and
prelacies of all the land, and would hardly allow any English*
man to attain any honorable position, or to hold an office that
Conferred any power.

Herward, who has been previously mentioned, was the only
one of them who enjoyed^ a prosperous end. Por, on hearing,
in Flanders, that the land of England was subjugated by
foreigners, and that his own paternal inheritance, on the death
of his father, Leofiic, had been presented by the royal muni-
ficence to a certain Norman, while his widowed mother was
being afflicted by many injuries and the greatest insults ; he was
touched with the most becoming grie^ and, accompanied by
Turfiida, his wife, flew to Englwid, where, collecting no
despicable band of his kinsmen, armed with the sword he
rushed with the speed of lightning upon the persecutors of his
mother, and thrust them out and drove them afar from his
inheritance. Eeflecting that he was in command of men
of the greatest bravery, and some of those, knights, while he
himself had not yet, according to military usage, been lawfully
girt with the belt ; he took with him some few novices of his
band who were, together with himself, to be lawfully conse-
crated to knighthood, and repaired to his uncle. Brand by
name, who was at that time abbat of Burgh, a very religious
man, and (as I have heard from my predecessor, TJlfketul, the
lord abbat, and many others) one very much devoted to alms-
giving to the poor, and adorned with every virtue. Here,
after pre&cing with a confession of all his sins, and receiving
absolution thereof, he most urgently entreated that he might
be made a knight. For it was the custom of the English,
tbat he who was about to be lawfrdly consecrated a kaight
should, the evening before the day of his consecration, with
contrition and compunction, make confession of all his sins»
before some bishop, abbat, monk, or priest, and should, after
being absolved, pass the night in a church, giving himself up
to prayer, devotion, and mortification. On the following day
be was to hear mass, and to make offering of a sword upon the
altar, and, after the Gospel, the priest was to bless the sword,
and, with his blessing, to lay it upon the neck of the knight;
on which, after having communicated at the same mass in the
naed mysteries of Christ, he became a lawful knight. The
^ ** Remarmurabat” is perha]^ a misprint for another word.


Kormans held in abomination this mode of consecrating a
knight, and did not consider snch a person to be a lawful
knight^ but a mere tardy trooper, and a degenerate plebeian.

And not only in this custom, but in many others as well,
^d the I^ormans effect a change. For the l^ormans con-
demned the English method of executing deeds ; which, up to
the time of king Edward, had been confirmed by the subscription
of the faithful present, with golden crosses and other sacred
signs, and which chirographs they were in the habit of call-
ing ” charters.” The S’ormans were also in the habit of con-
firming deeds with wax impressions, made by the especial
seal of each person, with the subscription thereto of three or
four witnesses then present. At first, many estates were even
transferred simply by word of mouth, without writing or
charter, and only with the sword, helmet, horn, or cup of the
owner ; while many tenements were conveyed with a spur, a
body-scraper, a bow, and some with an arrow. This, how-
ever, was only the case at the beginning of this reign, for in
fi^fter-years the custom was changed.

So inveterately did the Normans at this period detest the
English, that whatever the amount of their merits might be,
they were excluded from all dignities ; and foreigners, who
were far less fitted, be they of any other nation whatever un-
der heaven, would have been gladly chosen instead of them.
The very language even they abhorred with such intensity,
that the laws of the land and the statutes of the English kings
were treated of in the Latin tongue; and even in the very
schools, the rudiments of grammar were imparted to the chil-
dren in French and not in English. The English mode of
writing was also abandoned, and the French manner adopted
in charters and in all books. But enough of these matters.

When the earls above-named were making resistance to the
renowned king WiUiam, holding possession, together with
many other nobles who were similarly disinherited, of the fens
of Ely, they sent a speedy messenger to fetch Herward; no
whose arrival, he was made leader in the warfare and chief
of the troops ; upon which, he performed so many glorious and
warlike exploits, was so often victorious over his adversaries,
eluded them on so many occasions, that he earned lasting
praise, because he upheld the falling condition of his
rained country as long as he could, and did not permit [his


countrymen] to go unrevenged to the shades below. The rest
of the nobles, surrendering themselves to the king, endea-
voured to gain favour, while he was the only one who utterly
refused to do so, and deferred his submission, adopting some
new course.

At this season, Brand, abbat of Burgh, the before-named
uncle of Herward, departed this life, on which, Thorold, a
foreigner, succeeded him on the presentation of king William.
Herward, being vexed that a foreigner should rule over his
kinsmen and acquaintances, attacked Burgh, and put the aibhaX,
to flight ; and although the lord abbat Thorold brought thither
to defend him, Ivo Taillebois, at that time a most powerful
Norman, and lord of the whole of BLoyland in that vicinity,
having received it from the king, he took him prisoner in a
pitched battle, but afterwards set him at liberty, on his ran-
som by payment of a large sum of money, and allowed him to
return home.

To this Ivo Taillebois, after the death of the two brothers
and earls before-named, Edwin and Morcar, the renowned
Idng William had given their sister Lucia in marriage, together
with all the lands and tenements which had belonged to them ;
and as these mostly lay in Hoyland, all the people of that dis-
trict honored him with the greatest attention, and supplicated
him as their lord on bended knees. Although they bestowed
Tipon him all the honors they possibly could^ and all the ser-
vices they were bound, still he did not, repaying that confidence,
show any love for them ; but tortured and harassed, worried
and annoyed, incarcerated and tormented them, every day
loaded them with fresh burdens, and, by his cruelty, compelled
most of them to sell all their property, and seek other coun-
tries. But against our monastery and all the people of Croy-
land, he was, by the instigation of the devil, aroused to suoh
an extreme pitch of fiiry, that he would follow the various
animals of the people of Croyland in the marshes with his
dogs, drive them to a great distance, drown them in the lakes,
mutilate some in the tails, others in the ears ; while often, by
the breaking the backs and the legs of the beasts of burden,
he would render them utterly useless.

He also repeatedly attempted, to the utmost of his ability,
to cause the ruin of the lord XJlf ketul, my predecessor, who was
at that time abbat, and at lafit, by Mq accusations, caused him

144 INOULPH’s HISTOHY of the abbey op CROYLAND. A.D. 1071.

to be deposed; and, after his deposition, most unrighteoasiyliad
him shut up in the convent of Glastonbury, that he might not
enjoy any solace whatever by being in his own country. But
more of this hereafter.

Against our cell** also, and our brethren, his neighbours,
the prior and his brother monks, who lived within the gates
thereof, and dwelt the whole day in his presence, he raged
with such tyrannical and frantic fury, that he would many a
time lame their cattle, oxen as well as horses, would daily
impound their sheep and poultry, and frequently strike down,
kill, and destroy their swine and pigs ; while, at the same
time, the servants of the prior were oppressed in the earl’s
court with insupportable exactions, were often assaulted in
the highways with swords and staves, and sometimes killed.

Consequently, the prior and the monks, after entreaties and
presents and gifts innumerable to his servants, and after they
had taken every measure that they deemed necessary, found
that their exertions were of no avail, but that the wicked-
ness of the tyrant was always on the increase, and the malice
of his servants only gained additional strength: upon which,
they took with them their holy chalices, books, and beds, and
left their cell in the hand of the Lord, and then, shaking the
dust from off their feet against these sons of fire eternal, re*
turned to their monastery at Croyland.

From this time forward, they sent each day to the wooden^
chapel of Saint Mary, a single monk of Croyland, who was
there to perform Divine service for the people ; at last, how-
ever, both abbat Wulketul, as well as the whole of his con-
vent, thinking that this was an immense labour and weari-
some beyond their strength, by common consent determined
that a monk should be sent on alternate days only. After this
had been done for some time, (as is well known among all the
people of those parts), on the feast of Saint Lucia the Virgin,
early in the morning a mighty tempest arose, just like a flood
rushing on against a ship, and the lord Hanerius, a venerable
old man of remarkable piety, being the monk who was so
sent, was drowned at Wodelode. Being alarmed at so great
a misfortune and exceedingly terrified thereat, all the monks
of the monastery of Croyland ceased for a long period to send
any person. Ab for earl Ivo, being greatiy overjoyed that the
^ At Spalding.


Lord even seemed, as it were, to be lighting with him against
our monastery, he sent to Angers, to Natalis, lord abbat of Saint
Nicholas, and entreated him to send to him some monks ; at
the same time promising and engaging that he would have a
fair and sufficient cell prepared and biult for one prior and five
monks in his viU of Spalding, and amply endowed with lands
and tenements. Accordingly, the monks of Angers came and
took possession of our cell, and thus, before our very eyes,
do foreigners devour our lands. Upon Wulketul, the lord ab-
bat, making complaint hereof in the king’s court, all the Nor-
mans, leaguing together, justified and palliated the acts of
robbery, oppression, and slaughter, together with all the
other injuries, of which Ivo Taillebois had been guilty against
the people of Croyland ; and just as on the body of Behemoth,
” scale is joined to scale,” ^ so did they stop up every breath
of truth, [and, as though ** sinews of his stones wrapped to-
gether,”*® defended one another a thousand ways].

To add to the calamities of Croyland, the cruel execution of
earl Waldev also took place at this time, a person who had
shewn himself most kindly disposed towards all the religious,
and an especial and most excellent friend to the monastery of
Croyland ; and, although the venerable archbishop Lanfranc,
his confessor, asserted that he was utterly innocent of all par-
ticipation in the rising and conspiracy, and that if he died on
that account, he would be a martyr, by reason of his inno-
cence ; still, as his most impious wife desired to contract a new
marriage, and therefore most wickedly hurried on his destruc-
tion, while certain Normans were avariciously intent upon his
earldoms of Northampton and Huntingdon, (and especially the
Anjouin earl Ivo TaiUebois, who was most anxious to possess
his lands and tenements, which were very numerous in all parts
of England, and therefore thirsted for his blood); though
innocent and guiltless, he was beheaded at Winchester, on the
day before the calends of June, and the body of the martyr
was immediately buried there, beneath the humble sod.

However, after the lapse of fifteen days, by the king’s per-
mission, the body of the [deceased] martyr was raised from the
tomb by the venerable abbat Wulketul, and was found to be

^ He alludes to Job xli. 17 ; but these words are there used in reference
to Leviathan, and not Behemoth.
” Job xL 17. This is said in reference to Behemoth;



fresh, and sprinkled with blood which seemed to be just shed,
as though he had been slain on that same day ; upon which,
he was with all due respect carried to Croyland, and was
honorably buried in the chapter-house of that monastery.
When the Lord, wondrous in His Saints through the might
of His miracles, and for ever to be praised, gave signs here to
show the innocence of His martyr, his relict, Juditha, hearing
the mighty works of Christ, came to the tomb of her husband,
and in our sight offered a pall of silk upon his tomb ; upon which,
just as though it had been torn off by the hands of some person,
it flew to a distance from the tomb.

At this time, also, the manor of Bemake, which he had
[lately] presented to our monastery, was taken from us, and by
the king’s command confiscated, in order to be presented, to-
gether with the rest of his lands lying near the Trent, as the
marriage portion of [Juditha], that most wicked Jezebel, his
late wife. A short time after this, when the renowned king
William was desirous to give his said niece in marriage to a
certain Norman, of noble birth, by name Simon of Senlis,
she declined his hand, because the said Simon halted in one
leg. The king, being excessively enraged at this, gave the
earldom of Huntingdon, with all the lands pertaining thereto,
to the said Simon ; on which, dreading the wrath of the king,
accompanied by her daughters she took to flight, and being
utterly despised, and held in extreme hatred by all through
the just judgment of God, concealed herself a long time in
various spots and hiding-places.

At length, however, this wretched woman confessed her
wickedness, and shewed extreme penitence for the nefarious
destruction of her husband ; and so remained unmarried to
the end, being from that time an object of suspicion to all,
and deservedly despised. Earl Simon, however, before-named,
after much deliberation, took her eldest daughter, Matilda by
name, to wife, by whom he had offspring, Simon, Waldev, and
Matilda, who are still young and in their infancy. Alice, his
wife’s sister, was given by the said earl Simon to that most
illustrious man, Eodolph of Toumay, together with the whole
lordship of Wilchamstowe, which had formerly belonged to
her father, earl Waldev. By her the said Rodolph has issue,
but with the names of the children I am not at present ac-
quainted. This Simon, earl of Huntingdon and Northampton,


built the castle at ^Northampton and the monastery of Saint
Andrew, not far from the said castle. These particulars, as to
the wife and offspring of this holy martyr, I think it sufficient
for the present to state.

The venerable abbat “Wulketul, shortly after the burial of
the holy martyr, openly diBclosed to his neighbours, and pub-
licly made known to all, the miracles of God which the Lord
wrought daily for His Saint. The !N”ormans, being very indig-
nant at this, and unjustly enraged against this ri^teous man,
and Ivo Taillebois, in especial, persecuting him with more cm-
relenting fury than all, the rest, they had him summoned to
appear in person at the next council to be held at London ; and
on the day of his appearance, having entered into a nefarious
combination against him for the becoming reverence which he
had shown for the holy martyr, iniquitously accused him
of idolatry, and still more iniquitously deprived him of the
care of the monastery ; and after so depriving him, most ini-
quitous of all, condemned him to be immured in the convent
of Glastonbury, under the most cruel abbat Thurstan, far from
Ms friends and his native place. The venerable father, abbat
Wulketul, being thus deprived of the rule of the pastoral office,
and all the treasures of his monastery carried off and con-
fiscated to the royal use, a substitution was made in his place
in my own humble person.

Now I, Ingulph, the humble servant of Saint Guthlac and
of his monastery of Croyland, a native of England, and the
son of parents who were [citizens] of the most beauteous city
of London, being in my tender years destined for the pursuits
of literature, was sent to study, first at Westminster, and after-
wards at Oxford. After I had made progress beyond most of
my fellows in mastering Aristotle, I also clothed myself down
to the heels with the First and Second Ehetoric of fully. On
growing to be a young man, I loathed the narrow means of
my parents, and daily longed with the most ardent desire to
leave my paternal home, and, sighing for the palaces of kings
or princes, to clothe myself in soft and pompous raiment. And
behold ! jnst at this time William, our present renowned king
of England, who was then as yet duke of l^ormandy only,
came over with a great retinue of followers to London, for tlie
purpose of having an interview with Edward, the then king
of England. Lnmediately enrolling myself in the number of

l2 ,


these, I everted myself in the performance of all kinds of
weighty matters of business ; and after having brought many
affairs to a prosperous issue, was speedily brought to the notice
of that most illustrious duke, and, becoming a very great fa-
vourite with him, returned with him to Normandy.

Being there appointed his secretary, at my own will I ruled
the whole of the duke’s court, incurring thereby the envy of
some, while those whom I chose I humbled, and those whom
I thought fit I exalted. Impelled onward by the natural ardour
of youth, notwithstanding my having gained this high position,
although thus elevated above my original station, I still grew
weary ; and in my ambition, was always most ardently longing,
with my unstable feelings, and with aspirations so eager, that
I am forced to blush at the acknowledgment, to obtain a station
even still more elevated. Just then, it was noised about, and
indeed universally spread throughout Normandy, that many
archbishops of the Empire, together with some other of the
princes of the land, were desirous, for the well-being of their
souls, with all due devoutness to proceed on a pil^image to

Upon this, several of the household of the duke, both knights
as well as clerks, among whom I was the first and foremost,
with the permission and good-will of our master, the duke,
made preparation for setting out on the said journey ; and ac-
cordingly, taking the road for Germany, being more than thirty
horsemen in number, we joined his lordship [the archbishop] of
Mentz. All were in a state of preparation for the journey,
and in company with their lordships, the bishops, there were
reckoned seven thousand persons, who prosperously traversed
numerous regions, and at last arrived at Constantinople. Here,
addressing our prayers to its emperor, Alexius,^ we saw the
[church of] Saint Sophia, and kissed its sanctuaries, so infi-
nite in number.

Departing thence, and taking our way through Lycia, we fell
into the hands of Arabian robbers, and, being plundered of an
immense amount of money, and many of us being put to death,
only escaped with the greatest difficulty and at the extreme
peril of our lives, and at length joyously made our entrance
into the much longed for city of Jerusalem. We were received
by Soplironius, the then Patriarch, a man venerable for

^ An anachronism ; as Alexius I. did not begin to reign tiU lOtil, oc
twenty-two years after the death of Sophronius.

A.D. 1051. ZNOTJLPH TlSrrS BOME. 149

his grey hairs, and most holy and most upright, with a great
crash of cymbals and an immense blaze of torches, at the most
divine Church of the most Holy Sepulchre, a solemn procession
being formed, of Latins as well as Syrians. What prayers we
here uttered, what tears we shed, what sighs we heaved, the
iuhabitant thereof, our Lord Jesus Christ, alone knowetH.
And so being led from the most glorious Sepulchre of Christ to
visit the other holy places of the city, we beheld with tearful
eyes an infinite number of holy churches and of oratoriea
which the Sultan Achym had lately destroyed. With abun-
dant tears we testified our most ardent sympathies for the
ruins of the most holy city as well without as within ; and
after having given no small sum of money for the restoration
of some parts, sighed with the most eager devotion to go forth
into the country, to dip ourselves in the most holy Jordan,
and to kiss all die footsteps of Christ.

But some robbers of Arabs, who kept a watch upon all the
roads, would not allow us, in consequence of their fierce and
countiess multitudes, to wander to any distance from the city.
Accordingly, on the arrival of spring, a fieet of Genoese ships
arrived in the port of Joppa. On board of these we all em-
barked, after the Christian merchants had exchanged their
wares throughout the maritime cities, and had in like manner
paid their adoration to the holy places, and so committed our-
selves to the sea. After being tossed by waves and storms in-
numerable, we arrived at last at Brundusium, and then making
a prosperous journey through Apulia, repaired to Eome, where
we kissed the thresholds of the holy Apostles Peter and Paul,
and at all the stations the most numerous monuments of the
holy Martyrs. Then the archbishops and other princes of the
Empire returned to Germany, taking the road to the right,
while we turned to the left on our way to France, taking leave
of each other, with kind words and kisses of inexpressible fer-
vency on both sides. And thus at last, instead of our number
of thirty horsemen who took our departure from I^ormandy in
excellent condition, hardly twenty returned, poor pilgrims and
^ on foot, attenuated and fandshed in the extreme.

After all my companions had quickly dispersed and made

their way each to his own home, in order that I might not in

^ture be involved in the vanities of this world, to keep my

house thenceforth swept clean,*’ and preserve it closely shut

^ Alluding to St. Matthew xii. 44, and St. Luke xi. 25.

150 IXGITLPH’s HISTOET of the abbey of CROYLAND. f..T>. 1075-

against the seven spirits of wickedness, I took refuge in the
holy convent of Fontenelle.’*® Here I received the monastic
habit from the venerable father abbat Gerbert, and with un-
wearied diligence applied myself to cleanse away and make
amends for the errors of my yonth and all my ignorances,
according as the grace of the Holy Spirit inspired me to do.
At length, after the lapse of not a few years, on the decease of
the venerable prior, the lord Winotus, my venerable father,
the lord abbat Gerbert, smnmoned my humble self to be the
sharer of his anxieties, and, though unworthy and reluctant,
at last made and appointed me prior of his monastery, bound,
as I was, by the ties of duty, to obey.

At this time, my lord William, the renowned duke of Nor-
mandy, hearing by his daily messengers of the death of his
kinsman, Edward, the most pious king of England, was long
waiting at the port of Saint Valery for a favourable wind, it
being his intention to cross over with a most valiant army, in
order to assert his rights. Thither I then repaired with the
subsidy offered by my lord the abbat, and, having watched for
a suitable time for so doing, presented twelve chosen )’outh8,
on horses, and supplied with arms, together with a hundred
marks for their expenses, as his contribution, on behalf of
my father the abbat. Being most abundantly thanked for so
welcome a present, and having, by the most munificent bounty
of the duke, obtained his charter of donation for ever to our
house of the whole of the vineyards of Carville, overjoyed
and exulting, I returned to our monastery. The duke, in the
meantime, crossed over the sea, having a most prosperous
voyage, and, as I have previously stated, reduced England to
subjection. He ever after displayed the most ardent affection
for our abbey of Fontenelle, and showed abundant honor and
respect both to my lord the abbat, as well as all the brethren
of the said monastery, whenever he met them.

Accordingly, in the course of some years, on the venerable
father TVulketul, the lord abbat of Croyland, my predecessor,
being deposed from the duties of the pastoral office, my master,
the renowned king William, sending a messenger to the vene-
rable father before-named, Gerbert, my lord abbat, to enquire
for my humble self, obtained that which he sought ; and so
placed me^ with mingled feelings, of extreme sorrow at as-
^ In Noriuaiidy.

A.D. 1075. rsGULPn leholds a TISIO^. 151

8ummg a burden of such heavy responsibility, and of extreme
delight at seeing myself transferred to my native soil, in the
most holy Temple of Christ, upon the candlestick of the church
of Croyland. Both my venerable abbat as well as all the rest
of the holy community of the brethren, suppliantly and repeat-
edly entreated me, when about to set out for those parts, that
I would always preserve a grateful recollection of my holy
nest, and would never dismiss my mother from my thoughts.
They also requested that I would say a good word for them
[against all men] in presence of my lord the king, whose con-
versation, they supposed, I should frequently enjoy ; as, living
with him in England, I should often be in his presence, and
sometimes a guest at his table. They also begged that I would
take away with me something from the tombs of the Saints,
many of whom rest in that monastery, by way of a lasting
remembrance of it, to the end that my devoutness might in-
crease towards God, and my affection for the place continue.

Accordingly, I passed a night in the church, before the
shrines of the Saints there buried, namely, Wandragesil, the
abbat, and Wulfran and Ausbert, the bishops, and there
I poured forth my heart; and, with becoming devoutness,
entreated that the Lord would deign to guide my steps, through
the merits and prayers of my said patrons. It was the vigil
of Saint Andrew the Apostle, and in its course midnight had
now nearly passed, when, after the repetition of many prayers,
and after reading the victorious passion of the said Holy
Apostle, sleep suddenly creeping upon me, I reclined on my
left side against the lectern, which was standing before me.

And now, behold ! I saw a certain abbat, of remarkably
handsome features, attended by two most reverend bishops,
one on either side, proceed from the altar behind, and meet, in
the middle of the choir, the same number of Saints ; of whom
two were reftdgent with priests’ stoles, while the third, whom
they escorted between them with the greatest veneration,
appeared to be an earl most gorgeously arrayed, who wore a
tore of gold on his neck. When they had saluted each other,
and had finished the Lord’s prayer, one of the bishops ad-
dressed me, and anxiously requested and ordered me to lead
Ms guests to the hostrey,”** and diligently minister to their
Wants, while, at the same time, I Avas most carefully to
*9 Or guest-hall.


watch the fire of the hostrey, until such time as they
should send for me : the rest of the holy men making simikr
requests of me. While I was hesitating for some little time to
comply with their requests, the holy hishop added these words:
” Go thy way, and, of a truth, my right hand shall always he
with thee;” upon which, the vision disappeared, and, the
morning vigils to he paid to the Apostle hefore-named now
approaching, our sacrist rang the hell to awake the hrethren.

Now, of the interpretation of this vision I was for many
years utterly ignorant, until, having come into these parts, and
reflecting upon the said vision, I gathered from it the follow-
ing prognostics : — The two bishops were the two patrons of
the convent of Fontenelle, Wulfran and Ausbert, while the
abbat in the middle was Saint Wandragesil, the abbat and
founder of that place, and the first inhabitant thereof: they
proceeded from the altar behind me, because there their holy
bodies repose. The two who met them, clad in priests’ stoles,
were Saint Guthlac and Saint Neot, boUi most holy priests of
Gk>d, and especial patrons of Croyland ; while the earl in the
middle, who was decorated with a golden tore around his neck,
was the most holy martyr, earl Waldev, who, though most
innocent, was beheaded, and entombed in that monastery. To
the service of these I was appointed, when I assumed the
charge of the pastoral office in this -convent of Croyland.
The hand of the holy bishop Wulfran still remains with me,
because I brought away with me the bone of his right arm,
which, as a present from the whole convent, I had received as
a lasting memorial thereof.

Accordingly, having been thus presented with the said holy
arm, I came to London to my lord the king ; where being in-
vested with the staff of the pastoral office of the monastery of
Croyland, after being admitted, and having received the bene-
diction from the venerable father, archbishop Lanfrunc, and the
most reverend bishop of Lincoln on the day of the Nativity
of our Lord, I made my first entrance into Croyland on the
Conversion of Saint Paul the Apostle, and was installed there
in the year of our Lord, 1076.

I found in this monastery [of Croyland], of which, by the
will of God, I am a servant, sixty-two monks, of whom four
were lay brethren, besides monks of other monasteries, who
were making profession of the monastic life there, togeljier


with those of our chapter. All these, when they came, had
stalls in our choir, seats in our refectory, and beds in our dor-
mitory. These, too, exceeded one huncbed in number, and just
when they pleased [they came, and just when they pleased,] some after the expiration of half a year, and some after a
whole year, they returned to their own monasteries ; and this,
more especially in the time of war, and when the least whirl-
wind muttered in the time of peace ; for then, like bees re-
turning to their hives when it threatens rain, so did they
flock from every quarter to Croyland. At this time, the num-
ber of those thus united with us in making monastic profes-
sion were, fix)m Thomey ten, from Burgh six, from Eamsey
eight, from Ely three, from Saint Edmund’s nine, from Saint
Alban’s twelve, fix)m Westminster ten, from Saint Andrew^s
at I^orthampton two, from Christ Church at Norwich four-
teen, from Tetford fifteen, fi^m Coventry seven, from Saint
Mary without York six, from Saint Mary Stowe*° ten, from
lllichelney six, and from Malmesbury five; besides those
who were arriving every day, and others who were always
staying with us, and who, having seen the safe situation of the
locality, and the mutual affection of the brethren of Croyland,
most devoutly entreated that they might be enrolled in our
community ; while that hospitality, which was innate in our
monastery from ancient times, seldom or never repulsed any one
who knocked.

Accordingly, on my arrival at the monastery, finding all
in a most desolate condition, and humbled even to despair, on
account of the various misfortunes which had from every quarter
depressed the house, I consulted both laymen, as well as the
literate monks, who were acquainted with the means of
the convent, by what aids or resources they had found that in
former years the monastery was relieved ; and most earnestly
requested them truly and simply to inform me thereon, and on
no account whatever to conceal fr*om my notice anything that
they knew of as being requisite to be known by me.

On this, they made answer, that one Asford of Helieston,
who was formerly the bailiff of the lord abbat Wulketul, my
immediate predecessor, had for many years had the manage-
ment of the manors and rents of the whole monastery,
^ made delivery of the lands and tenements thereof to the
^ffmers, had received the rents and profits thereof, and had
^ In Lincohishire.

154 inqulph’s histoky oi the abbey of CROYLANP. A.D. 1076.

psdd all the workmen of the convent entirely at his own will
and pleasure ; that he had grown enormously rich, and had but
very seldom repaired the dilapidations of the monastery ; that
he was the only one who knew the real state of our mo-
nastery, and that it was in his power alone to afford the desired

I, Ingulph, on hearing this, had this Asford sent for, and,
simply disclosing to him the state of the monastery, informed
him that it stood greatly in need of his advice and assistance,
and, with many prayers and promises, hegged and entreated
him, and laboured with the greatest earnestness to work upon
his good feelings to such a degree as to prompt him to render
us assistance : besides which, I explained to him my state of
ignorance, and the fact of my having so recently come, and
fully disclosed to him my wretched’ state, as well as that of
the whole monastery, unless he should give us a helping hand.
To all this he showed himself as hard as iron, and as impene-
trable as adamant ; and just in the same way that ” the adder
is deaf, and stops its ears,”” so did he despise my entreaties,
laugh at my promises, and, as though he took a pleasure in the
misfortunes of the monastery, set at nought all my advice.

On percei^dng this, and seeing into the matter more dis-
tinctly, I persisted in humbly requesting that the accounts of
his management of all our lands and tenements^^ should be
delivered to me ; and I urgently and repeatedly entreated him
to inform me from which of the vills in the neighbourhood our
revenues arose. Being at length induced by great promises,
after having mentioned many tenements throughout the vills
belonging to the monastery, he came at last to that of Helieston,
on which he not only concealed what were our rents there, but,
with multiplied perjuries, all but made oath that our tenements
belonged to himself, and that he was in possession of them
by hereditary right. However, on our seniors steadfastly con-
tradicting him, and producing charters and the requisite docu-
ments, he laughed our rights to scorn, and, after much wran-
gling, promised that he would openly prove before the king’s
justices that those tenements were his paternal property, and
80 took his departure from our convent.

Accordingly, on our putting in our claim to the said tene-

*i Alluding to Psalm Ivi. 4,

^’^ ** Tenementis^^’ seems a preferable reading to ” monumentb.**

A.D. lU/G. DEATH OF A8F0BD. 155

raents before the king’s servants, a day was appointed for the
trial at Stamford. On that day, being about to appear before
the king’s justices on the business of the monastery, I com-
mended myself to the prayers of my brethren, and putting
my trust in the Lord, rode to Stamford : he too, confiding in
the greatness of his riches, and placing all his hopes in his
treasures of money, was riding on, stiff-necked, as he was,
against Gk)d, when, lo and behold ! his horse striking against
a stumbling-block of a stone that lay in the middle of the road,
threw his rider and broke his neck, and so sent to hell the
fioul of him who was thus goingin his pride to oppose the Lord.
When news of this was brought to the king’s court, and to us
who were at Stamford awaiting the trial, as we did not as j’ct
place full belief in such an accident having happened, another
day was appointed [for the trial].

On the following day, when he was being carried by his
neighbours and relatives on a bier towards the convent of
Burgh to be buried, a place which he had often [before] named as that of his sepulture, those who carried it had to
pass over ten acres [of the meadow land] belonging to our mo-
nastery, to which he in his lifetime had laid claim ; when,
behold ! a most dense cloud covered the sun in his course, and
brought on, as it were, the shades of night, while the heavens
poured forth such a deluge of rain, that, from the flowing of
the waters, the days of ^oah were thought to have come over
again ; in addition to which, the bier suddenly broke down,
and the body of the deceased, falling to the ground, was for sr
long time rolled about in the filthy mud. On seeing this,
those who carried him acknowledged the hand of the Lord, and
openly confessed their injustice ; while his relations and neigh-
bours came running to meet us, who at the same moment had
arrived from Stamford, and throwing themselves at our feet,
entreated that pardon might be granted them for so outrageous
an injury attended by the manifest vengeance of God. Re-
turning thanks unto God and Saint Guthlac for their assistance,
we forgave them the injury they had done us, and received
from them our meadow land, all right to which they disclaimed,
together with all other things in full to which we laid claim,
and we have up to this present time remained in peaceable pos-
session of the same. Blessed be God in all things, who hath
returned to the unrighteous according to the works ^of his

156 iyGin.PH’8 niSTOET OF THE ABBEY OF CBOYLASJ), A.D. 1076.

hands, and who hath made foolish and rendered unstable the
counsels of his heart !

This vengeance of the Lord upon the adversaries of our mo«
nastery being circulated to a distance bj the lipa of all, and
terribly thundering into the ears of our rivals, there was no
one from that time forward who dared in any way to offend
the Lord our Defender, or who would presume thenceforth to
provoke Saint Guthlac to anger. £ut, on the contrary, Richard
de Bulos, who had married the daughter and heiress of Hugh
de Evermue, lord of Brunne and Depyng, and was a person
much devoted to agricultural pursuits, and took great delight
in the multitude of his cattle and sheep, being wi^ul, for tho
purpose of enlarging his vill of Depyng, to enclose a great
portion of the common marsh, and to sever the meadow lands
and pastures, would on no account presume so to do, without
the sanction of our monastery ; but, coming to us, with great
dutifiilness, he most pathetically entreated that in the name of
Christian charity the confirmation of our chapter might be
granted him. This we accordingly granted him, and con-
sented that his name and that of his wife should be inscribed
in the obituary of our brethren. [For he] bestowed twenty
marks of silver as an alms-gift upon our monastery, and most
deservedly obtained our permission to enclose as much as he
pleased of the common marshes ; on which, he enclosed the
whole of the land of the chapel of Saint Guthlac, which the
brethren of our monastery had erected there, while the said
viU belonged to us before the coming of the Danes, on the
east as far as Caredyk, and then passing Caredyk as far as
Cleylake beyond Crammor ; while he excluded the river Welland
by a very strong embankment, because every year it had, by
its continual inundations, overflowed nearly all the meadows
adjoining the banks of the said river; from which circum-
stance that vill had, in ancient times, received the name of
Depjmg, meaning ** the deep meadow.” Building upon the em-
bankment numerous tenements and cottages, in a short time
he formed a large vill, marked out gardens, and cultivated
fields; while, hj shutting out the river, he found in the
meadow-land which had lately been deep lakes and impassable
marshes, most fertile fields and desirable land, and out of sloughs
and bogs accursed made quite a pleasure garden. Having thus
formed a most fertile soil, he at the same time changed the


said chapel of Saint Guthlac into the parish church of his new
vill. To onr monastery he was always extremely well-disposed,
and proved himself with our lord the king a most prompt inter-
cessor for us on all occasions, and an assiduous promoter of our

As more prosperous times for us had now ensued, and the
condition of our monastery bore fiiiit most abundantly both in
matters temporal as well as spiritual, the Lord prospering us
and multiplying our Mends, I resolved to go to my lord the
king, and in some way or othcT procure some favour for the
lord Wulketul, my predecessor, who was still enduring exile
at Glastonbury. For I was fully convinced that, through long
usage and experience, he was perfectly acquainted with the
state of our monastery, and well knew of what our tenements
conasted, which lay dispersed over many counties, and had
been almost lost to us through the maliciousness of that most
wicked Asford ; while by myself, who was a stranger, they were
utterly undiscoverable.

Accordingly, I proceeded to London, and found there my
venerable masters and old friends, the most reverend arch-
bishop Lanfranc, and Odo, lord bishop of Bayeux and earl oi
Kent, and master of the palace, uterine brother of our lord
the king (by the advice and counsel of whom, both the king
as well as his kingdom in all respects were governed) ; and I
boldly disclosed to them the reason for my coming, at the same
time requesting the favour of their intercession with the king.
Other Mends and mediators also exerted themselves in my
behalf, among whom the before-named knight, Bichard Eulos,
the king’s chamberlain, gave especial assistance, in order that
they might ascertain the feelings of the king, our master, to-
wards my said predecessor, the lord Wulketul ; on which, they
found that his personal rancour towards him was much modi-
fied, but that he was inexorably determined that he should
not be promoted to any prelacy great or small, and most per-
tinacious in adhering to his original purpose.

Accordingly, at the intercession of my lords, the lord arch-
bishop of Canterbury, the king’s brother the lord bishop of
Bayeux, Bichard de Eulos, the king’s chamberlain, and many
others formerly known to me in Normandy, and connected
with me by terms of close intimacy, I obtained leave for him
to return from Glastonbury to Burgh ; on condition, however.

158 inqulph’s histoby op the abbey of CBOYI^ND. A-D. 1085.

that Iio was to reside there without having the slightest range*
or liberty to go into the country beyond it, and without hold-
ing any cure or office whatsoever ; and it was only permitted
that I should be at liberty, whenever it should seem good to
me, to send for him to Croyland, to give me information as to
the state of my monastery.

Having obtained this permission, I had him brought by
an honorable escort of horsemen from Glastonbury to Burgh,
and [afterwards sent for] from Burgh to Croyland ; on which,
seeing that this venerable person was worthy of all favour and
filial love, and was distinguished for his most holy piety, I had
him placed in his ancient stall ; nor did I, so long as he lived,
consider myself as being fully the husband, but always as a
sort of bride-man or steward, of the monastery. On perceiv-
ing my dutifulness, and that the love of his sons had through
no tribulations in ‘ any way swerved from their ancient kind-
liness of feeling, he restored to our monastery the chalice that
formerly belonged to his chapel, a breviary of the customs of
our church, a missal, a cup of silver, with a silver lid for the
same, together with twelve spoons of silver : he also promised
some other things, so soon as he should have the opportunity
of speaking to some persons who were formerly his servants.
I used to send for him two or three times a-year, with a pro-
per escort of servants, and often keep him with me a month,
sometimes half a year even ; and, as I showed him the greatest
respect in every place, as well in the choir as the refectory, I
found that, besides the information which he most readily
gave me as to the state of the whole monastery, so long as his
life lasted everything went well with me ; whereas, on his
decease at the end of ten years, numerous adversities befell
us every day.

He was deposed in the year from the Incarnation of our
Lord, 1075, and survived ten years; when^ being seized with
a sudden attack of paralysis, he sickened for four months, until
he died, being the whole of that time [almost] deprived of
speech, and unable to express his last wishes. He died on
tiie day of Saint Hieronymus the priest, in the year of our
Lord, 1085 ; some of our archives and jewels still remaining
at Burgh, unrestored to us, although he had repeatedly
promised to return and restore them to us, and, in his last

A.D. lOSo. oRionr of the winchesteb boll. 159

agonies, to the best of his ability, frequently signified to his,
brethren his wish that the same should be done.

To go back to a few years before this period, when Cnute,
king of Denmark, having collected a large fleet, was preparing
to invade England, the renowned king William, having levied
troops in all quarters throughout France, Germany, and Spain,
distributed the whole of them throughout the monasteries of
the whole kingdom, and especially had them quartered on
those convents which held their demesnes of the king exempt
from supplying him with troops. He accordingly sent six
knights and twenty-eight arbalisters [to take up their quar-
ters] at Croyland. At the same time, leading an army into
Northumbria, where the Danes had been in the habit of fre-
quently landing, he scoured the whole country, and almost
reduced it to a desert, rendering it uninhabitable many miles
for a long time after ; in order fiiat the enemy might not, on
coming, find provisions and so prolong his stay, but, being
compelled by hunger and want of food, might be forced speedily
to leave the country and return home. On the same occasion,
the illustrious king William also went beyond this district,
and, passing on to Scotland, compelled Malcolm, the king
thereof, to do homage to him, and to swear fealty to him, at

On his return to England, he commanded every one of its
people to do homage to him at London, and to swear fealty to
him against all men. He then proceeded to mark out the
land, so that there was not a hide of land in all England but
what he knew the value and the owner thereof; nor was there a
piece of water, or any place, but what the same was described in
the king’s roll ; while the rents and profits of the property
itself, and the possessor thereof, were set forth for the royal
notice by the trustworthy report of the valuers, who were
chosen out of every district to describe their own neighbour*
hood. These persons showed a kind and benevolent feeling
towards our monastery, and did not value the monastery at
its true revenue, nor yet at its exact extont, and thus, in their
compassion, took due precautions against the future exactions
»f the kings, as well as other burdens, and with the most atten-
tive benevolence made provision for our welfare. This register
Vas called the ” Winchester Koll,” and, in consequence of iti

160 iwgulph’s history of the abbey op CROYLAJSTD. A.D. 1085.

containing in full all the tenements throughout the whole
country, received from the English the name of * Domesday.’

King Alfred had formerly published a register of a similar
nature, and closely resembling it, in which he described the
whole land of England by counties, hundreds, and decuries, as
I have previously stated ; this too was called the ” “Winches-
ter Roll,” because it was deposited and kept at WinchesteiCy
that city being then the capital of his hereditary kingdom
of “Wessex, the most noble and illustrious among all the in-
dividual Idngdoms of England. In the later roll, which was
called the Winchester Roll, because it was published after the
example of the former one, there were described, not only the
counties, hundreds, decuries, woods, forests, and all the vills,
but throughout the whole territory it was stated how many
carucates of land there were, how many roods, how many
acres, what pasture lands there were, what marshes, what te-
nements, and who were the tenants thereof.

At this period I, myself, went to London, and, having, with
much labour and at no small expense, extracted and culled the
following tenements of ours from the two rolls before-men-
tioned, commonly known to the English by the name of
Domesday, I have determined to state the same, briefly at
least, for the information of posterity ; in most cases I shall
abbreviate, while in some I shall be more discursive, for the
full information of my successors. If any one of posterity
shall wish to read in preference word for word the account
of our property, as the same is stated more diffusely in the
said original rolls, then let him betake himself to those rolls,
and diligently examine the same ; and I only trust that he
will appreciate this short performance of mine, and will, from
his he£u:t, commend these my labours, seeing that I have so
carefully and succinctly collected and thrown together into this
form particulars so little known, so much dispersed, and ga-
thered out of such a mass of confusion.

In the first place, in Lincolnshire, at Croyland, in Ellowarp,”
Saint Guthlac had, and still has, woods and marshes foiir
leagues in length and three leagues in breadth. This was the
seat of the abbey in the time of king Ethelred, and it is free

M This is a mistake for “Blloe,” or *’ EUowwapp”—*’ the wapentake
of EUow.” The accounts here giyen mj considerably from those to bi
foond in Domesday.

A.J. 1085. lANDS OF THE MO.fA&TBET. 161

and absolved from all secular services. In Holeben and
Capelade, Saint Gnthlac had and has three camcates and six
bovates, assessed to payment of geld ; and now has there in
demesne one camcate, three villeins with half a carucate, and
twelve acres of meadow land : in the time of king Edward,
the value was twenty shillings in money. In like manner,
at Spalding, a berewick*’ of Croyland, he has two carucates of
land, assessed to payment of geld: the [arable] land being
one carucate and a half : here are seven villeins and four bor-
dars,** holding three carucates : in the time of king Edward,
it was valued at twenty shillings in money. In like manner,
Saint Gruthlac had, in the time of king Edward, at Pyncebek,
and stilL has, half a carucate, assessed to payment of geld.
In Kirton Warp,” in the berewick of Algar, Saint GuQilac
had and now has twelve bovates of land, assessed to payment
of geld ; ten bovates of the land being now waste, tlm)ugh
OYerflow of the sea. In Donnedyk, Saint Gnthlac had and
now has two carucates of land, assessed to payment of geld,
and two carucates, with right of Sach and Soch ; here is now
one carucate in demesne, and thirteen villeins, with one caru-
cate and twenty acres of meadow land. In the time of king
Edward, it was valued at twent}’ shillings in money. In like
manner [in Drayton], Saint Guthlac had and now has one ca-
rucate of land, assessed to payment of geld : the land consists
of one carucate ; the villeins here do not plough ; the four
salt-pits here are worth five shillings and fourpence ; there are
^ve acres of meadow land.

In Burtoft, Saint Guthlac had and now has one bovate of
land, with Sach and Soch, and the church of Sutterton, as
also, in the time of king Edward, the right of presentation in
the Soke of Donnedyk. Also, in Soudithing, in Hawardeshow
wapentake, in Bukenhale, Saint Guthlac had and now has
two camcates and a half, assessed to payment of geld : here is

“As he afterwards states, ‘* berewick” here means a ** manor ;” though
generally it signifies a member only, or portion of a manor, as a Till or
luunlet. See page 170.

^ “* Bordaiii.” These were probably mere bondmen, or cottagers of
>ome sort, but were evidently a distinct class from the ” vfllani.” They
were probably in a less servile condition, and had a bord or cottage, with
& tmill parcel of land. The origin, however, of the name is not accu-
‘•iely known.

” Wapentake is probably the correct reading.


one carucate in demesne, five villeins, two bordars, and eight
socmen,** holding one carucate ; twenty-six acres of meadow
land, and fifty acres of forest ; the seventy acres of forest, in the
time of king Edward, were valued at thirty shillings in money.
In like manner, in the Soke of Beltisford. Also, in Halyng-
ton. Saint Guthlac had and now has ten bovates of land, four
bovates at Juland, and twenty-two acres of meadow land.

tThe same] in the Soke of Tad. Also, in the wapentake of
Tons. In Langtofb, Saint Guthlac had and now has six cani-
cates, assessed to payment of geld ; the land here is six caru-
cates in demesne, that is to say, one carucate, and eight villeins,
with four bordars, and twenty socmen, holding five carucates
of [arable] land and one hundred acres of meadow land ; also,
two woods, with the property in a marsh, two leagues in
length, and two leagues in breadth : the arable land being fif-
teen quarantenes in length, and nine in breadth : in the time of
king Edward, they were valued at four pounds, [now] at sixty
shillings in money. The cut wood was valued at three shillings.
Also, in Baston, Saint Guthlac had and now has four ca-
rucates of land, assessed to payment of geld, there being four
carucates of land : there is now in demesne one carucate, and
five villeins, two bordars, and seven socmen, with two caru-
cates. Here is a church, with a priest, and one mill, with
half another mill, and forty -five acres of meadow, and marshes
fifteen quarentenes in length, and eight in breadth ; in the
time of king Edward, they were in like manner valued at forty
shillings of money. Also, in Avelound wapentake, in Repyn-
gale. Saint Guthlac had and still has three carucates of laud,
assessed to payment of geld, and sixty acres of meadow land :
in the time of king Edward, they were valued at twenty shil-
lings. Oger holds the same to farm, by paying to the abbey
sixty shillings, and bearing many other burdens. Also, in
Aswardeheme wapentake, in Laithorp, Saint Guthlac had and
still has one bovate of land; in Kirkby three bovates of land;
in the time of king Edward [its property].

Also, in the hundred of Opton-a-green, in Northampton-
shire, Saint Guthlac at Croyland held and now holds woods
and marshes, two leagues in length, and two leagues in breadth,
in the time of king Edward, free and absolved from all ser-
vices. In Peykirk, three virgates of land, in the time of king
Edward, assessed to geld. In Wridthorp, Saint Guthlac held
^ Tenants holding their lands by socage tenure.


and now holds one hide and a half, subject to payment of
geld; the [arable] land consists of two carucates, of which
there is one carucate in demesne; and eleven villeins, and
eleven bordars with two carucates. Here are three acres of
meadow land, and one mill, valued at five shillings : they are
[in the whole] valued at forty shillings. Also, in Pokebrok
hundred, in Elmyngton, Saint Guthlac had aud now has one
hide of land ; the [arable] land is one carucate in demesne,
and there are two villeins and two bordars, with one carucate,
and six acres of meadow land : in the time of king Edward,
these were valued at ei^t shillings, now at sixteen. In
Elmyngton, also, Saint Guthlac had and now has two hides ;
the [arable] land consists of three carucates ; there are £ve
villeins, and four bordars with three carucates. Here are
twelve ecres of meadow land : in the time of king Edward,
they were valued at twelve shillings, now at twenty shillings.
Also, in Soudnaveslound hundred, in Adyngton, Saint Guthlac
had and still has two hides ; the [arable] land consists of four
carucates. There is one carucate in demesne, and there are
two serfs, six villeins, and three bordars, with one socman, hold-
ing three carucates ; there are also six acres of meadow land,
and a mill, valued at thirteen shillings and fourpence : in the
time of king Edward, they were valued at fifteen shillings,
now at forty shillings. Of this place, it also has the church,
and in the other Adyngton half a virgate of land, assessed to
geld. Also, in Ausefordshew hundred, in Wendlingborough,
Saint Guthlac had and now has five hides and a half of land ;
the [arable] land consists of twelve carucates. There is one ca-
rucate in demesne, with one serf, and twenty-one villeins, with
a chmtjh and priest, and seven bordars, and twelve socmen who
hold eleven acres. Here are two mills, valued at sixteen
shillings, and thirty acres of meadow land^ valued at fifty shil-
lings; the tribute was eleven shillings, it is now six pounds.

Also, at Granelcrand, in Baddeby, in Ailwordesie hun-
dred, Saint Guthlac had and still has four hides [of land] ; the
[arable] land consists of eleven acres ; there are eight caru-
cates in demesne, and eight serfs^ five neife,” twelve villeins,
and eight bordars, with six carucates. Here is a mill, valued
at two shillings, and twenty-eight acres of meadow land, with
woods, four quarentenes in length, and two quarentenes in
N Bondwomen or female villeins.


164 IH6UI,?h’s HISTOBT of the abbey of CBOYLAin). A.D.1085.

breadth : m the time of king Edward, they were, in like man-
ner, valued at eight pounds. Also, in the hundred of Widi-
broke, at Glapthom, Saint Gutblac bad and has one yirgate of
land, assessed to payment of geld, and tw^ity acres of wood

Also, in Leipestershire, at Beby in doscote wapentake, Saint
Guthlac had and has ten oarucates and a half of land ; the
[arable] land consists of eight carucates. There is one caru-
cate in demesne, and two serfs, and twenty-one villeins, with
five socmen, and three bordars holding six carucates. Here
are thirty acres of meadow land, valued, in the time of king
Edward, at sixty shillings, now at forty shillings. Also, in
the wapentake of Guthlacston, in Sutton, Saint Guthlac had and
now has two carucates, and two in Stapelton ; the [arable] land
consists of five carucates. ^ere are six vUleins, with two
bordars holding one carucate and a half: in the time of king
Edward, they were valued at twenty-four shillings, now at
twenty shillings.

Also, in Huntingdonshire, at Morbume, in Norman* s-Cross
hundred, Saint Guthlac had and now has five hides assessed to
pa}nnent of geld. The land here consists of nine carucates ;
there are two carucates in demesne, and sixteen villeins, and
three bordars, holding seven carucates ; there is a church and
priest here, and forty acres of meadow land, and one acre of
brushwood : in the time of king Edward they were valued at
one hundred shillings, and now at the same. In Tberming,
Saint Guthlac had and now has one hide and a half, assessed
to geld ; the [arable] land is one carucate and a half. In the
Soke of Achumesbiry, the king’s manor, Eustace i^ow holds of
the abbat of Croyland and has there, one carucate, and one vil-
lein, with half a carucate, and six acres of meadow lai^d ; Ui
the time of king Edward, they were valued at twenty sbil*
lings, and are now worth the same.

Also, in Grantebrigshire, at Hokitton, in Nordstow hundred,
Saint Guthlac had and has seven hides and a half; the [arable] land consists of eight carucates ; there are four hides and four
carucates in demesne. Therp are also fourteen villeins, and
three bordars, with six carucates. There are four cottages,
and three serfs, and two carucates of meadow land, togeSier
with a church and a priest : in the time of king Edward, thej
were valued at eight pounds, now at six pounds. At Gotten-


ham, in Cestreton hundred, Saint Guthlac had and now has
eleven hides assessed to geld ; the [arable] land consists of
eight canicates ; there are six hides and one carucate in de-
mesne. There are twelve villeins and eight bordars, with seven
eanicates ; there is also one serf, and a meadow ; and eight
acres of pasture land, granted at tiie prayer of the vill, in the
marshes of the lord An^ll, and at present paying twelvepence :”
in the time of king Edward, it was valued at eight pounds,
but now at six. This manor always has been, and still is, of
the demesne of Saint Guthlac. In Drayton, Saint Guthlac
had and has eight hides and a half: the [arable] land consists
of six carucates : la demesne there are four hides and three
virgates, and one carucate. There are also twelve villeins, and
five bordars, and three socmen, with four carucates. There
axe also four cottages, and two carucates of meadow land : in
the time of king Edward, they were valued at one hundred
shillings, and now at four pounds ten shillings. This land is
held in demesne by the church of Saint Guthlac, together with
its church and the office of pnest thereof.

Now, for the information of my successors, it seems to me
requisite and very necessary, in a few words, to explain some
of the matters before stated, in the same way in which they are
now understood. And first, as to the seat of our abbey, where
it is stated to be four leagues [in length and three J in breadth.
The league, or ” leuca,” is the usual measure of dimension for
land among the Franks, and consists of two thousand paces. ^’
It is not improbable that ‘4euca” is derived firom the word
‘Ueucon,’* which, ui the Scythian language, is the same as
the name “Philip.” Hence it is that the Master, in his
” Introduction” to 0. M..^ B. III., where he speaks of ” niveus
leucon,” says, that by this ” leucon” was meant the emperor
Phihp, who is described as ‘* niveus,” or ” snow-white,” be-
cause he was a Christian, and by baptism was made whiter
than snow. In another passage, also, where he explains the
story, that Phoebus fell ui love with Leucothoe, he says that

^ This is probably the meaning of the abbreviation — acne, pastur. ad
pet. Tills de marisco D. Ang. et de present, xii. d.

* The Gallic ‘* leuca” was generally considered to be 1500 paces in

^ It is probable that by the words, super. 0. M. Lib. III., he alludes
to the Ormista, or History of Orosius ; which is supposed to have re-
feived its name from the words ” Orosii mundi historia.”


God loved the Christian zeal of the kingdom of France, that
is to say, of the Philips, the name of Philip being an extremely
common one among the Franks ; so much so, that king Honry,
who now reigns in France, had his eldest son called by the
name of Philip. For Philip, the blessed Apostle of Christ,
after having preached the word of God to the Scythians, and
converted many of them to the faith of Christ, on his return
to Asia, passed through the Sicambri, and was the first to
preach to them the name of Christ. The Franks, springing
from these, as many of their sacred historians relate, still hold
Saint Philip the Apostle to have been in especial their original
teacher and first Apostle. From all these circumstances, it
may be gathered that ” leuca’* received its name from ” leucon”
— meaning, that it is a measure of Philippean land, or land of
Philip, or of the Philips.®

The English, however, in measuring land, use miles, or
“milliaria;” which are so called, because they consist of
** mille passus,” ” a thousand paces.” This name was derived
from the fact that Hercules, while drawing his breath, walked
a thousand paces, according to Isidorus [in his ” Etymologica” j
B. III. Therefore, on thus learning what are leagues and
miles, you might possibly say, posterity and friends, that the
seat of our abbey is said to be four leagues in length, from the
further bank of Schepishee on the east thereof, as far as Ke-
nulphston on the west, or in other words, eight miles ; and in
breadth, that is to say, from the further [side] of the bank of
Southee on the south thereof, as far as the outer bank of
Asendyk or of Welland on the north thereof, two leagues, or
in other words, four miles: but neither of such statements
would be true. For you ought to be informed that the En-
glish, under the dominion of the Normans, adopted in many
respects the usages of the Franks ; and consequently substi-
tuted “leucae,” or ‘* leagues,” for ” milliaria,” or ** miles,”
though they still meant miles ; and as its length exceeds^
four miles, and its breadth two miles, the surveyors, with re-
markable foresight, and most piously taking precautions against

^ All this is fanciful and absurd in the extreme.

” Tiiis is probably the true reason for the statement of the surveyors.
They perhaps found the length to be six miles, and therefore called it four
<' leucae," which was just that measure, and not eight miles, as Ingu'pli supposes. A.D. 1085. FOTIMEK rEITILT^GES OF TITE MONASTERST. 167 the bad feelings of our rivals, chose to set it down as more than the real measure, rather than less. All the assessors in the neighbourhood accepted this measurement, and the king's court accepted it as well, when the true account of measure- ment was required for incorporation in the royal rolls. I ought also here to state, that Alderlound is described in Opton-a-green hundred ; whereas, in the charter of Edred, the former king and our refounder, it is stated, that this part of the marsh, situate on the southern side of the river "VVel- land, is connected with the county of Lincoln in all respects, and belongs thereto ; evidence of which is collected from the charter of Edgar, the former king and the confirmer of our pri- vil^s, in the words in which he forbids all his servants, mean- ing thereby sheriflfe, summoners, and bailiffs, in the county of the Girvii,®* that is to say, the county of ^Northampton, to enter within the limits and boundaries of the said marsh, or in any way to interfere therewith ; showing thereby, that this part of the marsh was forbidden to his servants in the county of INorthampton, and that, with the remaining portion of our monastery, it came under the jurisdiction of his servants in the county of Lincoln. But when the Danish kings, Sweyn, Cnute, Harold, and Hardecnute, were oppressing the whole of England, and making great changes, many of the privileges of the monasteries were lost, and utterly swept away, while the limits and boundaries of territories and of counties were trans- ferred and changed from their ancient state, just as the money of the rich gained a preponderance over the feelings of the barbarians, who sought nothing else but money.^* An evi- dence of this was the destruction in the time of king Har- decnute of the monastery of Saint Pega, at Peykirk, the money of the abbat of Burgh prevailing against justice on the side of the people of Pegeland, and the influence of eaii Godwin over the simplicity of the poor. At this time also, the monks of Burgh were held in the very highest esteem, so much so, that the whole world fol- lowed after them ; and, many of the great men of the land, "* Baxter, in his Glossarium, speaks of the Girvii as inhabitants of the covnty of Huntingdon. Biit it is not improbable that the same people extended along the extremity of Northamptonshire which separates Hiin^ tingdonshire from Lincolnshire. See Note to p. 87. ^ ** Pecunias*' seems to be a preferable reading to '* ruinas." 168 IHGITLPH's HI8T0ET OF THK ABBETT OP CROYLAND. A.D. 1085. both bishops [of the highest rank], as well as other nobles and chiefs of provinces, choosing their place of borial among them, they even had the most supreme impudence to extend the horns of their desires towards our monastery ; while the lord Wulketul, my predecessor, concealed such an act of ex- treme injustice, and as though he had connived at such a great peril to our monastery, was lulled, I am ashamed to say, into a most supine lethargy, and under its soporific influence con- tinued long asleep. Still however, I hope, before long, with the kind feelings manifested by the king towards us, ftilly to restore it to its former condition, which for the space of nearly three hundred and thirty years previously, we 'peaceably en- joyed. I ought also to throw some light upon the passage where it is stated that " from the time of king Ethelred the seat of our abbey was free and absolved from all secular services,"** as there were three kings called Ethelred ; and as to each of them, probable grounds may be stated for shewing that the said passage bears reference to him. For the first Ethelred, the son of Penda, and brother of Peada and Wulpher, the former kings of the Mercians, succeeded the before -named kings, his brothers, and after he h^d reigned thirty years, withdrew from the world, and became a monk in the monastery of Bardeney, being at last created abbat thereof. In the kingdom of the Mercians, his kinsman Xenred was appointed king in his stead, being the son of Wulpher, the former king, the brother and predecessor of Ethelred, as I have more fully stated above. This Kenred, after a reign of five years, taking his departure on a pilgrimage to Eome, he was succeeded by Celred, son of the before -named Ethelred, his father the abbat of Bardeney still surviving. This Celred dying aftei* a reign of eight years, he was suc- ceeded on the throne of Mercia by our Ethelbald, who reigned forty-one years. In the first year of his reign he founded our monastery of Croyland, and gave us his charter granting the same ; which charter, as the first witness after the bishops, the before-named Ethelred, abbat of Bardeney, devoutly signed : and in the same year, being now an aged man and full of days, he departed unto the Lord. From the time there- fore of this king Ethelred our abbey was "free and absolved ^ See pages 160, 161. A.D. 1085. THE THB£E KINGS STHELKED. 169 from all secular serrices/' meiEuiing by that term the time of its first foundation. The second king Ethelred was the son of Ethelwnlph, and brother of king Ethelbaldy and of Ethelbert and Alfred, the tenner kings, being the last but one of the brothers who came to the throne ; and, after having most stoutly wielded the sceptre of the kingdom of Wessex for a period of five years, and had repeated engagements with the Danes, in which he sometimes most gloriously defeated them, departed this life in the year of our Lord, 871, it being the year eifter the destruction of tiie monasteries of Bardeney, Croyland, Medes- hamsted, and Ely. The monks of Croyliid, however, as has been previously stated, were most of them most happily saved, after a flight and concealment of three days, and throughout the whole period during which it lay desolate, possessed the site of the whole abbey, together with the same liberties which they had previously enjoyed, at the grant of king Beorred, and of Alfred, who afterwards succeeded to the throne ; whereas, the other monasteries being utterly destroyed through the ravages of the Danes, and all their monks slain, ruined, or utterly dispersed, their sites were taken and added to the royal treasury. Erom the time, therefore, of this king Ethel- red, om: abbey was " free and absolved from all secular ser- vices," that is to say, in the time of its greatest desolation, imtil its restoration, and from then up to the present time. The third king Ethelred was the son of king Edgar, who, after Saint Edw^ the king, and at last, the Martyr of God, his own brother by the father's side, had a most wretched ■ reign of thirt5^-eight years. In his time, the armies of the Banes greatly ravaged the whole of England, and exceedingly oppressed the churches and convents. This state of extreme tribulation lasted for many years; indeed, throughout the time of four kings, that is to say, of the same Ethelred, Cnute, Ha- rold, and Hardecnute. Erom the time, therefore, of this Ethel- red, our abbey was " free and absolved fix)m all secular ser- vices," that is to say, from the time of that king who was lawful successor in the royal line of the English, and father of ^ward, that most pious king ; upon whose relationship and consanguinity our renowned king William founds his right conscientiously to take possession of England : the other kings of Danish blood being in the meantime omitted, as hu\ing no rights whatever of their own to assert. 170 ingulph's history op the abbey of CROYLAND. A.D. 1083. We ought also to remark, that in our settlement at Croy- land, no villeins, bordars, or socmen are put down, as is the case in our other lands ; for, except through fear of impending war, few or none would persevere in living with us. For, in the same way that, on war breaking out, all of the neighbour- ing country, rich as well as poor, men as well as women, re- sorted to Croyland from every side, as a place of refuge, so again, on the serenity of peace being restored by the Lord, all, re- turning homewards, quitted our monastery ; our own household of domestics, together with their wives and children, being the only persons left ; .to whom, as will be stated in the sequel, I have lately demised a great part of the marshes and mea- dows of the seat of our monastery for a certain annual rent, and the performance of other services; letting to some the same to farm for a certain number of years, and conveying it to others in fee for the purposes of cultivation. But more of this hereafter. It ought also here to be stated, that where it is said, "at Spalding, a bercwick of Croyland," and in another place, " in the berewick of Algar,"" it should be understood by the former expression "Spalding, a manor of Croyland," and by the *' berewick of Algar," another manor [of Croyland]. It ought also to be stated as to the manor of Badby, that although it is now in the hands of persons to whom it is leased, it is still described in the king's roll as though it were now in our hands ; but it should also be known that because the measurers of the lands and the assessors of that district saw that monks were holding that manor of the monks of Eves- ham, they took them to be our monks of Croyland, and thought and reported the possession to be ours, and not that of the real lessees ; whereas there are still twenty years of their lease to run, before** the hundred years expire, which were granted to Norman, the sheriff of the late earl Edric. These matters I openly declared in presence of my lord the king and his council, in behalf of my monastery and its possessions, and they were all graciously listened to, and opportunity of in- specting the royal roll was liberally granted to me. I also, on this occasion, took with me to London the char- ters and deeds and principal muniments of our monastery, ^ See page 161. ^ This fixes the date as a.d. 1093. See the Note to page 116. A.D. 1065. CHAHTBR OF KINO WTLIIATC. 171 namely, those of Ethelbald, the former king and xmt founder, and of the other kings of Mercia, who confirmed the grant of our house ; all of which were written in Saxon characters ; as also the charters of Edred, the former king, our re-founder, of king Edgar, the confirmer of our rights, and of other kings of England who succeeded them down to these our times ; part of which were written in duplicate, both in Saxon cha- racters as well as Gallic. For the Saxon characters had been used by all the Saxons and Mercians down to the time of king Alfred, who having been chiefly instructed by Gallic teachers in all branches of literature, from the time of that king they fell into disuse ; and the Gallic hand-writing, because it was more legible, and was far more comely to the sight, grew more and more into favour every day with all the English. Although by the Gauls and Normans universally Saxon hand- writing was never, on any account, employed, and was utterly abominated by them, and at this time especially, when the Saxon, nation, too, was held in contempt and quite disregarded ; still, through the merits and prayers of Saint Guthlac, our advocate and especial patron, the Holy Spirit divinely inspired the heart of the renowned king with such favour and good- will towards our monastery, that all our muniments, whether writ- ten in Saxon or whether in Gallic characters, as I have already mentioned, were openly read and carefully examined in pre- sence of tiie before-named renowned king William and his council, and were received with great favour and considerable approbation ; the royal confirmation being most becomingly adjudged by acclamation on the part of all. And particularly, ' the charter of the late renowned king Edred, our re-founder, who granted more special privileges to our monastery, and more fully confirmed to us our lands, was most readily received by all, and was most graciously allowed to be confirmed by our lord the king ; which was accordingly done with the greatest care in such manner as I desired and requested, and in the following words : " I, William, by the grace of God, king of the English, at the humble petition of my servant Ingulph, abbat of the mo- nastery of Croyland, do sanction, approve of, and confirm, and do in all things command effectually to be observed, the charter of privileges which the excellent king Edred, my predecessor, gave and granted unto God and to Saint Guthlac and the 172 isorLPii's nisTOKY of the abbet of CROTLAND. A.D. 1085. monks of Croyland, the sonm having been read and set forth in presence of me and of my council. I do also forbid that any person under my rule shall presume rashly to molest them, lest he perish by the sword of excommunication, and for such violation of ecclesiastical rights suffer the torments of hell. But they are to hold all their possessions as a perpe- tual and royal alms, of my gift and confinnation, by me granted to the praise of God and out of reverence for Saint Guthlac, the coi^essor, who in the body there reposes, together with all those rights which are called Soch and Sach, Tol and Them, to hold the same with the same laws and customs as of perpetual right as freely and quietly as they held them with the same in those days in which king Edred was alive and well. For the confirmation of this writing the following nobles tlierein named were present as witnesses : Lanfranc, archbishop of Canter- bury; Thomas, archbishop of York; Walkelm, bishop of Winchester ; William, bishop of Durham ; earl William, earl Alfred, Alfred, the son of Topi, William Malet, and others." On this occasion, perceiving that the feelings of my lord the king and of his council towards my humble self were, at the inspiration of the Most High, thus benevolent and favour- able, I also produced before my lord the king and his whole council the charters formerly granted by the sheriff Thorold as to our cell at Spalding, which I had brought with me to Lon- don ; and having fully set forth our title and alleged our right thereto, with all becoming diligence, I demanded restoration of our said cell to our monastery. After our right to the said cell had been discussed in the king's council for a very consi- derable time, and I almost imagined, from the favourable feel- ings manifested by all, that judgment was about to be awarded in our favour, the king's council came to the determination to send for Ivo Taillebois, because the said cell was situate in his demesne. He speedily arrived, and when he heard the nature of my proposal, pointed out to our lord the king that in my peti- tion was sought the expulsion of the Gallic monks, whom, by his royal charter, he had previously confirmed in their rights, as well as the promotion of the English monks, who were always imprecating evils upon him ; whereby he effected an entire change in the intention of the royal benevolence to look favourably on my proposal, and being stoutly backed and sup- A.D. 1085. CHARTEK OF THOEOLD. 173 ported on every side by the Normans and Anjouins, his own partisans, who were always surrounding my lord the king, totally frustrated my object. Accordingly, taking with me the confirmation by my lord the king of the charter of king Edred, our re-founder, which, before tie arrival at court of the said Ivo, I had obtained from the munificence of our lord the king, as well as all our muni- ments safe and unhurt, and at the same time giving thanks to the Most High, I returned to our monastery safe and sound ; and I advise my successors who shall follow me hereafter, t^d who shall luckily chance to obtain favour with the king of the English, when ihej wish to regain the said cell, especially to rely on this charter of Thorold, the founder of the said cell, the other charters being for certain reasons concealed : for 1 have learned by the repeated advice of the lawyers that the said charter will prove much more valid and efficacious for the assertion of our rights than the others. This charter is to the following effect : ®® " I, Thorold, of Bukenhale, in presence of my most noble lord, Leofric, earl of Leicester, and his most noble countess, the lady Godiva, my sister, with the consent and good-will of my lord and kinsman the earl Algar, their eldest son and heir, have given and delivered unto God and Saint Guthlac, at Croy- land, into the bands of Wulgat, lord abbat of the said mona«- tery of Croyland, for the foundation of a cell of the monks of Croyland, in honor of Saint Mary, the Mother of God and ever a Virgm, in the vill of Spalding, the whole of my manor situate near the parish church of the said vill [between the manor of my said lord the earl Leofric, and the western banks of the river of the said vill,], together with all lands and tene- ments, rents, services, cattle, and implements, which I have possessed in the said manor, and in the said vill, and in the fields thereof, both on the eastern side of the river as well as on the western side thereof, together with all the appurte- nances thereof; that is to say, Colgrin, my steward, and all jiis people, with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vill and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation whatsoever. Also, Hardyng, the blacksmith, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vill, and in the fields " This charter is looked upon by Hickes as not genome. 174 INGULPh's BLISTOEr OP THE ABBEY OF CROYLAND. A O. 1085. and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation what- ever. Also, Lefstan, the carpenter, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said viU, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any excep- tion or reservation whatever. Also, Eyngulph the elder, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vill, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation whatever. Also, Elstan, the fisherman, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vUl, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation what- ever. Also, Gunter Liniet, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vill, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation whatever. Also, Outy Grimkelson, and all his peo- ple, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vill, and in th^ fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation whatever. Also, Turstan Dubbe, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said viU, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation whatever. Also, Algar the Swarthy, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vUl, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without anyexception or reservation whatever. Also, Edric, the son of Siward, and Osmund the miller, and all their people, together with all the goods and chattels which they possess in the said vill, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation whatever. Also Besi Tuk, and all his people, together with all the goods and chat- tels which he possesses in the said vUl, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation what- ever. Also, Elmer of Pyncebek, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vill, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any excep- tion or reservation whatever. Also, Gouse Gamelson, and all his people, together with all the goods and chattels which he possesses in the said vlU, and in the fields and marshes thereof, without any exception or reservation whatever. These, my servants, and all their goods and chattels, together with all the cottages to me formerly belonging, and situate on the eastern side of the river around the wooden chapel of Saint Mary, in A.D. lOaO. LAWS OP KDJ© EDWAED. 175 the vill of Spalding, from of old belonging to the monastery of Croyland, with all tiie rights and other tlungs thereto append- ant, I have given unto God and Saint Guthlac, for the pur- pose of building the aforesaid cell, together with all my piscaries, both in the marshes adjacent, as well as in the sea to the said vill adjoining, as my free and perpetual alms-gift, and for the salvation of my soul, and of the souls of all my progenitors and kinsmen. This my charter, I, Thorold, have confirmed with the sign of the Holy Cross, at Leicester, in presence of many of the faithful of Christ, there on the holy day of Pentecost assembled, in the year from the Incarnation of our Lord, 1051. -fl, Wulfin, bishop of Dorchester, have ratified the same, -fl Wulgat, abbat of Croyland, have joy- fiilly accepted the same, -fl, Lefwin, abbat of Thomey, have approved of the same, -fl, earl Leofric, have granted the same, -f I, the countess Godiva, have long desired the same. + I, earl Algar, have consented hereto, -f I, Turner, chap- lain of my lord Wulfin, bishop of Dorchester, have been pro- sent hereat. -fl, Wulnar, chaplain of my lord Wulfin, the bishop, have listaied hereto, -f I, Sitric, chaplain of my said lord Wulfin, have beheld the same, -f T, Stanard, servant of my lord the earl Leofric, have taken part herein, -f I, Fulk, monk of Croyland, have applauded the same, -f I, Pigot, monk of Thomey, have witnessed the same. + I, Living, the clerk, have written this charter with my own hand, and have deli- vered the same unto my lord the sheriff Thorold, by his hand to be delivered into the hand of the before-named Wulgat, abbat of Croyland." On the same occasion, I brought wil^ me from London to my monastery the laws of the most just king Edward, which my lord, the illustrious king William, had, under most heavy penalties, proclaimed throughout the whole kingdom of Eng- land, to be inviolably held as authentic and of lasting authority, and had given to his justiciaries, in the same language in which they were originally published : to the end that it might not happen through ignorance that we or our people should at any time fiedl into any grave peril, and with rash presumption offend his royal majesty, and so with incautious foot incur the very heavy censures contained therein, to the following eff«ct :" — " The narrative of Ingnlph, as given in SaviUe's " Scriptorea," abrupthy ^vmioates here. 176 INGULPH's HISTOET OF THE ABBiJlf OF CEOrLAND. A.D. 1085. ** These are the Laws and Customs which king William granted unto the people of England, after the Conquest of that land : they are the same which king Edward, his lonsman, ob- Berved before him ; that is to say :** \. Of the right of asylum, and of ecclmastical protection, " The protection of our Holy Church we have hereby granted. For any offence whatever, of which a person may have been guilty, if he takes refuge with the Holy Church, he shall have protection for life and limb. And if any one shall lay hands on him who has so sought the protection of Mother Church, if the same is a cathedral church, or an abbey, or a church of the religious orders, let him restore him whom he has so taken, and pay one hundred shillings as a fine ; if it is the mother church of a parish, twenty shillings ; and if a chapel, ten shillings. Also, he who breaks the king's peace in the parts subject to the laws of the Mercians, shall pay a fine of one hundred shillings; and so in like manner as to compensation for homicide,** and lying in wait of malice aforethought. 2. Of the hinges protection, " These pleas pertain to the crown of the king. K any sheriff or any provost shall injure any men belonging to his jurisdiction, and shall be attainted thereof by the king's jus- tice, his penalty shall be double that which another would have had to pay. 3. Of the violation of the pttblio peace, ^* He who, in places subject to the Danish laws,''" shall break the king's peace, shall pay a penalty of one hundred and forty- •8 These laws ue given by Ingulph in the Romance, or old French, but in a most corra|}t Lud imperfect state. The text of them has been revised, by collation with that ioimd in the Holkham MS., by Sir F. Palg^rave, in his Illustrations to his Comchentary on the Laws of England. He also gives the Latin version of the same laws, which was probably the ori- ginal form in which they were promulgated. The Latin version diffen somewhat, in various plaices, from the text given by him of the Romance; on such occasions it lias been generally followed in this translation. •9 " Heinfare," (incorrectly, in Ingulph, •* hemfare,") may mean •* the flight of a slave.'' But Spelman, in his Glossary, has shown that it has also the same signification as the word '* manbote,'' or *' compensatioii ta the superior lord for the death of ono of his men." » " Denelaga." AD. 1085. LAWS OF JONG EDWIBD. 177 four pounds ; and the king's fines, which helong to the sheriff, in places subject to the Mercian laws are forty shillings ; and in places subject to the laws of Wessex, fifty shillings. And as to a free man who has right of Sach, and Soch, and Tol, and Tern, and Infangthefe/^ and shall be accused thereof and be condemned to pay a penalty in the court of the county, he shall forfeit to the use of the sheriff forty oras,^' in places subject to the Danish laws : and any other man who does not enjoy the same liberties, shall pay thirty-two eras. Of these thirty-two eras, the ^eriff shall have to the use of the king ten eras ; and he who has accused him shall have, for his redress against him, twelve oras ; and the lord in whose fee he shall reside, shall have the remaining ten oraa. This, in places subject to the Danish laws. 4. Of accmatians of Zarcmf/y and of the sureties, "This is the custom in places subject to the laws of Mercia: If any person shall be accused of larceny or of robbery, and shall have given pledge to appear in coiurt, and shall ts^e to flight in the meantime, his surety shall have a month and a day to seek him ; and if he shall find him within that time, he shall deliver him to justice ; and if he cannot find him, he shall swear with eleven others, himself being the twelfth,^' that, at the hour at which he became surety for him, he was not aware that he was the thief, that it has not been through him that he has made his escape, and that he has not been able to take him. Then he shall restore''^ the chattel for which he was arrested, and twenty shillings for his head, fourpence to the keeper of the prison, one obol for the spade,'* and twenty shillings to the lung. In places subject to the laws of Wes- sex, one hundred shillings on the hue and cry for his head, and four pounds to the king. In places subject to the laws of the Banes, the penalty is one hundred shillings; twenty shil- lings on the hue and cry for his head, and seven pounds to ^> See the Translation of Hoveden’s Annals, in Bohn’s Antiquarian
Library, vol. L p. 551.

i> The ” ora” was a Danish silver coin, probably about ten shillings in

^ ** De dixieme main” seems a better reading than ** dudzieme”— as
the institution of ” frithborg,” or ** tenemental,” or ” oath of ten men,”
seems to be here referred to. See the Translation of Hoveden’s Annals,
vol. I p. 550.

‘* Probably in the sense of ‘< make good." 7ft *« La besche." N 178 ingulph's history op the abbey of CBOYLAWD. a.D. 1085. the king. And if he shall be able within a year and a day to find the thief and bring him to justice, there shall be re- stored to him the twenty shillings which shall have been so taken, and justice shall be done on the thief. 5. Of the a^pprehmmn of a thief " He who shall apprehend a thief without pursuit, and withr out outcry raised on the part of the person to whom the robber has done the injury, and shall keep him without delivering him up, shall pay ten shillings for Hengwite,'* and justice shall be done on the prisoner at first view of frank-pledge ; and if he shall pass over that sitting without leave of court, then the penalty shall be forty shillings. 6. Of the redemption ofanimdh. '* In the case of him who shall redeem horses, or oxen, or cows, or pigs, or sheep, which the English call by the name of 'forfengen,' he who shall claim the same shall give to the reeve for a sheep one penny, for a pig fourpence, and for an ox or a horse fourpence, and he shall not give more than eight- pence, whatever be the number of the beasts. He shall also give security, and shall find sureties, that if any person shall come to make proof, and demand the beast within a year and a day, he will produce in court that which he has so received. 7. Of things that are found hy chance, " As to beasts going astray, and other things that are found : Ijot the property so found be shown to three-fourths of the vicinage,'" that the same may bear testimony to the finding there- of. If any person shall come to make proof, and to claim the thing as his own, let him give security and find pledges that he will, in case any person shall claim the beast, within a year and a day, produce in court what he has so found. 8, Of Jumicide, and ofthepriee of the head and the WereJ^ " If any person shall kill another, or be privy thereto, and 7> A fine for letting a thief escape. The Latm and Romance texts here
vary considerably.

^^ Probably the same as ‘* vill/’ in this instance. See the Translation
of Hoveden’s Annals, vol. i. pp. 552, 553.

‘• The ** Were,” or ” wergeld,” was paid by a murderer, partly to the
king for his loss of a subject, partly to the lord whose vassal he was, and
partly to the next of kin, for the person slain. ‘* Manbote” was a pay-
ment to the lord for the bss of his vassaL

A.O.1085. lAWS 07 MISe EDWASP. 179

shall be bound to make amends for the same, he shall pay his
Were,, as well as Man-bote to the lord ; for a free man ten
shillings, and for a serf twenty shillings. The Were of a
thane is twenty pounds in places subject to the laws of the
Mercians, and twenty-five pounds in those under the laws of
the West Saxons. The Were of a villein is one hundred shil-
lings in places subject to the laws of the Mercians, as also to
those of the West Saxons.

9. To whom the Were is to he paid,
” Of the Were to be paid for the shedding of blood, there
shall be first paid to the widow ten shillings ; and the orphans
and relatives shall divide the surplus among themselves.

10. 1%e valuation of certain animak in the payment of the Were,
“In the payment of Were, each person shall be at liberty
to pay a horse, not a gelding, as being twenty shillings, a bull
as being ten shillings, and a boar-pig as heing five shillings.

11. Of one who inflicts a wound upon another,
” If one man shall wound another, and shall be in duty
bonnd to make amends for the same, in the first place he shall
pay him all his expaises incurred ;’^ and then the wounded
person shall swear upon the relics of the Saints that he was not
able to be cured for a less sum than that demanded, and that
it was not for hatred that he incurred more than a moderate

12. Of Sarhote, or payment for pain of wounds infHoted.

” If a wound is inflicted on the face uncovered, then the
penalty is to he, for every inch seen,^ eight pence ; but if the
party shall have the head or other part covered, then the pe-
nalty shall be, for every inch, fourpence ; and for as many
bones as they shall extract from the wound, the penalty for
Mch bone shall be fourpence. For the purpose of reconcilia-
tion, the person offending shall do due honor to the other, and
shall swear that, if the other had done to him what he him-
aelf has done, he would have accepted from him what he him-

” Called the ^ lich-fee,” or surgeon’s fee.

* The text given by Sir F. Palgrave ajipears here to be somewhat de-
fectiye ; but, from the words employed, it would seem that the ” Sarbote”
WM measured by the superficies of the injured limb or part of the body.

N 2


self now offerg, had the other intended to make such offer, and
if his Mentis had advised him so to do.

13. H^ valuation of the Limbs.
^’ If it shall happen that any person shall cut off the hand
OF foot of anpther, he shall pay him half of the Were accord-
ing to his station m life. But for the thumb, he shall pay the
moiety of the penalty for the hand ; for the finger next to the
tiiumb, fifteen shillings English, of such as are styled shillings
of fourpence f^ for the middle finger, sixteen shillings ; for the
next or ring finger, seventeen shillings; and for the httle
finger five shillings. If auy one shall cut off the nail of the
thumb, he shall pay five shillings English money, and for the
nail of the little fioger fourpence,

14, O/AMten/.
*’ He who shall defile the wife of another, shall forfeit his
Were unto the lord.

J 5 . Of corrupt Judges,
*’ Ke who shall give a false judgment, shall lose his Were,
unless he can prove, upon the relics of ike Saints, that it was
not in his power to give a better judgment,

16. Of the clearing of him who is accused of Theft.
” If one person shall accuse another of larceny, and he is
a free man, and can give true testimony as to his having
hitherto acted lawfully, he shall fully clear himsejf by his own
oath. But if a person has been previously accused thereof,
then he shall clear himself by the oath of persons nanied ; that
is to say, upon the oaths of fourteen lawful men named, if he
can find them ; and if he cannot find them, then he may clear
himself by the oaths of twelve. But if he cannot find them,
then he must defend himself by the judgment.*’ The accuser
shaU. make oath by mouth of seven men by name, that he has
not made the accusation for malice, or for any other reason than
the prosecution of his rights.

n. Of him who breaks into a church or a house.
” If any person shall be accused of breaking into a monastery
or into a chamber, and shall not have been previously accused

*^ In Du Cange’s Glossary it is suggested that the word ** quer*’ here
means forty* ^ Of ordeal.


of sach a crimen he shall clear himself upon the oaths of four*
teen lawful men named, himself being the twelfth ;^ and if he
has been previously accused thereof, he shall clear himself by
three times that number, himself being the thirty-sixth. And
if he cannot find them, then he must have recourse to the
threefold^ judgment ; in the case where the oaths of a triple
number should have been taken. If he has previously been
guilty of larceny, then he must be tried by judgment of wat0r.

18. Of Fines.
“In places subject to the laws of the Mercians, an arch-
bishop is to have out of all fines forty shillings, a bishop
twen%^ shillings, an earl twenty shillings, a baron ten shil-
lings, and a villein forty pence.

19. Of Saint FeUr^s Fence.

“A free man, who has possession of lands to the value of
thirty pence, shall give one penny to Saint Peter. The lord,
for the one penny which he shall give, shall render his bor-
dars, herdsmen, and servants, free from payment. A burgher,
if he has chattels of his own to the value of half a mark, shall
give one penny to Saint Peter. In places subject to the
Danish laws, a free man who shall have cattle in the fields, to
the value of half a mark, shall give one penny to Saint
Peter ; and by the penny of the lord, all shall be acquitted
who Uve in his demesne. He who withholds the penny of
Saint Peter, shall be compelled by ecclesiastical censure to
pay the same, and thirty pence as well by way of fine. If
pleas thereon shall come before the king’s justices, the king
shall have forty shillings for a fine, and the bishop thirty

20. Of those who use violence against Women.

” K a man shall ravish a woman by force, he shall be pun-
ished by loss of limb. If a man shall throw a woman upon
the ground for the purpose of committing violence, he shall
pay to the lord ten shillings.

21. Of putting out an eye.

“If any person shall, in any way whatever, put out the eye

” These numbers are Tery doubtful.

^ Probably meaning triple ordeal, which was the most severe ocdeal,
by red-hot iron or boiling water.

182 ikgtjlph’s history of thb abbet op croylajtd: a.d. 1085.

of another person, he shall pay to him a penalty of seventy
shillings, English ; hut if the sight shall be restored, then he
shall pay half that sum.

22. Of Reliefs.
” The relief of an earl to the king consists of eight
horses, of which four shall be saddled and bridled ; and with
them, four coats of mail, four helmets, four lances, four buck-
lers, and four swords ; the other four horses are to be palfreys
and post-horses, with bridles and head-stalls. The relief of a
baron is four horses, two of which shaU be saddled and bridled;
and with them two coats of mail, two bucklers, two helmets,
two lances, and two swords. Of the other two horses, one
shall be a palfrey, the other a post-horse, with bridles and
head-stalls. The relief of a vavassour^ to his liege lord, is a
horse, such as was in possession of his father at the day of his
death, a coat of mail, a helmet, a buckler, a lance, and a sword.
If perchance he shall not possess the same, and shall be unable
to pay the same by reason of having neither horse nor arms,
then he shall be exempted on payment of one hundred shil-
lings. The relief of a villein is the best beast of burden that
he has, whether a horse, an ox, or a cow ; the same shaU be-
long to his lord. In the case of him who holds land ai a
yearly rent, his relief shall be the amount of one year’s rent.
23. Ofprodimng Warranty.

** If any person shall lay claim to any live cattle as having
been stolen from him, and shall give security and find sureties
that he will prosecute his claim, then the person who has the
property in his possession must produce his warranty. If he
cannot do this, then he must produce his Heuvelborh”* and
his witnesses. If he can produce neither warranty nor Heu-
velborh, but has witnesses^ that he bought it in the king’s
market, though neither warranty nor pledge whether it was
alive or dead, then he shall lose the chattel so claimed ; and
by the simple oath of his witnesses and of himself, he shall
clear himself. But if he shall find neither warranty, pledge,

8* The next rank in dignity below a peer.

» The Heuvelborh was the ” fide-jussor,” or the guarantee, who
was bound to restore the property sold, if the purchaser should be Im-
fully evicted. — Palgrave.

^ i’he text, even in Sir F. Palgrave’ s amended version, seems to be in a
most corrupt state here.

l.D. 1085. LAWS OF TCiyO EDWAHD. 183

nor witnesses, then besides the matiier claimed he shall pay
his Were to his lord. This is the universal law in all places,
whether subject to the laws of the Mercians, the Danes, or the
West Saxons. Ko one shall be compelled to produce his
warranty before the claimant shall have produced his pledge,
on the oaths of six men. In places under the Danish law,
the property shall be placed in the hand of a third party,
until the matter shall be decided. If the party can prove by
three-fourths of his vicinage that the animal has been reared
hy himself, it shall be adjudged to him. From and after the
time that, on this oath, the property has been adjudged to
him, it cannot be withdrawn by him on trial in England.

24. Of Murder.
” If any person shall kill a Frank by birth, and the men of
the hundred shall not take the murderer within a week, and
bring him to justice to show why he did so, they shall pay for
the murder forty-seven marks.

25. If a person lays elaim to land against his lord.
” If any person shall wish to disprove any covenant as to
the holding of any land against his lord, he shall be bound to
disprove the same by his peers who hold by the same tenure,
as by strangers he cannot possibly do so.

%, If a person denies that he has said in court that which is
imputed to him.
“In every court, except in the king’s presence, if it is im-
puted to any one that on trial he has said such and such a
thing, and he denies that he has said so, if he cannot, by two
intelligent men, who either heard or saw the same, disprove
that he so said, he shall be bound by his words.

27. Of the thre^ royal roads.
” On the three royal roads, that is to say, Watelingstrete,
Ermingstrete, Fosse, and [Ikeneldstrete], whoever shall slay a
man passing through the country, or shall commit an assault
on hun, the same is a breaker of the king’s peace.

28. If the thing stolen is found with the thief
” On the land of whomsoever the thief is found with the
*« The text in the Romance has ** three,” in the Latin, ” four ;” Ike-
neldstrete being omitted in the former.

184 dtgulph’s histobt op the abbey op CEOTLAND. A.D. 1085.

thing stolen, the lord of the land, and the wife of the thief,
shall have a moiety of the goods of the thief, and the claimant
shall have his property stolen, if he shall find it, besides the
other moiety of the goods ; unless the thief be found on the
lands of a person who has right of Sach and Soch, in which case
the wife shall lose her share, and the lord shall have the same.

29. Of the keepers of the roads,

” For every hide^ in the hundred, four men shall be pro-
vided for street ward, from the feast of Saint Michael to the
feast of Saint Martin. And the Guardereve, that is, the
head of the keepers, shall have thirty hides as compensation
for his labour. If beasts shall trespass upon the places com-
mitted to their care, and they cannot show that they were
driven thither by force or by shouts, they shall deliver up the

30. Of ctdtwators of the land,

” Cultivators and tillers of the land must not be harassed
beyond what is due and lawful ; and lords are not to be al-
lowed to remove the husbandmen from off the lands so long as
they are able to render their due services.

31. Of Serfs.
” Serfs must not depart from their lands, nor seek excuses
by which to deprive their lords of their due services. If any
one shall so depart, no person shall receive him, or his chat-
tels ; nor shall he witUiold hini, but he shall make him le-
tum to his lord to whom his services are due.

32. Of ctdtwating the land.
** If the lords of the land shall not find fit and proper cul-
tivators for their lands, then the justices shall do so.

33. 2%at no one shall withdraw his just services from his Lord.
” No one shall withdraw his due services from his lord, on
the ground of any remission which has been previously made
gratuitously by the lord.

34. That a pregnant woman shaH not undergo punishment of
‘^ If a woman shall be adjudged to die or to suffer mutila-

^ The old text, in Gale’s edition, ^ has one man for CTery ten hides, ‘
which seems a preferable reading.


tidn of her limbs, and shall prove pregnant, execution of the
sentence shall be deferred till she has been delivered.

35. Of those who die intestate.
” If any man shall happen to die without making a will, in
such case his children shall divide their paternal inheritance
between them.

36. ^ a father finds his daughter in the act of adultery, or a son
his father’s wife.

” K a father finds his married daughter in his own house,
or iQ that of his son-in-law, in the act of adultery, he is at
liberty to slay the adulterer. In like manner, if a son finds
his mother in the act of adultery, during the life of his father,
he is at liberty to slay the adulterer.

37. Of Poisoning.

” If a man shall poison another, he shall either be put to
death, or sent into perpetual banishment.

38. Of throwing goods overboard through fear of death.
” If any person in peril of the sea, shall, through fear of
death, throw the property of another into the sea for the pur-
pose of lightening the ship, he shall clear himself by oath that
he did the same for no ot^er reason than fear of death. The
property that remains in the ship shall be divided among all,
according to the chattels of each. If any person shall act
otherwise, then he shall make good the property lost.

39. No one shall suffer prejudice through the fault of another.

** If two or more shall be parceners of a property, and one
of them shall, without the other or others, be impleaded, and
shall by his folly or for any other reason lose the same, then
the parceners shall not be damaged thereby ; because a matter
that has been decided among other persons, ought not to pre-
judice others, especially if liey were not present.

40. Of Judgments and Judges.

”Judges are to use the utmost care and diligence that they
80 judge their neighbour, as they wish themselves to be judged
by God, when they say, * Forgive us our debts even as we
forgive the same to our debtors ‘ He who shall give false

186 INGHLPh’s HISTOBY of the abbey op CROYLAJSTD. A.D. 1085.

judgment, or shall encourage injustice through hatred, love, or
money, shall pay a penalty of forty shillings to the king, un-
less he can excuse himself on the ground that he knew not
how to give a hetter judgment ; and he shall lose his liherty as
well, unless he shall redeem the same from the king. In
places under the Danish law he shall pay his Lagslite.**

41. ITiat no one shaU be condemned to death for a tnfling


” We do forhid that a person shall he condemned to death
for a trifling offence. But, for the correction of the multi-
tude, extreme punishment shall he inflicted according to the
nature and extent of the ofience. For that ought not for a
trifling matter to he destroyed which God has made after His
own image, and has redeemed with the price of His own

42. Christians are not to he sold out of the country or to


” We do also forhid that any one shall sell a Christian into
a foreign coimtry, and especially among the infldels. For the
greatest care ought to be taken that souls are not sold into
damnation, for which Christ gave His life.

43. Of those who refuse to take their trial,

” He who refuses to submit to just laws and a just trial,
shall pay a penalty to him to whom the same shall rightiidly
belong. If it is against the king, he shall pay six pounds;
if against an earl, forty shillings ; if it is in a hundred or in
the court of any one who by virtue of his privilege holds the
same, then thirty shillings English. In places under the
Danish law, he who shall refuse to abide a just trial, shall
pay the penalty of his Lagslite.

44. That no one shall lay a complaint hefore the king, unless
there is a default in the hundred or county,

” ITo one shall lay a complaint before the king, unless there
has been a miscarriage of justice in the court of the himdred
or the county.

^ Lagslite was a punishment inflicted for breaking the law.

A.D. 1085. LAWS OF EHfre edwikd. 187

45. ITuit no one shaU rashly make distraint,
”No one shall take a distress in a connty or ont of it unless
he shall have three times demanded satisfaction in the court
of the hundred or county. If on making the third demand
he shaU receive no answer, he may have recourse to the court
of the county, which shall name for him a fourth day. If
even then, satisfaction shall not he made to him, he shall re-
ceive licence to levy a distress’^ for himself far and near.

46. That no one shaU hiy anything tvithout witnesses,
” No one shall huy anything, whether alive or dead, to the
value of fourpence, without four witnesses, either from a ho-
rough or a viU in the country. If claim shall afterwards he
made hy any person, and he shall have neither witnesses nor
warranty, then he shaU restore the property, and pay a penalty
to the person to whom hy right it belongs. If he has wit-
nesses, they are to view the property three times, and on the
fourth occasion, he is either to disprove the claim, or to lose
the property.

47. Cf proof against witnesses.

” It seems absurd and contrary to law that proof should be

made against witnesses, who know the property claimed ; and

proof*’ shall not be admitted before a stated time, the sixth

month from the time since the thing claimed has been stolen.

48. Cf a person charged^ who does not appear when summoned,
” If any person of bad character, and charged with breaking
the laws, shall not make his appearance after being three
times summoned, on the fourth day the summoners sh^ shew
his three de&.ults, and he shall once more have a summons to
find sureties, and obey justice. If, even then he shall not
appear, he shall be judged, whether living or dead, and there
shall be taken whatever he has, and after the chattels are re-
stored to the claimants, the lord and the hundred shall equally
divide the residue between themselves. And if any one of his
friends shall offer to use force against the execution of this
enactment, he shall pay a penalty of six pounds to the king.
The thief shall also be caught, and no one shall have power to

»’ ” Nam ” or *’ naim *’
^ The text seems corrapt here.


harbour bim^ or to gaarantee to him his life ; nor shall he any
longer be enabled to recover anything by trial in court.

49. That no one shall entertain a stranger for more than three
“No one shall entertain a stranger for more than three
nights, imless a person who is his friend shaU have given him
a recommendation ; and no one shall permit a person, after he
is accused, to leave his home.

50. That no one shall aUow a thief to escape.
” If a person meets a thief, and, without outcry raised, lets
him escape, he shall pay a penalty according to the value set
on the thief, unless he shall prove on oath that he did not
know him to be a thief.

51 . Of those who do not pursue on htte and org raised.
” He who, on hearing hue and cry raised, shall neglect to
pursue, shall, for his neglect, pay a fine to the king, unless he
can clear himself by oath.

52. Of one accused in the court of the hundred.
/’If a person shall be accused in the hundred court, and
charged by four men, he shall clear himself on the oaths of
twelve men.

53. That the lord shall hold his servants in Frank-pledge.

‘* All lords who have servants are to be their sureties, that
if they are accused, they wiU produce them for trial in the
hundred court ; and if any person after being accused shall
take to flight, the lord shfiJl pay his Were, and if it shall be
charged that through him he made his escape, he shall either
clear himself on the oaths of six men or pay a penalty to
the king ; and the person who has so taken to flight shaD
be outlawed.”

I also brought with me on the same occasion from London,
a copy of the decision of the whole controversy between the
churches of Canterbury and York, which had long existed, as
to the right of the chief primacy, and which matter had been
discussed at very great length a few years before my arrival in
England in presence ^f the king’s council, and had been at


last finally* determined ; it had also been set at rest by the
irrefragable sentence of the Apostolic authority, to the follow-
ing effect : —

”In the year fix)m the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ,
1072, in the pontificate of our lord the pope, Alexander XI.,
and in the sixth year of the reign of William, the glorious
king of the English ; by the precept of the said pope Alexan-
der, and with the sanction of the said king, in presence of
himself and of the bishops and abbats, the dispute was en-
quired into relative to the primacy which Lanfranc, archbishop
of Canterbury, in right of his church, asserted over the church
of York, and relative to the ordinations of certain of the
bishops, as to whom it was a matter of great uncertainty to
whom in especial they belonged. At length, upon the autho-
rity of divers holy writings, it was proved and shewn that the
church of York ought to be in subjection to that of Canter-
bury, and to pay obedience to its archbishops as primates of
the whole of Britain, in all enactments which pertain to the
Christian religion. But the subjection of the church of Dur-
ham, that is to say, the church of LindisfSeune, and of all the
districts which extend from the bishopric of Lichfield and the
great river Humber as far as the extreme boundaries of Scot-
land, and whatever on the side of the said river belongs to the
diocese of the church of York, the metropolitan of Canterbury
has conceded unto the archbishop of York and his successors ;
on the understanding that, if tiie archbishop of Canterbury
shall wish to convene a synod, whenever he shall think fit so
to do, the archbishop of York shall, at his pleasure, be pre-
sent tiiereat together with all subject to him, and shall shewMm-
self obedient to his canonical dispositions. And, further, that
the archbishop of York ought to bind himself by oath as well
thus to do to the archbishop of Canterbury, Lanfi’anc, arch-
bishop of Canterbury, has proved from the ancient custom of
his predecessors ; but in his love for the king, has excused
Thomas, archbishop of York, from taking the said oath,
and has only received his written profession, without prejudice
to his successors, who shall think fit to demand the oath, with
the profession from the successors of Thomas.

“If the archbishop of Canterbury shall depart this life, the
archbishop of York shall come to Canterbury, and shall, to-
gether with the other bishops of the before-named churchi

190 INGTJLPH’s history of the ABBET of CKOrLAND. A.D. 1072.

consecrate him who shall be elected, as being lawfully his own
primate. And if the archbishop of York shall happen to die,
he who shall be chosen to succeed him shall, on receiving from
the king the gift of the archbishopric, come to Canterbury, or
wherever it shall please the archbishop of Canterbury, and
shall, in due canonical manner, receive ordination from him.
To this constitution have agreed, the king before-named, and
Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas, archbish<^ of York, Hubert, sub-deacon of the Holy Church of Rome and legate of the before-named pope Alexander, as also the other bishops and abbats who have been present. This cause was first heard at the city of Winchester, on the festival of Easter, in the royal chapel, which is situate in the castle there ; and afterwards in the royal viU, which is called Widlesore,^ where it was brought to an end, in presence of the king, bishops, and abbats of divers ranks, who were assembled at court during l^e feast of Pentecost. The seal of king WiUiam. + The seal of queen Matilda. + I» Hubert, lector^ of the Holy Ro- man Church and legate of ihe lord Alexander the pope, have subscribed hereto, -f I, Lan franc, archbishop of Canterbury, have subscribed hereto. + I, Thomas, archbishop of York, have subscribed hereto, -f I, William, bishop of London, have consented hereto, -f I, Hermann, bishop of Sher- bum, have set my mark hereto. + I, Wulstan, bishop of Worcester, have subscribed hereto, -f I Walter, bishop of Hereford, have consented hereto, -f I, Giso, bishop of Wella, have consented hereto, -f I, Eemigius, bishop of Dorchester, have consented hereto, -f I, Walkelin, bishop of Winchester, have consented hereto, -f I, Herefast, bishop of Helmham, have subscribed hereto, -f I, Stigand, bishop of Chichester, have consented hereto, -f I, Siward, bishop of Eochester, have consented hereto, -f I, Osbert, bishop of Exeter, have consented hereto. + I, Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and earl of Kent, have consented hereto, -f I, Goisfrid, bishop of Cou- tances, and one of the elder bishops of the English, have con- sented hereto. + I, Scotland, abbat of the convent of Saint Augustin, have consented hereto. + I» Eilwin, abbat of the convent called Bamsey, have consented hereto, -h I» Elnoth, abbat of Glastonbury, have consented hereto, -h I, Turstan, » Windsor. ' Apparently the flame rank as labdeacon, by which name he is previ- ously c(dled. A.D.1085. CROTLAND THB£AT£N£D BT FAMINE. 191 abbat of the convent in the isle called Ely, have consented hereto, -f I, Wulnoth, abbat of the convent called Cheretesey, have consented hereto. 4- I, Elwin, abbat of the convent of Evesham, have consented hereto. + I, Frederic, abbat of Saint Alban's, have consented hereto. + I, Goif&id, abbat of Saint Peter's, which is situate not far from London, have con- sented hereto. + I, Baldwin, abbat of the convent of Saint Edmund's, have consented hereto, -f I, Turold, abbat of Burgh, have consented hereto, -f I, Adelm, abbat of Abing- don, have consented hereto. + I, Euald, abbat of the new monastery at Winchester, have consented hereto, -f *' At the same council, it was also enacted and decreed, in accordance with the words of the canons, that bishops should leave the vills, and transfer their sees to cities in their dioceses. Upon this, the bishopric of Dorchester was changed into that of Lincoln, Lichfield into that of Chester, Selsey into that of Chichester, Sherbum into that of Salisbury, and Helmham into that of Thetford. The bishopric of Lindisfame had long previously been changed into that of Durham. Accor£ngly, on comimg from London to my monastery, well harnessed with books and laws and the new confirmation by my lord the king of the charter of our re-fdunder, together with all our other deeds and muniments, which had been ac- cepted by the whole of the royal council, and most graciously approved by the aforesaid royal confirmation, I caused ex- ceeding joy to all the sons and friends of our monastery. A very few days after I had arrived there, the winter came on with more severity than usual ; on which, all the waters around US were frozen with hard ice, and the entire passage for vessels was for some days cut off; but still, the ice was not so strong or 80 thick as to suffice for the support of vehicles or waggons for the carriage of any necessaries to the monastery, though it was so hard and thick that all navigation was entirely put an end to. Accordingly, our cellarer bringing us word that bread was falling short in our pantry, and ti^at there was no com in the granary, as God is my witness, I was rendered sad and sorrowfril beyond measure tor the fEunine which was impending over the brethren. Finding that we were thus placed in these straits, and that the inclemency of the weather, which was daily increasing, would not allow victuals to be brought from our estates at a 192 ikoulph's histokt of the abbet of ceotlakd. a.d. 1085. distance to the monastery, ever putting my trust in the Lord and in our most pious patron, the most holy &ither GuthlaCi I gave myself up to prayer before the most holy tomb of so pre- cious a confessor of Christ, and most devoutly prayed the whole night for his intercession for us with Qod. ; to the end that he would not allow his servants to perish with hunger, and that, having proved a most holy helper to many strangers who had come and asked his aid, he would not shut the ordinary bowels of his compassion to his sons, but would, with his accustomed beneficence, afford some signal relief against the impending peril of hunger, and with the usual condescension of his fEivoui- able disposition, mercifully provide us some protection. These requests, with renewed sobs and tearful laments, I repeated over and over again in the ears of the most pious father, and passed a whole night in watching at that most pre- cious tomb. When morning dawned, and we had in common performed the first service of the day in the choir in honor of Qod, and the community was anxiously intent upon its devo- tions before the various altars for the purpose, amid such straits, of obtaining the mercy of God, behold ! on a sudden, from the northern side of the monastery, a voice resounded in my ears, as though that of an angel, who thundered forth words to this effect : ** Eeceive victuals for the brethren, and prepare bread that they may eat." On hearing this voice, we wondered much, and went forth into the cemetery to see who it was, and why he had given utterance to such language. On opening the door, however, we were able to see no one, but found four sacks of the largest size, two of which were filled with com, and the other two with the finest flour ; upon which we returned most duteous thanks to God, and our most holy father Guthlac, who had not deserted those who put their trust in Him, but had wrought His mercy in the day of tribulation and of our straits, to the praise of His most holy confessor. Neither, from that day forward, was food wanting for the brethren, but, eating each day, and always abounding, we thought that the miracle related in the Gospel about the five loaves was being repeated over again; until at last, aftei a considerable time, the ice thawing, we received a new sup- ply of food from our manors. Thus did we verify the words of Saint Ambrose : ** As they ate, beneath their teeth did the food increase in their mouths, and the more it was con* A. D. 1085. WULKETT7L DEPOSED AT^D EXILED 19tl BQmed, the more the food was multiplied. Amid their hands, as they break it, does the bread flow forth ; to their surprise the men find, untouched, fragments which they have not broken off." As this miracle happened to take place on the fifth day of the week, we all determined, always in future, solemnly to perform in the choir the holy office of our most holy patron, Guthlac, whenever we should happen to have the leisure on the flfth day of the week so to do. In the following summer, the people of Hoyland at Multon, Weston, and Spalding, in imitation of those at Depyng, by a common enactment agreed to among them, divided among themselves, man by man, their marshes, which were situate above our river Asendyk ; on which, some put their portions in tillage, others preserved theirs for hay, while some, again, allowed theirs, as before, to lie for pasture for their own cattle apart from the others, and found the earth to be rich and fruit- ful. Stimulated by this their example, I, Ingulph, the abbat of Croyland, and L — of Kacbeth, and some others at Gappelade, in like manner divided between ourselves our portion at Gappelade, which ran down to the same river ; and, on tilling it, we found the soil equally fertile and fruitful. Thus far had I run on my course of prosperity rejoicing; now do toil and grief emit their funereal notes. The origin of our evils, and the chief cause of our woes, was Ivo Taillebois, who was ever a most determined enemy of ours. After my lord the king had given him to wife Lucia, the daughter of the late most valiant earl Algar, upon the decease of her two bre- thren, Edwin and Morcar, together with aU their lands, in the year of our Lord, 1072, he was elated beyond measure, against Gfod and his Saints, and our monastery of Croyland ; and so greatly did he harass the monks of our cell at Spalding, who daily dwelt at his gates, that they left their cell, as I have previously mentioned, in the hand of God, and, witii all their goods, returned to their monastery of Croyland, it being the year of our Lord, 1074. Moreover, after Waldev, the holy Martyr of God, had been most cruelly beheaded, on his body being carried by Wulketul, the lord abbat, to Croyland, to receive there the affectionate du- ties of sepulture, the said venerable father was most impiously deposed, and sent into distant exile. This was in the year 1075. He survived his deposition for the space of ten years, o 194 IlfGULPH's HISTOBY OP THE ABBEY OF CEOYXAND. A.O.1087. as I have already mentioned, and was at last carried off by a sadden attack of paralysis, while many of our archives and some of our jewels were still remaining unrestored ; in conse- quence of which, being baulked of my desires, I was greatly deceived in my hopes. In the same year, that is to say, in the year of our Lord, 1085, my most illustrious lady, queen Matilda, who had always used her good oflBLces for me with my lord the king, had often relieved me by her cdms-deeds, and had very frequently aided me in all matters of business and cases of necessity, departed this life. In the second year after her death, that is to say, in the year of our Lord, 1087, my lord, the renowned king Wil- liam, having levied a most valiant army, led an expedition against France, and wasted nearly the whole of Maine with fire and sword ; but having brought on a disease through the extreme toil and anxiety attendant upon this expedition, on finding, from his physicians, that his death was impending, he gave Normandy to Eobert, his eldest son, England to WiUiam, his second son, and all his mother's territories, and a great part of his treasures and other jewels, to his youngest son, Henry. At last, after being provided with the heavei3y viaticum, he departed this life, and was regally buried by his sons in the monastery of Saint Stephen, at Caen, which he had erected from the foundations ; it being the twenty-second year of his reign, the fifty-second of his dukedom, and nearly titie sixtieth of his age. He was succeeded on the throne of England by his son Wil- liam, who was solemnly crowned at London by archbishop Lanfranc. On hearing from Normandy the rumours of the king's death, we were all smitten with sudden dread : I, in especial, could mourn, with tears and lamentations irremediable, the having lost a most beloved master, one who from my in- fancy had proved a most excellent patron, and in all my ne- cessities an imwearied protector against all my adversaries. But may Abraham receive his soul into his bosom, and may he place him before God in the repose of the blessed ! Trusting in his familiar acquaintanceship with the new king, and perceiving that my lord the king, my old pi-otector, was now dead, Ivo Taillebois, my most inveterate foe, vo- mited forth all his malice against our house, and rapaciously seized into his own hands aU our lands that lay in his demesne, A.D.1087. THE ElKGCOXnBMSTHE TITLE DEEDS OF CB0YLA17D. 195 that is to say, in Cappelade, Spalding, Pyncebek, and Algar ; both the lands which we held of the gift of Algar the Elder, together with the churches and chapels thereon, our priests and servants being expelled by him, and his own clerks vio- lently intruded therein. He also seized the lands which the sheii^ Thorold had recently bestowed on us, and those which his kinsman, earl Algar, had lately given to us ; while, at the same time, he drove away all our servants, and placed his own there, and having, by the exercise of his power, expelled our priest Jocelyn therefrom, intruded his clerk, Fulcard, into om: church of Cappelade. After I had frequently sent to him the lord Bichard de Eulos and others, who were friends and well- wishers to the monastery, to act as mediators for the purpose of obtaining peace, while he in the meantime grew more and more obstinate in his course of wickedness ; on seeing that this son of eternal perdi- tion, in the depths of his wickedness, contemned the words of life, after having communicated my design to those who were faithful to us and had proved our friends, I took with me our title deeds relative to the lands before-mentioned, and again repaired to London ; then passing on to Canterbury, I con- sulted my old friend, the lord archbishop, about my affairs, and, repeatedly throwing myself at his feet, suppliantly im- plored his intercession with the new king, his pupil, for the protection of my monastery. He greatly compassionated my calamitous conation, and mercifully granted me his interces- sion, while, at the same time, he appointed a day within the fifteen days following, on which to come to London ; and he advised me to come prepared, and bringing with me the best charter I had relative to the aforesaid lands, not to shew the rest of the muniments ; for, as he reminded me, ** of making many books there is no end." * Accordingly, on the day named, I made my appearance as commanded, and showed to the before-named venerable father, the lord archbishop, in his chapel, the charter of earl Algar, relative to the said lands, written in Saxon characters ; upon which, summoning a meeting of his clergy, he examined the «aid charter, and, having instructed himself on every head, and well grounded himself therein, he proceeded to the king with the said charter, and, blessed be the Most High, gained his ^ Eccles. xii. 12. o 2 196 INGUI^PH's HISTOBT of the ABfiEr OF CEOTLA.XD. A.D. 1087. favour in all respects in full accordance with my utmost wishes. For I received a letter from my lord the king, addressed to the sheriff of Lincoln, commanding him to make inquisition of the lands contained in the said cheirter, and if he could find by the said inquisition that they had from ancient times helonged to our monastery, and that, in the time of his father, we had been peaceably seised thereof, he was to restore them to us ia full ; which was accordingly done. Fulcard, however, before-mentioned, who had been iniqui- tously intruded into our church at Cappelade by the said Ivo^ on coming to a fuller understanding of the favourable disposi- tion of the archbishop of Canterbury towards us, distrusted his own right, and, in search of subterfuges, appealed to the Apostolic See. The charter of earl Algar, which was then com- mended by the archbishop, and approved of by the sheriff and the faithful Christians, our neighbours, and the king's justices in the county, was to the following effect : — " To all Christians throughout the whole of Hercia residing, the earl Algar, greeting. I would have you all to understand, that I have given to my spiritual father, Siweird, abbat of Croyland, and all abbats there to succeed him, and to their monks, in Holebech and in Cappelade, four carucates of [arable] land, and six bovates ; and twelve acres of meadow land, to- gether with the parish church of Cappelade, and the present- ation of the priest thereof; also together with the chapel of Saint John the Baptist in the same viU, and together with a mere of two thousand acres on the- sea-shore, and a marsh of [three] thousand acres near its river of Schepishee ; in Spal- delyng two carucates of land, in Pyncebek half a carucate ' of land, in Algare eleven bovates, in Donedyk two carucates and twenty acres of meadow land, in Drayton one carucate and six acres of meadow land and four scdt-pits, and one ca- rucate in Burtoft, together with the church of Sutterton and its chapel of Salteney. These my offerings I have given as a perpetual alms-gift unto the before-named abbat Siward and his monks, for the support of his monastery, seeing that, as I have often been informed, his island is not fruitful in com of any kind : and I have firmly established the same by this my deed at Leicester, in presence of my lord, the king Ke- nulph, in the year from the Licamation of Christ, 810. -f- I, Eenulph, king of the Mercians, have granted the same, -f- J, Wiilfrod, archbishop of Canterbury, have counselled the A.D. 1091. DESTBUCTIOX OF THE MONASTEKY BY FIKE. 197 same. + I, Wonwona, bishop of Leicester, have praised the same. + I, Ceolwnlph, brother of king Kenulph, have ap- proved of the same. + I, Algar, son of Algar, have been gratified hereat. +'* This first charter of the before-named earl Algar, relative to the lands before-mentioned, I have inserted in this history, to the end that our successors may know what are their arms against the wickedness of our adversary, so powerM as he is, if he should chance at any time, at the instigation of the devil, again to lift up his horns as he has often done before, for the purpose of seizing our possessions. An interval of two years speedily elapsing, the venerable father, one who had ever proved a most kind patron to me, my lord Lanfranc, the archbiehop of Canterbury, departed this life. He was the only Mend who, after the king's death, had been left to me ; and indeed, he had shewn himself in all my ne- cessities an indefatigable Mend, and an unwearied supporter in iLy tribulations. On the occasion of his death, one of our monks wrote a most graceM epitaph, which begins as fol- lows: — *' Anglia, lament, and yon, Italia, mourn : Let Francia grieve, and Alemannia weep. Scotia, and you, Hibemia too, lament, And all ye lands, that this your flower is dead. Lament, oh spouse of Christ ! that he is gone, And may thy grief for Lanfranc never cease. Oh ! ye who pass, but for a moment stay, And Lanfranc, Apostolic man, bewail, With tears and lamentations for our loss." Again, after an interval of two years had elapsed from his death, a most dreadM misfortune befell me, one that had been shewn to me beforehand by numerous portents ; the utter de- stniction I mean of our monastery, so famous as it was, which had heen often most distinctly foretold to me by visions and other appearances, through a most dreadful conflagration, which most cruelly ravaged so many dwellings of the servants of God. For, our plumber being engaged in the tower of the church, repairing the roof, he neglected to put out his fire in the evening ; but, by a kind of fatality, attended with ex* treme fatuity on his part, covered it over with dead ashes that he might get more early to work in the morning, and then came down to his supper. After supper was over, all out 198 INGULPH's HISTOET of the abbey of CKOTLAin). A.D. 1091. servants had betaken themselves to bed, when after the deepest sleep had taken possession of them all, a most violent north wind arose, and so hastened on this greatest of misfor- tunes that could possibly befall us. For, as it entered the tower in every direction through the open gratings, and blew upon the dead ashes, it caused the fire, thus fanned into life, to communicate with the adjoining timbers, where, speedily finding material of a dry and parched nature on which to feed, the fire waxed stronger and stronger, and soon began to catch the more substantial parts. The people in the vill for a long time perceived a great glare of light in the belfry, and sup- posed that it was either the clerks of the church or else the plumber busily engaged at some work there ; but at last, on seeing the flames bursting forth, with loud outcries tliey knocked at the gates of the monastery. This was about the dead of night, when all of us, resting in our beds, were in our first and soundest sleep. At last, I was aroused from my slumbers by the loud shouts of the people, and, hastening to the nearest window, I most distinctly perceived, just as though it had been midday, all the servants of the monastery running from every quarter, shouting and hallooing, towards the church. Still in my night-clothes, I awoke my companions, and descended in all haste to the cloisters, which were lighted up on all sides just as though there had been a thousand lamps burning. On run- ning to the door of the church and trying to eflfect an entrance, I w£is prevented from so doing by the melted brass of the bells which was pouring down, and the heated lead which in like manner was falling in drops. Upon this, I retreated and looked in [at the windows], and on finding the flames every- where prevailing, turned my steps towards the Dormitory. The lead still pouring dovm from the church upon the clois- ters, and soon making its way through, I was severely burnt on the shoulder blade, and should have had a narrow escape of being burnt alive, had I not instantly leaped over into the enclosure of the cloisters. Here I perceived that the fire, as it vomited forth sheets of fiame, was issuing in volumes firom the tower of the church, and had already communicated with the nave, while it was repeatedly shooting forth embers, and flakes in the direction of the Dormitory of the brethren ; upon which, I shouted aloud to them as if they had been immersed A.D. 1091. PEOGEESS OF THE CONFLAGRATION. 199 in a mortal lethargy, and it was only with the greatest difficulty, though I cried out at the very top of my voice, that I was able at last to awake them. On recognizing my voice, full of alarm, they sprang up &om their beds, and half naked and clad only in their night clothes, the instant they heard the fire in the cloisters, rushed forth through all the windows of the Dormitory, and fell to the ground with dreadful force ; many were wounded and severely shaken by the severity of tiie fall, and, shocking to re- late, some had their limbs broken. The flames, however, in the meanwhile, growing stronger and stronger, and continually sending forth flakes from the Church in the direction of the Ee- fectory, first communicated with the Chapter-house, then they caught the Dormitory, and after that the Befectory, and at the same instant, the Ambulatory, which was near the Infirmary. After this, with a sudden outburst they extended their ravages to the whole of the Infirmary, with aJl the adjoining offices. All the brethren flying for refuge to the spot where I stood in the court, on seeing most of them half naked, I attempted to regain my chamber, in order to distribute the clothes which I had there, among such as I saw stand in the greatest need thereof; but so great was the heat that had taken possession of all the approaches to the hall, and so vast were the torrents of molten lead that were pouring down in every direction, that it rendered it impossible for even the boldest among the young men to effect an entrance. Being still in ignorance that our Infirmary had caught on the other side, I took a circuit through the northern part of the cemetery towards the east end of the Church, upon which I perceived our Infirmary enveloped in flames, which proved so invincible as to rage with the greatest fury even upon the green trees, such as ashes, oaks, and willows, that were grow- ing in the neighbourhood. I, accordingly, returned to the west side, and there I found my chamber, just like a furnace, vomiting forth torrents of flame on every side through all the windows ; and proceeding onwards, I saw, with eyes that had good reason to shed tears, all the other buildings adjoining, towards the south, the Halls, namely, of the lay brethren and of the guests, and all the others tliat had been covered with lead, falling a prey to the flames. At this moment, the tower of the Church falling on its south 200 INGTJLPh'b HISTORY OF THE ABBEY OF CEO YLAND. A. D. 1091, side, I was so stunned by the crash, that I fell to the gioimd half dead and in a swoon. Being raised by my brethren, and carried to our porter's room, I was scarcely able, until mom- ning, to recover my right senses or my usual strength. Day dawned at last, and having now recovered from my fit, the brethren shedding tears and overcome with languor, and many of them being miserably lacerated and burnt in their limbs, with mournful voice and tearful lamentations we joined in the performance of Divine service in the dwelling of Grimketiil, our corodiary.' Having performed all the Hours* of the Divine service, both those of ttie day as well as of the night, we pro- ceeded to take a view of the state of our monastery, the fire still raging in many of the outbuildings. It was then for the first time that I perceived our granary and stable burnt, the fire not being yet extinguished, and the upright timbers being eaten away by the flames deep into the very earth. About the third hour of the day, the flames being now greatly subdued, we effected an entry into the Church, and water being carried thither, extinguished the fire there, which had now pretty well burned out. In the choir, which was reduced to ashes, we found all the books of the holy office utterly destroyed, both Antiphonaries as well as Gradals.* On entering the vestiary, however, we found allour sacred vestments, and the relics of the Saints, as well as some other precious things deposited there, untouched by the flames, the place being covered with a double roof of stone^ Going up stairs into our muniment-room, we found that, although it had been covered throughout with an arching of stone, the fire had still made its way through the wooden windows; and that, although the presses themselves appeared to be quite safe and sound, still aU our muniments therein were burnt into one mass, and utterly destroyed by the intense heat of the fire, just as though they had been in a furnace red hot or an oven at a white heat. ' ** Corodiarii." " Corodiarius" was the person who received the ** Corody/' a sum of money or allowance of meat, drink, and clothing, due to the king from an abbey or other house of religion, towards the sustenance of such one of his servants as he should think fit to nominftte. * See p. 80. They were called tierce, sext, nones, &c. ^ Responsories, or books of responses, called '* gradals,'' because the (Contents were chaunted *' in gradibus/' upon the steps of the choir. These books contained all that was sung by the choir at high mass ; the tracts, sequences, and hallelujahs ; the creeds, ofiertory, and the office for the asperges, or sprinkling of the holy water. A.D.1091. PKESEKViTlOX OU- PART OF THE ANCIEirr CHABTEBS. 201 Our charters, of extreme beauty, written in capital letU^rs, adorned with golden crosses and paintings of the greatest beauty, and formed of materials of matchless value, which had been there deposited, were all destroyed. The privileges, also, granted by the kings of the Mercians, documents of extreme antiquity, and of the greatest value, which were likewise most exquisitely adorned with pictures in gold, but written in Saxon characters, were all burnt. The whole of these muniments of ours, both great and small, nearly four hundred in number, were in one moment of a night, which proved to us of blackest hue, by a most shocking misfortune, lost and utterly destroyed. A few years before however, I had, of my own accord, taken from our muniment-room several charters written in Saxon characters, and as we had duplicates of them, and in some instances triplicates, I had put them in the hands of our chauntor, the lord Fulmar, to be kept in the cloisters, in order to instruct the juniors in a knowledge of the Saxon characters ; as this kind of writing had for a long time, on account of the Kormans, been utterly neglected, and was now understood by only a few of the more aged men. In so doing, my object was that the juniors, being instructed in the art of reading these characters, might, in their old age, be the better enabled to support themselves on the authority of their archives against their adversaries. These charters having been deposited in an ancient press, which was kept in the cloisters, and surrounded on every side by the wall of the church, were the only ones that were saved and preserved from the fire. These now form our principal and especial muniments, after having been long considered as of secondary value and thrown aside, and ne- glected and despised, in consequence of the barbarous charac- ters in which they were written ; in accordance with the words of the blessed Job : ** The things that my soul refused to touch, are as my sorrowftil meat."' The whole of our library also perished, which contained more than three hundred volumes of original works, besides smaller volumes more than four hundred in number. We also lost, at the same time, an astronomical table,' of extreme • Job vi. 7. ' Called by our author " pinax'' and " Nadir." Its uses were probably ■omewhat similar to those of the orrery of modem times. 202 ingulph's history of xhe abbey or croyland. a.d. 1091. beauty and costliness, wonderfully formed of all kinds of metal, according to the various natures of the stars and constellations. Saturn was made of copper, Jupiter of gold, Mars of iron, the Sun of latten, Mercury of bronze, Venus of tin, and the Moon of silver. The Colures and all the signs of the Zodiac were described by the skill of the artist in various forms and figures, in accordance with their natures, shapes, and colours, and attracted beyond measure the eye as well as the mind of the beholder by the multitude of gems as well as the metals employed. Throughout all England there was not such another JNTadir known or heard of. The king of France had formerly presented it to Turketul, who, at his decease, had left it to the library of the convent, both as an ornament and for the instruction of the younger brethren, and now it was consumed by the voracious flames, and so annihilated. The whole of our Chapter-house was burnt. Our Dormitory, with all the beds of the brethren contained therein, and the necessary-house as well, perished in the flames. Our Infirmary, together with the chapel and the bath-room, and all the offices thereto adjoining, was similarly consumed. Our Refectory, and all the contents thereof, were destroyed, with the excep- tion of a few cups of porcelain,* and the horn and Crucibolum of Wichtlaf, the former king of the Mercians, which were kept in presses of stone ; the kitchens also adjoining, and the hall and chamber of the lay brethren, with all the contents thereof, were consumed by the fire. Our cellar also, as well as the very casks, filled with beer, were destroyed. The abbat's hall, too, and his chamber, together with the entire court-yard of the monastery, which, through the care of my predecessors, had been most beauteously surrounded with build- ings remarkable for their elegance — alas! unhappy me, that my sojourn was prolonged to behold it ! — most shockingly fell a prey to the fuiy of the flames, which raged in every direc- tion with a vehemence that seemed to be truly Greek.' A few cottages of the poor corodiers, the stalls of our beasts of burden, with the sheds for the other cattle, that stood at a considerable distance, and were covered with stone, were the ^ This is perhaps the meaning of ** murrheos," but it is a matter of doubt. 'He alludes to the Greek fire, or, much used in warfare dur- ing the middle ages. .D. 1091. BEIS^EFACnONS TO CEOTLAND. 203 only things that remained nnconsumed. Besides the northern transept of the church, from which the wind drove onwards with most impetuous force towards the south, all the buildings of the monastery, and especially those covered with lead, whether formed of wood or of stone, our charters and jewels, books and utensils, bells and belfries, vestments and provisions, were in a moment of time lost and consumed, myself, to my most bitter sorrow, being then the head of the convent. Many signs and numerous portents foretold these fires, and nightly visions repeatedly forewarned us thereof ; and too late did I understand them all. I then brought to mind the words of our holy father, Turketul, in his dying moments, when he benignly warned us diligently to take care of our fires ;^° as also those of our blessed father, Wulfran,who, in a nightly vision at Fontenelle, conmianded me carefully to watch the fire of the hostrey of the three Saints, Guthlac, iNeot, and Waldev. ^VTiat these most unerring admonitions forewarned me, I now, too late, to my sorrow, perceive and understand, and indulge in vain complaints, while, with tears inexhaustible, I deservedly pour fortti these lamentations, my errors demanding of me the same. But to return to the details of our tragedy. The news of our dreadful misfortune being speedily spread throughout all the vicinity, numbers of our neighbours, who had the bowels of compassion for our misfortunes, most kindly looked with the eye of sympathy upon our indigent state. For instance, our lord and most holy father, Remigius, the bishop of Lincoln, graciously granted an indulgence of forty days to all who should do us any service, as well as to those who should in- duce others so to do. He also gave us forty silver marks in money. By his advice and persuasion, also, the venerable canons of the church of Lincoln, and the citizens of that city, and the people in its vicinity, sent us one hundred marks. Richard de Rules, also, the lord of Brunne and of Depyng, as ^Hjing our faithftil brother, and, in the time of our tribulation, a most loving friend, gave us ten quarters of wheat, ten quar- ters of malt, tell quarters of peas, ten quarters of beans, and ten pounds in silver. This was the alms-gift of Bichard de Rulos towards the restoration of our monastery. Haco of Multon also, at the same time, gave us twelve quarters of wheat, and twenty fat bacon hogs. This was the 1" See p. 10 , and 152. 204 IN(JULPH*S inSTOET OF THE ABBEY OF CROYLAJNT). A.D. 1091. alms-gift of the said Haco. Elsin of Pyncebek also gave one hundred shillings in silver, and ten bacon hogs. Ardnot of Spalding likewise gave us six quarters of com, two carcases of oxen, and twelve bacon hogs. Many others also presented us with various gifts, by means of which our indigent state was greatly relieved ; and may our Lord Jesus Christ write their names in the book of life, and reward them with His heavenly glory, l^or should, among so many of our benefac- tors, the holy memory of Juliana, a poor old woman of Weston, be consigned to oblivion, who, " of her want," did give unto us " all her living," ^* namely, a great quantity of spun thread, for the purpose of sewing the vestments of tiie brethren of our monastery. Eustace, sheriff of Huntingdon, also, who held our lands at Thymyng, at the letting of my predecessor, the lord "Wulke- tul, visited us on this occasion ; and urgently requested of us a confirmation of the said lands for the term of his life, promising that he would in the courts of the county, and of the hundred, and everywhere else, be our protector ; while he en- gaged to defend our rights, as though they were his own. To this we consented, and executed a deed to the following effect : — " This is the agreement made between Ingulph the abbat, together with all the brethren, of Croyland, and Eustace, the sheriff of Huntingdon, to wit — The abbat, together with the brethren, hath granted imto him, so long as he shall live, in return for having his counsel, aid, and pains, in the affairs of the monastery, wheresoever and whensoever we shall, in the county of Huntingdon, be impleaded by any adversary, our manor of Thymyng, together with all our lands thereto he- longing, that is to say, one hide and a half of land, as folly as he has hitherto held the said land at the letting of the lord "Wulketul, the former abbat of the said monastery. But after the death of the said Eustace, the whole of the said land shall revert to us without any farther delay or any diminution whatever thereof. I, Ingulph, the abbat of Croyland, have caused this deed to be made, -f I, Odo, the prior, have con- sented hereto, -f I, Laurence, the chauntor, have written this deed, -f I, Sigwata, the steward, have subscribed hereto. -|- I, Trig, the proctor, have signed the same. -H 10 St. Mark xu. 44. A.D. 1091. AGREEMENT BETWEEN INGTJLPH AND HOBEBT. 205 I, Eustace, the sheriff, have given my consent hereto. + I, Baldwin, the son of Eustace, have acquiesced herein, -f " There came to us, at the same time, Oger, the priest of Ee- pyngale, and took to farm of us our manor of Eepyngale, together with sdl our land appendant thereto, that is to say, three carucates of arahle and sixty acres of meadow land ; on which occasion, we executed a deed in his favour^ to the following effect : — " This is the agreement made between Ingulph, the abbat of Croyland, together with all his monks, and Oger, the priest of Kepyngale, to wit. The abbat, with his moiis, hath to farm let unto the said Oger, the whole of their lands at Repyngale, that is to say, three carucates of land, together with sixty acres of meadow land, as also their manor in the said vill, so long as the said Oger shall live, for the payment of sixty shil- lings and twelve bacon hogs, to our monastery to be paid at the feast of Saint Martin in every year. And when he shall depart this life, if his heir shall wish to hold the said land, he shall be at liberty to hold it at the same rent. I, Ingulph, the abbat, have caused this deed to be made. + I, Odo, the prior, have consented hereto, -f I, Laurence, the chauntor, have written this deed, -f I, Sigwata, the steward, have counselled the same, -f I Asius, the proctor, have set my mark hereto, -f I, Oger, the priest, have bound myself hereto. + " At the same time, there also came to us, Eobert, the ser- vant of Simon of Baston, and took to farm of us in Baston, thirty-six acres of land for the term of his life, in return for a certain sum of money, which he gave to us in our greatest necessity, as also for the payment to us in each year of two fihiUings, at the feast of Saint Bartholomew; upon which, we executed a deed in his favour, to the following effect : — " This is the agreement made between Ingulph the abbat, together with all the monks of Croyland, and Eobert, the servant of Simon of Baston, to wit — The abbat, together with the brethren, hath granted to him in fee so long as he shall live, thirty-six acres of land in Baston, and if he shall have such an heir as shall prove worthy of the said land, and shall, at the option of the abbat and the brethren, be deemed de- serving of the same, he shall, on the like terms, hold the same. By way of rent for the said lands, Bobcrt shall give in 206 i^gulph's histoky op the abbet of CEOYLAND. a D. 1091. every year two shillings, and the tithes of the land of which he has so gained possession, according as the same shall accrae. And when he shall depart this life, he shall leare his body to the church of Saint Guthlac, together with the moiety of all of his money. He and his heir shall in each year pay the two shillings at the feast of Saint Guthlac. I, Ingulph, the ab- bat, have caused this deed to be made. + I, Odo, the prior, have consented hereto. + I, Laurence, the chauntor, have written this deed. + I, Sigwata, the steward, have signed the same. -|- I, Trig, the proctor, have subscribed hereto. + I, Robert, the liegeman of Simon of Baston, have given my consent hereto. + I* Simon of Baston, have sanctioned the wishes of my liegemen. +** On the same occasion, in return for a sum of money which "William the miller had given unto us towards the re-building of our church, we granted in fee to the said William, thirty roods of meadow land near Southee, and to his partner Agge of Newton, our entire piscary in the said stream, fix)m Tedwar- thar as far as Namanslandhyme, to hold to themselves and their heirs by the tenure of paying unto us in each year, at the feast of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle, upon our great altar, two shillings. As to the said thirty roods of meadow land and piscary, we executed to them our deed to the following effect: — " This is the agreement made between Ingulph, the abbat of Croyland, together with all his brethren, and William the filler, together with Agge of Newton, his partner, and their heirs and assigns, to wit — ^The abbat and his brethren have granted in fee unto the aforesaid William the miller, thirty roods of meadow land, near the banks of the river Southee, extend- ing from the comer which is called Tedwarthar, as far as Na- manslandhyme ; and unto Agge of Newton, his partner, our entire piscary in the said river Southee, running along between the comers before-mentioned ; to themselves and to their heirs and their assigns, as folly and freely as we have hitherto held the same, and without any diminution or gainsaying thereof: and tiiey and their heirs, shall in each year, at the feast of Saint Bartholomew, offer unto us upon our great altar, two shillings, so long as they shall wish to hold the said piscary and the said meadow land. I, Ingulph, the abbat, ^ve caused this deed to be made. -)- I, Odo, the prior, have A.D. lot 1. AGHEEMENT BETWEEN INGULPH ASD 8IW0KD. 207 consented hereto. + I, Laurence, the chauntor, have written this deed. + I, Sigwata, the steward, have counselled the same, -f- I, Trig, the proctor, have set my mark hereto. -|- I, William the iniiler, have accepted hereof. + I, Agge of Newton, have given my consent hereto. -|-" We also demised at the same time, the same necessity com- pelling us thereto, unto Gunter Siword, two hundred acres of arable and meadow land near our rivers of Welland and of Asendyk, together with the entire piscary in our said rivers from Wodelade as far as Aswyktoft, for a period of twenty years ; on which occasion, we executed to them our deed as to the aforesaid arable and meadow land and piscary, to the following effect : — " This is the agreement made between Ingulph, the abbat, together with all the monks of Croyland, and Gunter Siword of Spalding, to wit — The abbat, together with his monks, has granted unto the before-named Gunter, for the space of twenty years, two hundred acres of arable and meadow land adjoining to their rivers of Welland and Asendyk, as also the entire piscary, in their said waters, that is to say, from Wodelade as &r as Aswyktoft, without any right of ingress on onr part, except for the purposes of navigation, and not for the purpose of fishing, except with the leave and good- will of the said Gunter. But the said Gunter shall give a passage to the said abbat and to his servants to the Drain of Asendyk and to Cokerdyke by such road as he shall ap- point, as oft as, and whenever, they shall have occasion tor the same. I, Ingulph, the abbat, have caused this deed to be made. + I, Odo, the prior, have consented hereto, -t- I, Laurence, the chauntor, have written [this deed]. -|- I, Sigwata, the steward, have set my signature, hereto. -|- I, -Sgehner, the proctor, have forwarded the same. + I, Gun- ter Siword, have received the same. -|- I, Fareman, the bro- ther of Gunter, have acquiesced herein, -h I, Aldieta, the wife of Gunter, have given my blessing hereto, -f- I, Wnlmer, the son of Gunter and Aldieta, have granted the Mine, -h" At the same time, also, we granted to various men of our honsehold, and many others who had lately resorted to us in oonsequence of the wars which were now being waged between the king and the chief men of the land, the whole of c ur lands ntoate between Wodelade and the vill of Croyland, near the 208 INGXTLPh's KCSTOHT OV the abbey op CBOTLAND. A.D. 1091. banks of the river Welland, to hold the same of our cellarer by giving certain services, labours, rents, aids, and pains to us and to our monastery, as in the rolls of our cellarer are more fully set forth ; a few of which, for the infonnatioa of posterity, are here more fully inserted. All the men of Croyland, who hold meadow or arable land, except those whom the charters of the abbey which they possess acquit thereof, owe to the abbat three days' work, that is to say, one day's reaping, one day's binding, and one day's carrying, for ie supply of food to the abbat. Likewise, aU. who desire to have turbary in the marshes of the abbat, owe one day's work, or else three obols towards digging turfs for the conTent of Croyland ; from which the abbat is to receive his pennies, and the cellarer his obols towards the expenses of the chap- lains for the recluses. Likewise, every person who does not hold the same freely, is bound to pay one penny, which is now called ** Eout-penny," towards the support of the men whose duty it is to carry the abbat and his people whereyer he shall think fit to go by fresh water. Likewise, all per- sons who do not hold freely, shall pay tallage, and shall pay Lairwite" and an amerciament for their daughters. The serfs were also to do many other things for the monastery, which are found more fully enrolled in the before-mentioned inventory of our cellarer. Being thus mercifully aided by these numerous acts of bounty on the part of the feithfiil in Christ, both neighbours as well as others situate at a greater distance, in order that they might see that they had not committed their alms-gifts to barren ground, we laboured night and day, with all possible diligence, to bring speedy relief to the house of the Lord. We placed a new nave beneath the roof of the church in place of the old one, which had been burnt, and added other appen- dages as well as we could. In place of the ancient tower of the church, we erected an humble belfry, and placed therein two small bells, which Fergus, the coppersmith of Saint 'Botolph'a town,^^ had lately presented to us, there to remain until years of greater prosperity, when we propose, by the Lord's assist- ance, to make alterations in all these matters for the better, and to raise a temple worthy of the majesty of the Lord upon more lasting foundations. ^1 A penalty for being guilty of fornication. ^' Now Boston. A.O. 1091. HOirOBS PAID TO THE HABTYB WALDST. 209 After the wounds of our church had heen in this humhle maimer tended and healed up, sad and sorrowing that the tomh of the holy Martyr, "Waldev, who was huried in our chapter- house, lay uncovered and exposed in the open air to the showers and all kinds of tempests, after consulting my hre- thren thereupon, I determined to transfer it to our church, and, to the honor of God, more honorahly to place it upon a candlestick rather than under a bushel. Accordingly, all our brethren, with the most ready devoutness, consented to this translation, and we named a suitable day for the performance of the task. On the day appointed, with all due reverence paid by a train of servants and taper-bearers, and with no small multitude of the other faithful ones of Christ in attendance, we approached the holy tomb, thinking that the body was reduced to dust, like other dead bodies, and that only the dry bones would be found remaining, as these events had taken place in the sixteenth year of his slumbers. But, behold ! on opening the tomb, we received an evident proof of the glorifi- cation of the Martyr, for we found the body as whole and as nncorrupted as on the day on which it was buried ; we also found the head united to the body, while a fine crimson line aroimd the neck was the only sign remaining of his decollation. On seeing this, I could not contain myself for joy, and in- terrupting the response which the brethren were singing, with a loud voice began the hymn, ** Te JDeum laudamus;*' on which, the Chauntor, taking it up, enjoined the rest to sing it. In the meantime, looking upon the face of this most holy Martyr, I easily recognized the countenance of that most illus- trious nobleman whom I had formerly seen in my vision at Fontenelle. After the said hymn was finished, and the con- fession had been repeated, all, both literates as weU as laymen, falling on their knees and praying for the mercy of Gbd to be shown unto me, and making confession, I pronounced the ab- solution of all ; then crawling on my hands and feet, with my lips I kissed tke face of the most holy Martyr, and having touched and handled him with my hands, I now inform posterity what, with my own eyes, I saw, and how that, with my own hands, I touched this Martyr. On kissing him, I per- ceived such a sweet odour proceeding from the holy body as I never remember having smelt, either in the palace of the king « in distant Syria, with all its aromatic herbs. Immediately 210 INGULPH's HISTOBT 01- THE A3SET OF CB,0TLA3SD. A.D. 1091 upon this, I began the response, " Uoce odor filii met" &c.," and directed the Ghauntor to proceed with the words. The response being finished, we closed the coffin, and placing it on the shoulders of the monJ^s, lifted it from the earlli ; and then, with the solemn melody of our chaunts to the best of my humble ability, carried it into our church, and placed it at tlie side of Saint Guthlac, our founder, under a stone arch, in a place which had been prepared for the purpose ; and, from our inmost hearts, we returned thanks to the Lord most High, who had thought fit to bring before our notice that there was a true Martyr among us, and had willed, in the day of tribu- lation, to prepare such a gift of consolation for his sons. For, the news of this translation of the holy Martyr being spread throughout the country, multitudes of the faithful fiocked daily to his tomb, and offering up their vows there, tended, in a great degree, to resuscitate our monastery. To the honor, also, of God, and the edification of the people, I recollected that in the monasteries beyond sea, that is to say, of Fontenelle, Feschamp, Jumieges, Molisme, and Clugny, as well as at Fleury, and in all the other most ancient convents, the Poor's Maundy^* was every day performed after the greater mass, and tiiat the people of God were much edified thereby; while, in all the English convents, this Poor's Maundy was either omitted, or else a thing quite unknown. Upon this, with the advice of all the community, I resolved that, for our benefactors, the same should be done each day from that time forward.; and I gave permission to him who should for the time being act as our Aimoner, to leave the choir at great mass, immediately after the consecration of the Sacrament of our Lord, charging the said Almoner to go straight to the gate of the monastery, and, before great mass was concluded, to bring three wayfarers into the great parlour ; and if there should be no wayfarers, then three poor aged men were to be brought in ; and if there were no such aged men, then three boys of good character were to be brought into the said par- lour, in place of three paralytics, either men or women, who in tiie yUl around us were confined to their beds. These " From Gen. xxvii. 27 — " See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord hath blessed." ^' " Mandatum paupemm." The washing of the feet of the poor, in obedience to the <* mandate" or " command" of our Saviour, in St. John xiii. 34 — *' A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another ;" which words wsre sung during the ablution. A.D. 1091. MAUNDY OP THE POOB AT CEOTLAKD. 211 boys, as in the case of the wayfarers or old men, were to have their feet washed, but the whole of the victuals was to be sent to the paralytics in whose place they had sat. As to the way- farers and aged men, their feet were to be washed, and there they were to eat their victuals, if they should think fit, and to take away with them the remains of bo& the victuals and drink : but if they should not choose to eat it there, then they were to be at liberty to take it vdth them into the -nil. In order to perform the said maundy, the Almoner was to receive each day three loaves, such as the monks received,: three flaggons of the convent ale, and three dishes from the kitchen ; and the Almoner was to see that all these were pre*- pared before the coming of the monks, who, immediately on finishing great mass, were to come every day from the choir to wash the feet of the poor persons before-mentioned ; and it was his duty to provide those persons, as well as the victuals, in the most becoming manner in his power. But if, at the per- suasion of the devil, through the evil prompting of avarice, or through hatred of obedience, the said Almoner should bring in not three poor persons, but two only, or one, he was to be put for that day on bread and water, and no mercy was to be shown to him therein ; and unless he should on another day supply as many as on that day he had subtracted, so many dishes were on the following day to be vsrithdrawn as the num- ber of the persons whom he had so subtracted, he still remaining on penance for his disobedience, unless the Lord's day, or the feast of any Saint should happen to intervene. But if he should not think proper, even after such penance, to make amends, he was to be expelled from his office, and another Almoner was to be appointed in his place, who should think fit to give more zealous attention to the interests of the poor, in accordance with the form before-stated. After we had kept up this custom for some time, our fellow- monks, visiting us from other monasteries, were greatly edified thereby ; and when they had returned home, introduced the same custom among themselves. And now we do rej oice greatly in the Lord that we were the first to introduce a custom so de- cent in other monasteries of the greatest celebrity, and, having been, as it were, the original authors thereof among the English, we hope for a great reward from God for having preceded them as the introducers of such a meritorious work. f 2 ^12 IKGULPH's HI8T0BT OP THE ABBEY OP CEOTLAJSTD. A.D.1091. At this time, also, certain honorable persons of our house- hold, beholding our indigent state, supplied us most largely from their substance, and only required, in return, that Ihei?' offices, together with the spiritual benefits of our chapter, might be secured to them for the term of their lives ; upon which, we granted the serjeantship * He alludes to Dionysius Cato’s Distichs on Morals, couched in Dac-
tylic Hexameters. It was held in great estimation during the middle
ages, and was extensively employed as a school-book.

218 INGUIPH’s HISTOKT op the abbey of CBOTLAin). A.D. 1091.

disgraced and disqualified for tiiie performaaice of any dntiet
in the convent.

At the same time, also, with the unanimous consent of the
whole convent, we added to the most holy statutes of our ve-
nerahle father, the lord abbat Turketul, who had most wisely
divided the whole community of our monastery into three
classes of monks, certain matters that seemed to us especially
necessary and consistent with reason. These were to the
following effect. ” Those of the first class, who shall not as yet
have arrived at their twenty-fourth year as members of the
monastic order, shall not, when they take their food within the
precincts of the monastery, give away any portion of the food
set before them to any persons without the said precincts, un-
less they shall have first, before dinner, openly stated to the
Prior, or the person who may be President, the reason of the
necessity for their so doing, and, on such necessity being con-
sidered, shall have afterwards obtained leave so to do at din-
ner ; and so they are to do as often as they shall find them-
selves so necessitated.

*^ As for those of the second class, that is to say, those who
shall have lived from their twenty-fourth up to their fortieth
year as members of the monastic order ; as often as they shall
stand in need of so doing,** they shall be at liberty to give of
their victuals, having first asked and obtained leave of the
President, although they may not have stated to him before
dinner the cause of their being necessitated so to do ; pro-
vided that all do not ask permission on the same day, but on
different days, so that the necessities of all may be satisfied ;
with the exception of those in office, who, in virtue of their
respective offices, daily supply their servants with their food,
such as the Sacrist, the master of the works, and others, who
find daily employment for their servants; although these
may chance to be of the first class of juniors, still, on the
ground of their offices, we wish them herein to have the
privileges of seniors.” Besides this, as our holy Mher, the
lord abbat Turketul, most religiously decreed, aU of the se-
cond class were to be excused from the duties of the minor

* Their vowr of poverty would preclude the possibility of their giving
anything in return for services done them, beyond a portion of their
allotted meals.


Chantries,^ the Epistle, the Gospel, reading the Martyrology
and collations” in the Chapter-house, joining in the procession
of the taper-hearers to the music*’ of the Chauntor, and all such
minor duties of the choir and the convent.

As for those of the third class, that is to say, those from
forty years’ standing and upwards, they were to be excused
from prayers before Matins, before Pmne, and before Ves-
pers, and from Matins at the three lessons, unless it should be
a festival of high mass in the weeks of Easter, Pentecost, and
the Nativity of our Lord, when all members of the convent,
in their turn, on their days officiate in their copes. They
were also to be excused from reading at dinner, and from
performance of the maundy** on Saturdays. They were also to
be at liberty to go round tiie gardens of the Infirmary and of
the Sacrist as often as they should think fit, without asking
leave of the President, so long as it should be known to the
Prior where they were, in case he shoidd chance to want them
for anything.

And ftirther, as, our holy rules providing to that effect,
lights were kept burning dl night in the dormitory of the
monks until the morning ; for the purpose of avoiding manifold
dangers, with the consent of the whole of our community, I
granted to the office of our Sacrist an annual payment of forty
shillings, recoverable from the vicar of Wendlingborough, and
which the Abbat had hitherto been in the habit of receiving,
that otir said Sacrist might find all the lights, as well in the
cloisters as in the dormitory, the same to be lighted at the
stated times following, that is to say; on the approach of
winter, from the feast of Saint Bartholomew to the feast of
Saint Michael, immediately after the bell had ceased ringing
for supper, the servants of the church were to light three
lights in the cloister, and four in the dormitory ; that is to say,
two. in the dormitory itself, and two in the necessary-house.

21 « Parra Cantaria,” the channting of the portions of the service that
were considered of less importance. See p. 98.

^ Readings of the Holy Scriptures at stated hours, and in especial
after supper.

» The word is ” tabula,” which seems to have been some kind of
musical inatrument used by the Chauntor or Pr»centor. It was probably
employed for the purpose of beating time, and being made of bone, was
perhaps not unlike our castanets. See p. 100.

M See the note to page 210.

220 INGXILPh’s HISTOBT op the abbey op CBOYLAKD. A.D. 1091

But the light in the Chapter^house was to be lighted before
the supper-bell began ringing, and to bum the whole time,
until, Matins being finished, all the monks had gone up to
the dormitory. During the close of winter, fix)m the feast
of the Purification of Saint Mary until the feast of the Burial
of Saint Guthlac, the same method of lighting all the afore-
said lights was in all things to be observed. From the feast
of Saint Michael until the feast of the Purification, all the
said lights were to be lighted before the monks went into the
refectory to the regular drinking, and were to remain so
lighted at all times of the year until sunrise ; besides a lamp
hanging in the Chapter-house, which was to be extinguished
after the community had gone up to the dormitory. Matins
being concluded in the church. From the feast of Saint
Guthlac until the feast of Saint Bartholomew, throughout
the whole summer, at sunset the Sacrist or Subsacrist was to
light the lights before-mentioned in the dormitory, so that no
secular person might have occasion in the night-time to enter
the dormitory ; and they were to be kept burning until it was
broad daylight.

But if, in consequence of the neglect of the Sacrist, any of
the said lights should remain unlighted at the time appointed,
then the Sacrist was, on the morrow, to be put upon bread and
water, without any mercy being shown him. And i^ disre-
garding this our most just ordinance, he should make default
in lighting, or in keeping up the lighting of, any one of the
lights before-mentioned, he was to fare for one fortnight, dur
ing six days in each week, on bread and water only. But ii,
on a third occasion, any default should take place in providing
the said lights, he was to be removed from his office, and re-
inain for &e next two y^ars incapable of filling any office
whatever. If any negligence of this nature should happen by
reason of the default of the servants, that is, in case any one
of the lights should remain unlighted at the proper time, then
the servants, whose duty it was, in the summer time, to light
the same when the community was not in the dormitory, were,
on e£ich occasion, to lose their allowances for one week : and
if the same should happen a second or a third time, a more
severe rebuke was to be administered, or the punishment
aforesaid to be doubled. These strict rules, with the common
advice and oonsesA .}f our convent, we enacted to be inviolabl /


observed witli regard to delinquents, and provided that neitiier
the Prior nor any other president should at future times be
enabled to relax the same, without the especial favour of the
Abbat for the time being.

We also enacted, at tiie same time, that, on thanks being
returned each day after dinner, the soul of king Ethelbald, our
founder, should be especially prayed for, and that, at thanks
aiter dinner, the following verse should always be repeated in
full choir by the members of the convent, in memory of king
Wichtlaf, by means of whose horn they had been refreshed.’^
” He hath dispersed. He hath given to the poor ; His righteous-
ness endureth for ever ;” adding thereto, ” His^ horn shall be
exalted with honor.”

Our monastery being now, praised be the Lord ! in some
measure resuscitated from the ashes of its fatal conflagration, and
its customs having been described, both as regards our fellow-
monks as also our servants and assistants, as well as the de-
ceased members of the monastery, so fiar as by my limited ca-
pacity has been deemed necessary ; I might have brought this
history to a close, had not the manifest malice of our rivals
compelled me to make some small addition relative to their
wicked proceedings, and, to the best of my humble ability, put
my successors on their guard.

As soon as the most glorious king, William the First, had
departed this life, and had left Normandy to Robert, his eldest
son, by will giving England to William, his second son;
the latter, immediately after the burial of his father, has-
tened over to England, and was received by archbishop Lan-
franc, his tutor, and the other nobles throughout the whole
kingdom, with outstretched hands, and was solemnly crowned at
Westminster. He immediately proceeded to weigh the trea-
sure of his father, which was then deposited at Winchester,
and found sixty thousand pounds of ffllver, besides gold and
precious stones, and other royal jewels, in vast quantities. He
then distributed, in accordance with the last will of his father,
to the greater churches throughout all England, ten marks,
and to the smaller churches, or those of the viUs, Ave shillings.
He also sent through each of the counties one hundred pounds,
for distribution to the poor, for the soul of his father. Led on
by this lavishness, he fell into a course of prodigality, the more

» Psalm cxii. 9.

^ Psalm cxii. 9. This looks very much like a pious pmi.

222 INGULPH’s HISTOET of the abbey of CEOYLAND. A.D. 1089.

especially as archbishop Lanfranc was now dead ; and having free
rein, as it were, he stmyed into all kinds of licentious courses.
His father’s treasures being speedily wasted in consequence, he
began to oppress the whole land by new exactions, and to excite
great numbers to sedition and hatred of himself. Hence it
was that many bishops, as well as earls, conspired against him,
on which he prevailed over some by caresses, and others by
threats, while others, again, he sentenced to perpetual banish-
ment from the land.

At this period, Ivo Taillebois, who had always proved our
implacable enemy, supposing that, as common report stated to
be the case, all our charters had perished in the conflagration
of our monastery, caused us to be cited to show by what title
we held our lands that lay in his demesne, when, in fact, he
had often before both seen our charters and had heard them
read. However, brother Trig, our proctor, appeared at Spald-
ing on the day of trial, and produced the charters of sheriff
Thorold, as also of both the earls Algar, still safe andunbumt;
on which, being deceived in his expectations, he had recourse
to raillery and abuse, saying that such barbarous writing was
only worthy of laughter and derision, and that it could he
esteemed as of no weight or validity whatever.

On this, brother Trig made answer to him, that these docu-
ments had been read in presence of the renowned king Wil-
liam, both father as well as son, and had been praised and con-
firmed both by them as well as the whole of their council;
that, after being recited, they had been approved of, and es-
tablished in every particular by the royal authority, and that
it was not in his power to invalidate that which the kings had
confirmed. He also stated, that if he or any other person
should make any such attempt, in contempt of the king’s ma-
jesty, we should appeal thereon to the tribunal of our lord the
king, and desire a hearing before him upon the same ; after
which, our brother Trig, rolling up our charters, in presence
of all delivered them to his clerk to carry ; but after he had
gone out of court, receiving them back from the clerk, he
returned with them aU to the monastery. This clerk, how-
ever, by his command, returned into the court, that he might
give attentive ear, and ascertain what were the intentions of
5ie said Ivo in relation to Croyland.

At last, on the court adjourning in the evening, the clerk

A.D. 1089. ooxcLusioN OF ingulph’s histokt. 223

set out on his way towards Croyland, and, as he was crossing
the stream of our river Asendyk, he was thrown from his horse,
and most cruelly heaten by three servants of the said Ivo, who
lay concealed there, and rushed upon him from their hiding-
place. At length, after they had carefully searched his wallet
and the folds of his garments, and could nowhere discover our
charters, folly understanding the true state of the case, they
left him half dead and covered with wounds and bruises.
Crawling, however, towards a boat that happened to be com-
ing that way, during the night the clerk arrived at Croylaud.
On hearing of this surpassing malice on the part of our foe, in
order to guard against fire, as well as other inventions of the
enemy of a similar nature, I took our charters and placed them
in sudi safe custody, thai^ so long as my life lasts, neither fire
shall consume nor adversary steal them ; our Lord Jesus Christ,
and our blessed patron, the most holy Gutiilac, showing them-
selves propitious, and, as I firmly believe, extending their pro-
tection to their servants.

However, within a fortnight afterwards, our said enemy
was also proclaimed an enemy to the king, in consequence of
the before-mentioned conspiracy against hun, to which he was
privy and a consenting party ; upon which he was outlawed,
and is still living in Anjou, in banishment from England.

This history, I, Ingulph, abbat of Croyland, have continued
thus £Eir, for tiie information of posterity, so fur as I have been
able to collect materials from our archives, and in accordance
with the statements which my fathers have made to me. The
history from our foundation until the destruction of our mo-
nasteiy, the five Sempects wrote. The life of the lord abbat
Tnrketul was written by abbat Egelric the younger, his kins-
man. From his day up to the present moment, I myself have
related the history of our times.

XHD or ixetn.FH’s hibxoet< CONTINUATION OF INGULPH'8 HISTORY OF CROYLAND, BY PETER OF BLOIS. Epistle of the Abhat of CroyUnd to Peter of Blots, " To our most dearly-beloved, Master Peter of Blois, arch- deacon of Bath, vice-chancellor of our lord the king, and most worthy Prothonotary of the whole kingdom, a most wise sanctuary of all the liberal arts, as also the most eminent pro- fessor in our times of the eloquence of Tully, the brother Henry de Longchamp, the unworthy abbat of the servants of Grod militant for the Lord in the church of Croyland, and their unprofitable minister, to his good pleasure and commands entirely commending himself and his — " Orators, rhetoricians, and poets, as well as holy prophets, consummate divines, and great doctors, renowned for their eloquence, celebrated for their knowledge, weighty in their authority, and remarkable for their sanctity, have, in grandi- loquent style, most becomingly discoursed upon the histories, the lives, the actions, and the battles of illustrious men and heroes of the greatest celebrity. Thus, for instance, among the Heathens, Suetonius Tranquillus described the house of Csesar ; Yalerius Maximus, dedicating his work to Tiberius, discoursed upon memorable actions; TuUy described the deeds of Catiline, and Sallust of Jugurtha. In like manner, so did Homer depict the arms of Hector, so was Virgil the author of the .^eids. In the same way, too, among those of our religion, did the venerable pope. Saint Gregory, relate, under the becoming form of Dialogue, the most holy actions of the blessed father, Benedict; and then, in a similar manner, LETTKS FBOV THE ABBAT TO PETEB OF BLOIS. 225 did year holy bishop, Sulpicius Severus, in hie Dialogues, de- scribe the lite of Martin, your most holy bishop. So too, in former days, did Saint Hieronymus extol his Paula ; and so, more recently, did Saint Bernard sing his Malachias. " You too, who are the equal of thfese, who beyond all others of the present day have a relish for the honied words of Tully, and who, exalted by your most distinguished reputation for wit, most deservedly hold the highest rank in the royal pre- sence,— of you I now beg, as you have lately promised me to do, that you will grant me the favour of transferring the hal- lowed life of the most holy Guthlac, the confessor of Christ, and our patron Saint, from the humble platter of Saint Felix, the bishop of the East Angles, into the golden goblet of your own language, and so, seasoning the same with your honied eloquence as usual, place it in a worthy vessel upon the lesson tabled in the temple of the Lord, for the faithful in Christ who enter there. For that most holy patron of ours dwelleth in the midst of us, being distinguished by the Lord with signs innumerable, and, by the grace of God, mightily glorified by many miracles hitherto unheard-of and unseen. Therefore it is, that I have devoutly prayed your nectareous tongue to launch forth in his praises ; and we do, all of us, your suppliants at Croyland, having ourselves contracted the lengthy and in- volved periods** of Saint Felix, and having laboured to reduce it to a style more concise and better suited to weak under- standings, if so it please you, from the very inmost recesses of our hearts entreat you, that you wiU with your holy eloquence, adorn his most hallowed deeds. " In the great confidence that I feel, I will go still further in placing care and labour on your shoulders ; for I will, with all earnestness of heart, entreat and call upon you, by that friendship which has ever shewn itself most devoted to me, to correct this history of our house which we send unto you, wherever you shall see that it requires correction ; and request that you will, from our memoranda and deeds sent to you, to- gether with the same, continue unto these our times, the series and narrative of the said history : for it expresses itself ^ The lectern at which the lessons were read, " Literally, the " hyperbaton," meaning **a complex and inyolved ityle nC writing." 226 PETEU OF BLOIS* HISTOUT OF CltOTLAND. both openly and in graceful language, and enquires into many of the obscure points in history. " I trust also, that before long, I shall visit the royal court on certain business, when I shall bring with me certain char- ters and muniments, which, in order for your assistance herein, Wulsin, the lord Prior of our house, Ansgote, our Sub-prior, and the lord John of Freston, our Proctor, who, beyond all others, are intimately acquainted with the state of our monastery, as well as all your intimate friends, saluting you with the greatest affection, have thought necessary to be introduced in this history ; still, these are all to be inserted, as well as the various events of the times, entirely according to your own judgment thereon. Farewell, my best Master and Mend." The Answer of Peter of Bhis, " To his most reverend father and lord, noble both in body as well as in spirit, Henry de Longchamp, by the grace of God, abbat of the most holy monastery of Croyland, and all his holy convent, his humble servant, Peter of Blois, arch- deacon of Bath, his powers and abilities, humble and insigni- ficant as they are, in the Lord Jesus Christ — " When I was lately staying for some time among you, I was pleasured with so many enjoyments, I was presented with so many gifts, I was enriched with riches so numerous, and I was edified with devoutness so extreme, that at length, when the king's business called me away from your most holy mo- ncistery, on my departure thence I was greatly disturbed in spirit and troubled in mind. Full oft upon my road did I picture to myself your features, full oft did I recall to my re- collection the benevolent feelings manifested by each of you towards my humble self; and so often did I cjeQI to remem- brance each passing day the remarkable delightfulness of the spot, naturally inborn to it as it were, that, quite contrary to my usual habit, I was affected with a kind of womanish soft- ness. Before I reached firm ground, I pulled bridle in the middle of the marshes seven times or more, looking back in the body upon your most holy monastery, and in my inmost heart, heaping blessings upon the same ; wlule, at the same time, I grieved, that, like another Adam, I was expelled from Paradise, except that in my case, the angel of the Lord did THE A.KSWEK OF PETEfi OF BI0I8. 227 not, with flaming sword, prevent my return. Still, however, the business of the king will not at present allow of my return to you. '' However, after I had reached Arm ground, and had as- certained by experience, that the woods impeded the possibi- lity of any further looking back upon your much-loved spot, pourtraying to myself all your countenances as if you were then present, to the best of my ability, as God is my witness, I embraced you each with my heart, and, kissing you all -with the most ardent embraces, I showered upon you most plenteous tears. Thus, most pleasurably and most continu- ously weeping, and ever and anon looking back towards Croy- land, my servants at last seized the reins, and led me unwil- lingly away, and so tore me from that much-loved view ; but my inner eyes, my Masters aU and most worthy lords, neither woods nor servants, mountains nor walls, can ever, by any possibility, withdraw from the contemplation of you. " Now the fact may evidently be gathered from history, that Siednt Felix, the bishop of the East Angles, did not, as you assert, write the life of your most holy father and patron, the most blessed Ghithlac ; for the truth is, mat he did not reach the time of Saint Guthlac, and as he came first, he could not, ex- cept by way of prophecy, have any knowledge of one who came after him ; but it was another Saint Felix, one of the disciples of Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, as may clearly be perceived by the reader, from the Greek idiom th^it per- vades its style; a man probably of holy life, but one who imitated his master in his style of writing; still, however, a person most devoted and most attached to the Saints of God, and to Saint Guthlac in especial. *' But Saint Felix, the bishop of the East Angles, of whose relics, which lie buried at Bamsey, you lately obtained a pre- cious portion at the gratuitous presentation of the lord abbat and his convent, departed unto the Lord in the year of our Lord, 646, being iJie fourth year of the Indiction, and the first year of the nineteen year cycle, Penda, the pagan, being then king of the Mercians. Li the revolution of eight-and twenty years after his holy burial. Saint Guthlac was born, that is to say, in the year of oiu: Lord, 674, being the second year of the Indiction, the tenth year of the nineteen year cycle, and the last year oi Wulpher, king of the Mercians. 228 rETER OF blow' HISTOEY of CBOrLAKD. Your said holy father also departed unto the Lord, after com- pleting the fortieth year of his age, on the fourth day in Easter week, in the year of our Lord, 714 ; it being the twelfth year of the Indiction, and the eleventh year of the nineteen year cycle, Celred, son of Ethelred, the former king of the Meitjians, then reigning, it being the sixth year of his reign. At this time, pope Constantino was pontiff of the Eoman See, and Brithwald, archbishop of Canterbury, was pontiff of the Mother Church of the English ; Anastasius was the emperor who was guiding the reins of the Roman empire ; and Pepin the Elder, the son of Ansegisus, was mayor of the royal palace among the Pranks. " Since^ then, it is evidently apparent that Saint Felix, the bishop of the East Angles, did not compose the said life, I felt myself the more emboldened to obey your commands, and to relate, with becoming neatness of diction^ and according to the best of my humble ability, such of your most sacred annals as are preserved by truth in the pages" of history. " I shall, therefore, watchfully devote my best attention to the continuation of the history of your most holy monastery, compiling the same with the greatest diligence, digesting it with the most appropriate diction, and observing the same style of language, so far as I shall find myself enabled by searching your archives to collect honey from out of a rock : although 1 should not presume to compare my rude language with the highly eloquent style of the venerable father, Ingiilph, nor could I in any way equal the flnger even of such a most holy prelate. But where the said histonr has been, as very frequently happens, perverted or falsified by unskilful writers, there, in accordance with your wishes, I will use my utmost endeavours to correct the said errors, and to make them accord with the strict line of truth, and will, to the best of my humble abilities, cause what follows to harmonize with what precedes, by striving to maintain an equality in gracefulness of diction. The other book, therefore, I will set to work to continue where the before-named venerable abbat Ingulph has left off ; so that his work may form the first part of this history, while my work, coming after it, though deserving to be placed far be- hind it in estimation, may be styled by its readers the Second ^ " Omnibus" seems to be a misprint here for some other word. A.D. 1100. KyCI^XD VISITED WITH FAllIXE A2fD PESTILENCE. 229 Part. Instead of an Introduction thereto, I would have your letter precede the work and this of mine succeed it, until mxch time as, having visited you and looked over all your charters, I shall be enabled to arrange everything in its proper order, and, the Most High prospering my path, to establish each par- ticular in the rightful track of truthftilness. Fare ye well, in the bowels of Jesus Christ, all my lords and masters most dear." William Bufus reigning over the land, and having with a powerful arm conquered all his adversaries, so much so ag to have brought all his foes beneath the yoke, while there was no one who dared in any way to murmur against bis swajr, Hanulph, the bishop of Durham, was his especial adviser m a^Gedrs of state. This Eanulph proved a most eruel extor- tioner, and being the most avaricious and most abandoned qt all men in the land, wofiilly oppressed the whole kingdom^ and wrung it even to the drawing of blood ; wbile at the same time Anselm, the most holy archbishop of Canterbury who had sueeeeded Lanfranc, dragging out a weary exi&tence in exile beyond sea, mercy and truth with him had taken to flight from out of the land, and justice and peace had been banished therefix>m. Confession and the fair graces of repentance fell
into disesteem^ holiness and chastity utterly sickened away,
sin stalked in the streets with open and undaunted front, and
facing the law with haughty eye, daily triumphed, exulting in
her abominable success.

Wherefore, the heavcins did abominate the land, and, fight-
ing against sinners, the sun and the moon stood still in their
abode^ and spuming the earth with the greatest noise and fury,
caused all nations to be amazed at their numerous portents.
For there were thunders terrifying the earth, lightnings and
thunderbolts most frequent, deli^ing showers without num-
ber, winds of the most astonishing violence^ and whirlwinds
that shook the towers of churches and levelled them with the
ground. On the earth there were fountains flowing with blood,
and mighty earthquakes, while the sea, overflowing its shores,
wrought infinite calamities to the maritime places. There were
murders and dreadful seditions ; the Devil himself was seen
bodily appearing in many woods ; there was a most shocking
&mine, and a pestilence so great among me% as well as beasts


of burden, tliat agriculture was almost totally neglected, as
well as all care of the living, all sepulture of the dead.

The limit and termination at last of so many woes, was the
death of the king, a cause, to every person of Christian feel-
ings, of extreme grief. For there had come from Normandy,
to visit king William, a very powerful baron, Walter Tirel by
name. The king received him with the most lavish hospita-
lity, and having honored him with a seat at his table, was
pleased, after the banquet was concluded, to give him an invi-
tation to join him in the sport of hunting. After the king had
pointed out to each person his fixed station, and the deer,
alarmed at the barking of the dogs and the cries of the hunts-
men, were swiftly flying towards the summits of the hills, the
said Walter incautiously aimed an arrow at a stag, which
missed the stagj and pierced the king in the breast.

The king fell to the earth, and instantly died ; upon which,
the body being laid by a few countrymen in a cart, was car-
ried back to the palace, and on the morrow was buried, with
but few manifestations of grief, and in an humble tomb ; for
all his servants were busily attending to their own interests,
and few or none cared for the royal funeral. The said Walter,
the author of his death, though unwittingly so, escaped from
the midst of them, crossed the sea, and arrived safe home in

William was succeeded on the throne by his brother Henry,
a young man of extreme beauty, and, from his acquaintance
with literature, much more astute than his two brothers, and
better fitted for reigning : his brother Eobert being at this
time in the Holy Land, most valiantly fighting in the army
of the Christians against the Turks and Saracens. He was
crowned by Thomas, the archbishop of York, because, at this
period, Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, was in exile. Re-
ceiving royal homage and the oaths of fealty from all, he im-
mediately gave liberty to the Holy Church, and forbade de-
l)raved customs and injurious exactions to prevail; besides
which, he threw the said Ranulph, who was the author of
them, into prison, and, dispatching a messenger, recalled the
most holy archbishop Anselm from exile.

Led astray and seduced by the bad counsels of the said most
wicked Ranulph, king William, on the day of his death, held
in his own hands the archbishopric of Canterbury, besides four

A.D. 1101. DUKE liOBEliT BUSES AN AEMT. 231

other bishoprics, and eleven abbeys, all of which were let out to
farm. He was the first of all the kings who placed the
receipts on account of rent of all the vacant churches in his
treasury ; whereas his father invariably, and with the greatest
piety, in the same manner as all the other kings of England,
his predecessors, had been in the habit of repaying all rents
and profits of that nature, in this case of vacant churches, to
the prelates who were the first to succeed, and had to the very
last farthing accounted, through faithful servants, for the
whole thereof. But as for him, after keeping all these digni-
ties for a long time in his own hands for no good reason what-
ever, and frequently making grants of them to farmers and
usurious Jews, under colour of employing long deliberation in
the choice of a proper pastor, he repeatedly put them up to
auction among ike most ambitious and most wealthy of the
clergy ; and at laat, on finding a well-filled purse as the re-
sult, asserting that all sanctity lay in that, he openly declared
that that was the only deserving prelate. In this state of
things, it was a matter greatly to be commended that, being
con£ied to his bed and almost despairing of his life, on the
decease of Lanfranc, the venerable archbishop of Canterbuiy,
a man of most holy life, as well as skilled in all branches of
literature, he appointed the venerable Anselm, abbat of Bee,
in Normandy, to the archbishopric of Canterbury, in a devout
manner, and without any imputation of simony.

^he before-named Eanulph, however, made his escape by
certain iniquitous means from prison, and repaired to ‘Not-
mandy, and in every way encouraged the duke thereof, Robert,
the king’s brother, who on hearing of the death of his brother
William had immediately returned from the Holy Land, to
invade England. Accordingly, after the duke had levied a
large army, and had come to ihe sea-shore, while the king, on
the other hand, had strengthened the southern coasts of his
kingdom with troops innumerable, (being determined, once for
aU, to conquer and reign, or else to lose the kingdom and perish),
archbishop Anselm and other men of character, who were pro-
moters of peace, acting as mediators between them, broughtabout
an arrangement upon the following terms ; that the king should
pay each year a compensation of three thousand pounds of silver,
and that lasting peace should thenceforth be established be-
tween them. However, in after years, the duke, ill-ad\iscdiy,


forgave this annual payment; and besides, he acted unwisdy to->
wards the natives [of Normandy], and those subject to him ;
upon which the king repaired to Normandy, and taking his
brother prisoner in a pitched battle, kept him in prison to the
day of his death, and united the whole of Normandy to his
own kingdom.

The long, having gained this victory, and being instructed
by the repeated e:sdiortations of the holy archbishop Anselm,
remitted for ever his right of investiture of churches by ring
and pastoral staff, a question which had for a long time harassed
the Holy Church ; while he retained in his own hand and ex-
cepted solely his royal privileges. This I think is enough as to
the kings.

In these days also, the temporal powers militant, under the
command of (Godfrey and Baldwin, the most illustrious sons of
Eustace, earl of Boulogne, Bobert, duke of Normandy, and
Raymond, earl of Toulouse, tc^ether with Boamund, duke of
Apulia, and their armies and troops from the rest of Christen-
dom, having subjugated allLycia, Mesopotamia, and at last the
whole of Syria, rendered subject to their dominion and to the
Christian faith, first, the city of Nicea, tiwn Antioch, and after
that, holy Jerusalem.

At this time also, the spiritual powers militant of the mo-
nastic order, springing up from the monastery of Molisme, sent
forth so many offshoots, that, through its first-bom daughter
of Cisteaux, at this day iimumerable mona«teries, abodes of the
servants of God, exist, which were produced by the Divine
power under their origixwi fathers, Bobert, Alberic, Stephen,
and Bernard ; from the la«t of whom an idea may be formed
as to the multitude of the rest, for the said mther Saint
Bernard sawsonsof his go forth from his monastery of Clairvaux,
over which he presided for the space of forty years, one as pope
of the see of Bome, to wit, Eugenius, two as cardinals, and six-
teen as archbishops and bishops in different parts of the world ;
of whom we had one at York in England, archbishop Henry,
and two in Ireland, who proved themselves ChristianB both in,
name and deed; togeth^lr with two hundred monasteries and
more which he produced from his own of Clairvaux, and which,
themselves were daily brioging forth others innumerably unto
the Lord.

At this period also,, Iba venerable Ingulph, the lord ahbajk
of Croyland» WM greaOf iiffiicted. by multiplied mAla4ifiB whjoh


wearied and hajraitsed his declining years to such a degroo,
that he was unable ta continue the history of his monastery
to the close of his life : for many are the inconveniences which
surround the aged man. Nevertheless, after he had laboured
most zealously in the restoration of his house, which had been
lately destroyed by fire, and in the rebuilding of his church,
as well as in replacing the books, vestments, bells, and other
requisites, the old man, having served his tune in the warfare
of this life, and being full of days, departed unto the Lord ;
after having eompleted thirty-four years in the most laborious
discharge of his pastoral duties as sole abbat, during ten of
which abbat Wulketul, his predecessor, was still surviving ;
while, during the remaining twenty-four years he was much
harassed and annoyed by the adversaries of the monastery, as
well as by other misfortunes, but had been always wondrously
supported by the Lord. At last, however, biddmg farewell to
the maliciousness of the world, he was received in Abraham’s
bosom with all the Saints, being thus relieved from the afflic-
tion of gout, under which, in his later years, he had languished,
and received to the eternal joys of Paradise, on the sixteenth day
before the calends of January, in the year of our Lord, 1109,
being the ninth year of the reign of king Henry. He was
buried in his chapter-house, on the feast of Saint Thomas the

At the repeated suggestion and frequent entreaties of Alan
Croun, who was Seneschal of the royal mansion, and dear to
the king beyond all the other barons of the palace, and ad-
mitted to all his counsels, (being a man who excelled all
others in industry and probity, in wisdom and sanctity, so
much so, that by his fellow-knights he was called ** the King’s
God”), king Henry following Us advice, invited from the mo-
nastery of Saint ^ivvoult in Normandy, Joffiid, the lord prior
of the said place, whch was closely related to the said most illus-
trious Seneschat of the royal palaee. This he did by his epistle
difiRct^Mi to the venerable famer Manerius, the abbat of the
said monastery,, in whach he invited the said venerable man,
the prior Jbffrid, noble in the flesh, but much more noble in
spirit. For he was the son of the marquis Herebert, by Hilde-
burga^ttster of Guide Croun, the father of the before-named
Alan, but was bom and educated at Orleans, and from his infancy
destined by his parents for a monastic life : him, on the death of

1234 PETEE OF blots’ HISTOUT OF CROTLIKD. A. n. 1109.

Ingulph, the venerable abbat of Croyland, the king most bene-
ficially appointed in his place, as pastor of the said monastery.
The abbacy had been vacant at tlus time for the space of three
months and a few days, the king, after the most abominable
example of his brother William, continuing to hold it during
the vacancy ; still, through his affection for the said Alan, he
liberally and in full paid over to the said abbat, on his appoint*
ment, all the profits that he had received.

The said venerable abbat Joffiid arrived at Croyland on Palm
Sunday, C being the Dominical letter, and was joyously re-
ceived* Immediately passing thence to Lincoln, he received
the blessing from bishop Bobert in his chapel there, and was
installed on the Lord’s day, upon which ” QucmmodigeniU*^^
is sung. That he might not at the beginning be looked
upon as a useless pastor, or as sluggish and pusillanimous,
he began to look about him on every side in his monastery,
and, as well became*^ a man of such a character, did not in-
dulge himself in snoring in bed, or lying concealed; but in
private taught in mild accents the masters of the earth to fear
God, while in public he reverently besought ”^ the people sub-
ject to him, devoutly to pray on all occasions, at the entreaties
of the priests expounded the Holy Gospel, and in aU his dis-
courses ever preferred the honor of God and the saving of
souls, far before aU things temporal.

For he was more learned than any of his predecessors, abbats
of Croyland, having imbibed literature of every description
with his mother’s milk from his very cradle. Seeing his con-
vent, which still remained half burnt, and had been plucked
like a brand from the burning, in some measure rebuilt, but still
in a hasty manner, and far from replaced in becoming splendour
and restored to its proper vigour, he resolved to found a new
ehurch, and to rebuild the whole monastery with walls oi
stone instead of walls of clay, and upon a marble foundation,
if his means would allow thereof.

First sitting down, therefore, and calculating the necessary-
outlay, on examining the whole of the substance of his monas-
tery, he found that it would by no means suffice for a work of

* ” As new-born babes.” The beginning of the introit for the firat
Sunday after Easter.
** ” Dicebat” is clearly a misprint for ” decebat.”
B- la the text, the puuct nation of this passage appears to be defective.


such magnitude ; upon which, in order that the words used
by our Lord,** ” This man began to build and was not able to
finish,” might not be said of him, he obtained of the venerable
archbishops of Canterbury and York and the other bishops of
England, their suffragans, an indulgence of a third part of the
penance enjoined for sins committed, the same being graciously
granted to every one who should be a benefactor of his monas-
tery, and should assist in the promotion of the works of the
church. Thus, if in a week a fast of three days was imposed
upon any persons for th,e punishment of their sins, a penance
of one day was by the said indulgence remitted ; and again, if
two days* penance were imposed upon any person by the
Penancer, that for one of them was remitted.

Having obtained this indulgence, he now opened the found-
ation of his new church, and sent throughout the whole of
England, and into the lands adjoining beyond sea, letters
testimonial of the said indulgence, entreating all the faithful in
Christ to give their kind assistance for the promotion of his
undertaking, granting in return to every one who should assist
him the favour of the aforesaid indulgence in presence of God.
In order zealously to carry out the same, he sent the venerable
men, brothers JSgelmer and Nigel, his fellow-monks, with
relics of the Saints, into the southern parts, namely, Flanders
and France. To the northern parts and into Scotland he sent
the brothers Fulk and Oger, and into Denmark and Korway
the brothers Swetman and Wulsin the younger; while to
Wales, Cornwall, and Ireland he sent the brothers Augustin
and Osbert. All of these were his brother-monks, industrious
men, most prompt and ready, and well fitted to carry out such
a work ; these he sent with letters recommendatory directed
to the kings and princes of countries and provinces, to the fol-
lowing effect :

** To the most illustrious y by tiie grace of God (king of

tlie Franks, Scots, or the like, as the case might be), the earls,
barons, archbishops, bishops, abbats, priors, as also to all rulers
of churches, and flieir priests and clerks, and to all the faithM
of Christ in the kingdom to them subject, and to the rich and
poor brethren living under their rule, Joffind, abbat of the
Church of God and of the glorious Mary, ever a Yirgin, and of
Saint Bartholomew the Apostle and of the most holy Guthlao
^ Saint Luke, xiv. 30.


the Confessor, the son of Boble kings, and of Saint “Waldev, tlie
late Martyr, and of the whole convent of the brethren entrusted
unto him by God, the everlasting blessing Apostolical and eccle-
siastical from our Lord Jesus Christ and from ourselves. O
sirs, and would that it may prove most true Mends of Qod,
night and day for our sins and those of all Christians, and in
especial for all who do good unto us, do we cheerfully serve
those whose names we have written above ; that is to say, our
Lord Jesus Christ and His glorious Mother, Saint Bartholomew
the Apostle, the holy Confessor Guthlnc, and Waldev, the late
holy Martyr. Know, sirs, and j&iends of God, that we have
lately levelled to the ground the church of the friends of God,
whom we have named, inasmuch as it greatly threatened to
fall ; but the same now lies immersed in quagmires, and of our-
selves we are not able to rebuild it, unless the good and kind
Jesus, through you and others of His people, shall grant us
His assistance. We do therefore direct unto your dignity
these our humble letters, to the end that your most powerful
aid may come to our assistance, and that we may be enabled
to re-erect the church of God and of His Saints. It is also
profitable and becoming that you should hear what reward you
will in this world receive at the hands of God. We are living
under the royal sway of the English land ; and unto the two
archbishops, besides other bishops, the holy Church is subject
in all matters of holy ordinance. In these the Divine goodness
has inspired such love towards us, in the extreme affection
which they entertain towards our said Church, that they have
remitted to penitents the third part of their penance, and toge-
ther with us take the same on themselves ; that is to say, if a
fast of three days in the week has been imposed on a sinner,
one of them is to be remitted to him, and one mass is to be
celebrated for him ; and if a fast of two days has been im-
posed on him, still, one is to be remitted to him, and in like
manner, mass is to be celebrated for him j and further, twel/ve
poor shall every day be relieved on behaK of those who give
aid to our church. Farewell.”

Moreover, the before-named monks, in streououslv carrying
out the duties enjoined on them, not only brought woirldly
substance and perishable money to their church*, but also con->
ducted many souls unto heaven, as well as induced the bodies
of some tcenl/or thi^ luonasiiic order, not only among the natives


but among foreigners as well. For this reason it was, that in
his letter to ihe king of Norway, in favour of a certain mer-
chant of that land, Thorwy by name, who had assumed the
monastic habit at Croyland, and whom he recommended, he
subjoined after the word ** Farewell,” words to the following

** As for what remains, I bespeak your favour ; for a pilgrim,
one of your country, has joyously turned his steps unto us
for the sake of supplicating God, and so greatly has he become
attached to the holy place in which we live, that he has, upon
the words of the Evangelists, entirely devoted himself and his
unto us, and by the kiss of peace confirmed the promise he
had made. Wherefore we do suppliantly entreat the most pious
kings and their subjects, rich and poor, that they will assist in
carrying out the good things, the performance of which he
hath promised unto us and himself, and be ready to aid in
reaping the advantages of the same. But if any person shall
knowingly injure him in any way, the existing Church of
England excommunicates that person, and may he be rooted
out of the land of the living, and may his name be blotted out
of the Book of Life before the face of the Saviour. His name,
as he has informed us, is Thorwy.*’

He also sent to his manor of Cottenham, near Cambridge,
the lord Gislebert, his fellow-monk, and professor of Sacred
Theology, together with three other monks who had accom-
panied him into England ; who, being very well instructed in
philosophical theorems, and otiier primitive sciences, went
every day to Cambridge, and having hired a public bam there,
opeidy taught their respective sciences, and in a short space of
time, collected a great concourse of scholars. For in the se-
cond year after their arrival, the number of their scholars from
both the country as well as the town, had increased to such a
degree, that not even the largest house or bam, nor any church
even, was able to contain them. For this reason, they sepa-
rated into different places, and imitating the plan of study
adopted at Orleans, brother Odo, who was eminent in these
days as a grammarian’ and a satirist, early in the morning,
read grammar according to the doctrine of Priscian, and the
.comments of Eemigius thereon, to the boys and younger stu-
dents assigned to him. At the. first hour, brother Terricus, a
^ Seven in the morning, according to our mode of reckoning.


most acute sophist, read the Logic of AristotLe, according to
the Introductions of Porphyry and Averroes,”* to those ‘ who
were somewhat older. Then, at the third hour, brother Wil-
liam read lectures on the Ehetoric of Tully, and the Institu-
tions^ of Quintilian. Master Gislebert, being unacquainted
with the English language, but very expert in the Latin aud
Trench, the latter being his native language, on every Lord’s
day and on the festivals of the Saints, preached to the people
the word of God in the various churches. On feast days,
before the sixth hour, he expounded to the literates and the
priests, who in especial resorted to hear him, a text from the
pages of Holy Scripture. Some who had hitherto remained
unbelievers, and who were still blinded by Jewish perfidious-
ness, being smitten with compunction at his words, utterly
abandoned their former errors, and ran to take refuge in the
bosom of the Church ; whereby, the Christian faith waxed
more and more firm every day.

The consequence was, that through their industry, great
profit accrued to the monastery, so much so, that in no way
burdening the manor, but greatly improving it, in some years
they reckoned that they remitted from those parts as much as
one hundred marks towards the building of their church. In
especial, when the venerable abbat Joffrid himself visited
his sons in those parts, and delivered his discourses to the
people, distinguished by the lucidness of their style, men and
women innumerable came flocking from all parts of the town ;
who, although they were far from understanding him, as he
spoke in the Latin or the French language, still paid the most
profound attention to him, and, being many a time moved to
t.ears by the power of the Word of God, and the gracefulness
of his gestures, contributed alms innumerable towards the
rebuilding of his church, which had been lately burnt, and
which he always, at the conclusion of his discourse, petitioned
f^r. There were also, on all occasions, three or four, who, at
the close of the discourse, would follow his footsteps, and
never turn away therefrom, and whom he would incorporate as
laics or as literates, either in his own convent, or else in the
neighbouring monasteries of Burgh and Thorney, and Bome-

^ There is a mistake here. The works of this writer were not in ex-
Utenoe at this period. He died in 1 193.
^ literaUy the ” Flowers/’


tunes send, recommended by his letters, to become monks in
more distant places. From this little spring, which has in-
creased into a great river, we now behold the city of God made
glad, and the whole of England rendered fruitfdl by many
teachers and doctors going forth fix)m Cambridge, after the
likeness of the most holy Paradise.

At this time also, he sent to his manor of Wridthorp, near
Stamford, some fellow-monks of his, but Englishmen by birth,
the brothers Elsin, Eregist, and Harold, of whom the lord Elsin,
a man of shrewd intellect and profound learning, was made
prior. These otten repeated the words of instruction in the ears
of the people of Stamford, and greatly prospered ; and strength-
ening the Christian faith against the Jewish corruptions, after
making a Ml statement, both of the condition of tiieir monas-
tery, which had so lately been burnt and required with their
assistance to be raised once more ^m the very foundations,
obtained very considerable alms from the merchants and the
other faithfid of Christ, throughout the whole of the adjoining
country. And thus, to the best of their abilities, did they
frequently relieve their desolate mother, that is to say, their
burnt monastery, with a most bounteous hand : but stLU, not
with the same abundance with which the men at Cambridge
comforted their mother, because their district was more opu-
lent, and the spot more favoured ; the people too, were more
liberdlly disposed, their virtues were greater, and the grace of
God was bestowed upon them in greater abundance.

Upon this, the venerable abbat Jofirid seeing that his sons
who were staying at Wridthorp were always mindful of their
mother to the best of their humble means ; and that they were
watchfril among their neighbours with all possible diligence,
for the purpose of ensuring her relief, and, in the obedience en-
joined on diem, did not shew themselves dow but distinguished
for activity ; and that, what was still more, they often, from
love for their own place, most patiently endured extreme want
of all necessaries ; he granted them power to hear the con-
fesfflons of those in their vicinity, as also of the other faithful
in Christ, and of the nuns, their sisters, who lived near them,
as well as to absolve those who confessed, and to enjoin canon-
ical and healthfcd penance for sins committed. He also gave
them liberty to receive alms given unto them, and to convert
the same to their own necessary uses, seeing that it is most


just that he should be partaker with the altar, whom the Lord
hath willed to wait at the altar.^^ At the same time, he also
assigned unto them, for their sQstenanGe, the whole of his afore-
said viil of Wridthorp, that is to say, three virgates of land in
demesne, and four acres of xaeadow laud, together with three
holms’*® in the place of twa acres, and one water-mill, toge-
ther with piscary in the water and at all the banks thereof,
and fourteen serfs in the said vill, each of whom held one vir-
gate of land, being in the whole twenty-eight acres of arable
land, and two acres of meadow land ; and each one of whom was
to pay fourteen shillings for his land, as also carnage of corz^
and carriage of hay, or else one penny for carriage of com, and
one obol for carriage of hay ; each was also to pay Gerson*® unto
his lord for the marriage of his daughters, and Ourlop^ for the
debauchery of his daughters, and Stoth,^^ and other aids and
services, which are more fully described in the charters of the
monastery. All these, the before-named &ther, the vene-
rable abbat Joffiid, assigned to his monks before-named, to-
gether with the whole court of the said vill, and all the pro-
ceeds and profits thereof. He also granted to them all the
other emoluments whatsoever of the said vill, or of the court
thereof, arising in the said vill, or in its fields, including
therein, right to waste lauds, projecting lands, arable lands
abutting on the highway, head-lands of meadow, and lands
abutting on the dykes around the mill thereof, and its dam.

The said monks, in later years that proved more firuitfol and
more abundant^ nobly applied themselves to the work imposed
upon them, and, with due holiness, always keeping the con-
sciences of their neighbours and sisters, the nuns, as well as
their own, in a state of purity fix)m the world, sent many
most becoming gifts of the faithful ones in Christ to their
monastery ; which were the results both of their own industry
as well as of the compassion of the faithful ones of Christ, and

» Alluding to 1 Cor. ix 13.

% ** Holar may mean either an ” island,” or ” ait,” or else merely a
hilly spot.

^ A fine or amerciament.

^ A fine paid to the lord by the inferior tenant, when bis daughter
was debauched.

*^ Perhaps the same as ** stock,” a forfeiture where any one was loond
taking wood from the forests.


thus in the building of their abbey did they most manfully
assist the said abbat and their brethren.

At the same time, he also sent to his manor of Wendlyng-
burgh his fellow monks, the two brothers Waldev (who suc-
ceeded him as abbat of that monastery) and Lewin ; who were
in like manner appointed to manage tiie affairs of their monas*
tery at Hiham and throughout all the adjacent country, and
sometimes at Northampton, and trustily to collect the edms of
the faithful ; but in what way they carried out the task imposed
upon them, and what was assigned for their sustenance, shall
afterwards be more fully set forth in the acts of the said abbat
“Waldev, under their own proper head.

The aforesaid monks, being thus sent into different lands,
provinces, districts, and nations situate around England, as
well as into the adjoining towns and vills, wherever in the
neighbourhood they possessed places of refuge belonging to
flieir own monastery, suitable for dwelling in, preached through-
out all lands, and, from their narratives, an account of the
services done to the Church by all the benefactors of their
most holy monastery penetrated even to the extremities of the
earth. The consequence was, that every day they transmitted
to their monastery, from different parts of the world, vast
heaps of treasure, and great masses of the yellow metal daily
increased, and were accumulated by the venerable abbat Joffidd,
for the purpose, with the blessing of God, of commencing the
intended works of his church ; and abundantly encouraged him
with sanguine expectations that, with the aid thereof, he
should be enabled to bring the same to a prosperous con-

To the prosperity of the said venerable abbat, the Lord added
in these days the working of most wonderful deeds at the tomb
of Saint Waldev, His Martyr. For there, by the mercy of
God, the blind received their sight, the deaf their hearing, the
lame the power of walking, and the dumb the power of
speech ; while each day troops innumerable of other sick per-
sons were arriving by every road, as though to the very foun-
tain of their safety ; and while, the Lord opened the hand of
His mercy to all, by the offerings of the pilgrims, who came
flocking thither from all parts. He increased the revenues of
the monastery in no slight degree. The pilgrims continuing
to arrive day after day, and admiring the works of God in EEis



Saints, and giving due praises unto the Lord ; they were on one
occasion discoursing in the presence of the brethren of the mo-
nastery about their Saint, the Martyr Waldev, who, guilt-
less as he was, had been impiously beheaded, when a cer-
tain monk, Audin by name, and a l^orman by birth, but a
member of the monastery of Saint Alban’s, and temporarily
residing as a monk at Croyland, on hearing these words was
much offended thereat, and in his wrath laughed at the pil-
grims, and then with exceeding harshness spake ill of the said
holy Martyr, saying that he was a most wicked traitor, was
most justly beheaded for his misdeeds, and richly deserved a
more disgraceful death.

When the venerable abbat Joffiid heard this, he gently ex-
postulated with him, and made answer that it was a most dan-
gerous thing to detract from the works of Grod, and to speak
ill of His Saints, and that He would never pass over an offence
of that nature without punishing it. And besides, God had
promised to His faithful ones His presence, even to the end of
the world, promising His ever-unfailing mercy to all who
should be truly penitent. While the said venerable father
was inculcating these precepts, and endeavouring to convince
his folly by the authority of Holy Scripture, and by fair words
to wean him from his erroneous path of obstinacy, he iu the
meantime became more and more abusive ; and launching out
into invective beyond measure, he irritated the Lord Almighty,,
and on the spot, in presence of the said father, was seized with
a sudden pain in the stomach ; and the disease gaining the as-
cendancy, a few days after his return to the monastery of Saint
Alban’s, he departed this Hfe.

On the following night, while the said abbat was in bed,
and was reflecting upon the above-mentioned events, in a
vision of the night he beheld the Saints of God, Bartholomew
the Apostle, his patron Guthlac, and Saint l^eot, the Confessor,
resplendent in their albs, standing by the shrine of the before-
named earl. The Apostle seemed to be taking the head of the
Earl and replacing it on the body, while he said these words,.
‘* Acephahs non est;***^ in answer to which. Saint Guthlac,
who was standing at his feet, added the words, ” Nbst&r comeB
4d ;”” while Saint K’eot completed the monody or verse thus

« ” He is not without a head.” «” He is our earL”


begun, as follows, ” Modo rex esV*** Abbat Joffrid, the next
day, thinking on these matters, and disclosing them to his
brethren, rendered them all joyous thereby, and, with becoming
praises, in common with them, he glorified the Lord of Majesty,
who thus magnified His Saints, and who at all times had proved
Himself a most mercifiil protector to those who believed in

In the same year, also, in which the Divine hand began to
work so many of its miracles at the tomb of His most precious
Martyr, Waldev, that is to say, in the third year of abbat
Joffrid, the death of the venerable father Walter, the abbat of
Thomey, contributed to the felicity of these times ; for the
venerable abbat Joffiid made most unremitting intercession
with king Henry, that the most reverend man, the lord Robert,
his own brother, but much his senior in age, who had in like
manner been a monk at Saint Evroult, might be appointed
successor of Walter, the pastor of the said neighbouring monas-
tery of Thomey; and at length, through the especial mediation
of the most illustrious adviser of the king, Alan de Croun,
was successful in obtaining a favourable result.

Accordingly, a message was sent by the king into l^ormandy,
to the monastery of Saint Evroult, for the said most religious
monk, and he was immediately brought over. On his arrival
in England, and appearing before the king, he was sent with-
out delay, accompanied by a royal letter, to Thomey ; and im-
mediately on his most graceful person being beheld, accom-
panied with the praiseworthy testimonials of his brother, the
venerable abbat Joffrid, he was joyfully elected, with the
unanimous consent of the whole convent, and then sent to
Hervey, the first bishop of Ely, his diocesan, by whom he was
solemnly blessed at My; his brother Joffirid, the venerable
abbat of Croyland, assisting him in all things, and from his
first arrival in England, providently guiding him on his
journey, and directing all his actions throughout. Upon his
return to his monastery of Thomey, on the feast of the As-
sumption of Mary, the Holy Mother of God, he was solemnly
installed, and he skilfully performed the duties of the pastoral
oflice of the said convent for a period of nearly thirty-six years;
being acceptable to God and to man, and doing many good
works for his monastery. For the new church which his pre-

** ** Now he is a king.” The three sentences make an hexameter Uop*

B 2


decessor had commenced, he at length, after laying out a vast
sum of money thereon, brought to a conclusion, and after it
was completely finished, had it dedicated with the greatest
solemnity. When an old man and fiill of days, in order to
receiye his reward in heaven for labours so indefatigable, he
departed unto his liOrd Jesus Christ, with whom he shall
dwell for ever and ever.

Shortly before these times, on the decease of the lord Bich-
ard, the last abbait of Ely, king Henry, being a man of mo^t
sagacious understaiiding, and seeing that the Isle of Ely was
a most dangerous place in case any sedition should arise in the
kingdom, both o^ account of the extreme wealth of the mon-
astery aijd the natural strength of the place, made it his en-
deavour, as far as he possibly could, to divide the place, as
well as its resources, and, withdrawing the ecclesiastical pro-
perty from the simplicity of a monastic foundation, to bring
the same more under his control by attaching it to an episcop^
see. Accordingly, having consulted Pascal, the Lord Apostolic,
upon the matter, who commended his design, he estabHshed at
Ely an episcopal see, enlarging the diocese from the adjoining
bishoprics, and assigning it jurisdiction at the expense of the
diocese of Lincoln in especial, which appeared to be the most
extensive of all. To prevejit the church of Lincoln from com-
plaining that it had been subjected to mutilation, satisfaction
was made to that church out of the possessions of the church
of Ely ; and thus, both by the exercise of the Apostolic as well
as the royal authority, aU occasion for disputes between them
at a future period was entirely cut off.

The venerable abbat Joffirid, in the fourth year after his
arrival at Croyland, sent to his manor of Beby two monks, the
lord Benedict and brother Stephen, at that time a youth of great
capacity; exhorting and entreating them on no account to neglect
the benefit of their convent, and to preach unto the ears of
Bobert, the renowned earl of Leicester, a most valiant youth, and
of the burgesses of his said city, of the affairs of their monastery,
and thus show themselves not inferior to their other brethren
who had been sent to the other places before-mentioned on the
same business, in obtaining the almi of the faithful. This
command of their father, like excellent and obedient sons,
they vigilantly, and, with the favour of the said earl, the grace
pi God co-operating with them ia all things, obtained numerous


gifts for their monastery. ITevertheless, at the same time they
most attentively provided for the welfare of their brethren,
and most abundantly supplied their manors of Beby, Sutton,
and Stapilton, with all kinds of cattle, ploughs, carts and
other necessary implements.

In the fifth year after he had undertaken the duties of the
pastoral office, the venerable abbat Jofl&id being most abundantly
enriched with the plentiful ahns of the faithful of Christ from all
lands and from the neighbouring provinces, and being amplified
with immense heaps of gold and silver, and supported by pro-
mises of assistance from all his neighbours and fellow-country-
men ; after collecting vast heaps of stone of various kinds, with
great labour, from all the quarries far and near, and preparing
iron and steel, cement and lime, and other necessaries sufficient
for the performance of his work, he appointed a day on which,
-with due solemnity, his kinsmen and friends being called to-
gether, to lay the foundation of his new church ; the Lord al-
ways prospering his work, not on a rock of offence, but on
the stene of assistance granted by the Most High.

Accordingly, just at the commencement of spring, the day
at last arrived so much longed for by all, being that of the
Holy Yirgins Perpetua and Pelicitas. There had already
collected immense crowds of the people of the neighbouring
country, besides the friends and kinsmen of the abbat, who
did not come with empty hands. These were his brother Ko-
bert, the before-named venerable abbat of Thomey, as also the
said renowned Eobert, earl of Leicester, besides Simon, the noble
earl of Northampton, a kinsman of the holy Martyr Waldev.
There came also the most illustrious baron, the kinsman of
the said abbats, Alan de Croun, together with Muriel his wife,
and Maurice their eldest son, and Matilda their eldest daughter.
There came also the most noble baron Walter de Cantilupe,
a|id Emicina, his wife, a most illustrious lady. There came
too the most valiant knight Joffiid** Riddel, and Geva, his wife,
and his sister, the lady Hawise. There were, besides, many
other knights and noblemen from out of the whole province, who
brought various presents in the greatest abundance, and who
most benignantly assisted in the holy work with the greatest
devoutness, each in the proper order assigned them. They
first invoked the grace of the Holy Spirit, while the venerable
^ This name was probably the original form of our ” Geoffrey.”


abbat Joffiid, with many tears, repeated the collect*® ” Actiones
nostras,** in presence of the Lord.

The venerable abbat Joffrid himself laid the first comer-stone
on the eastern side, facing the north. The renowned knight
Bichard de Rulos, who had proved a most devoted friend to
the monastery from his earliest years, laid the next stone on
the eastern side, and placed upon the stone twenty pounds for
the workmen. The next stone on the eastern side was laid
by the before-named knight, Joffrid Eiddel, and upon it he
presented ten marks. The next stone on the eastern side was
laid by his wife, the lady Geva, who made offering of one
quarryman to work in the quarry of Bemak for the space of
two years at her own expense, in behalf of the said building;
and the next stone on the eastern side was laid by the lady
Hawise, the sister of the said knight Jofl&id, who offered
another quarryman’s services in like form.

The before-named Robert, abbat of Thomey, laid the first
corner-stone on the eastern side facing the south, and upon it
placed ten pounds for the workmen. The next stone on the
eastern side was laid by the most illustrious baron and kins-
man of the abbats, Alan de Croun, who offered on the stone
the title to the pata-onage of the church of Freston. His wife,
the lady Muriel, laid the next stone on the eastern side, and
offered upon it the title to the patronage of the clmrch of Tofts.
The next stone on the eastern side was laid by Maurice, their
eldest son, who offered upon it the title to the patronage of
the church of Butterwick ; and the next stone on the eastern
side was laid by their daughter Matilda, who offered on the
stone the title to the patronage of the church of Burton in
Kesteven. After collecting these titles, the before-named Alan
offered them unto God iand Saint Guthlac, placing them in
the hands of the abbat Joj6&id, in presence of all, for the pur*
pose of building a cell of the monks of Croyland, in such one
of the said churches as the venerable abbat Joffiid should think
most proper and desirable.

Alan himself, and the lady Muriel, his wife, as well as the
said Maurice, their eldest son, promised that they would ex-
ecute their charters relative thereto, and would make still
further additions, at such time as upon more mature delibera*^

*^ Or prayer after Mass, beginning ** Actiones nostras, quassumu^,
Domine, aspirando praeveni et adjuvando prosequere.”


tion it should please the abbat. The circuit of the frontage^^
of the said church was occupied from comer to comer by the
two earls Simon and Eobert, before-named, and their knights.
The first stone on the eastern side, towards the south comer of
the altar,^ was laid by the before-named Eobert, earl of Leices-
ter, who offered for the workmen upon the stone, the sum of
forty marks. The next stone on the eastern side, towards the
south, and on the right hand side thereof, was laid by the re-
nowned baron, Walter de Cantilupe; his wife, the lady Emicina,
laying the next, and each of them offering thereon the sum of
twenty marks. The next stone to that, on the south, was laid
by the illustrious knight, Alan de Fulbek, who gave for the
workmen one hundred shillings. The knight Theodoric de
Botheby laid the next stone to that, on the south, and his wife
Lozelina the next to that, they giving towards the works of
the church of Saint Guthlac, one toft and two acres of land.
The next stone towards the south was laid by Turbrand, the
knight of Spalding, who offered towards the building of the
church of Saint Guthlac the tithes of all his sheep each year.
The first stone on the eastern side, to the left, towards the
north comer of the altar, and next to that of Eobert, earl of
Leicester, was laid by the before-named Simon, the most noble
earl of J^orthampton, who placed thereon for the workmen one
hundred marks. The next stone on the eastern side, towards
the north, was placed by Ealph de Bemak ; and the one next
to it, by the lady Boassa, his wife, who offered for the works
of the church two quarrymen for the space of four years.
The next stone on the eastern side, towards the north, was
laid by Helpo, the knight, who gave the tenths of his church
at Kyrkeby. The next stone on the eastern side, towards the
north, was laid by the knight Simon, and his wife Gizlana,
who offered to the church the tenths of Mortor and of Scap-
wick. The next stone to these on the north, was laid by the
knight Eeynerius de Bathe, and his wife Goda, who offered
to the work the tithes of Houton and of Birton.

The two abbats before-named, the two earls, and the two barons
and their wives, as also the above knights, Joffiid, Maurice,

*’ From what follows it would appear that this ** frons*’ was the apse, or
rounded portion of the eastern front, in which the altar was situate.

•*8 This is probably the meaning of ” in cono capitis,” the word ” caput ”
being used for “capitium,” the place where the altar was situate. The
term is left untranslated in Dugdale and (lOugh.


Richard, Kadulph, Alan, Theodoric, Helpo, Simon, Beyneriua,
and Turbrand, with their wives, occupied the whole eastern
front of the church, and with bounteous hand presented the
gifts above-mentioned for the building of the said church.

The foundations of the northern wall of the church were
laid after the stone laid by the venerable abbat Jofirid, in
squared stones, by that part of the convent which belonged to
the abbat* 8 side of the choir ; while the foundations of the
southern wall of the church were laid after the stone laid by
the venerable abbat Eobert, in squared stones by that part of
the convent which belonged to the prior’s side of the choii*.

The base of the first column of the northern wall was laid by
Uctred, the priest of Depyng, and the other men of that vill,
one hundred and four in number, who offered their labour for
one day in every month until the completion of the said work.
Next to them, John, the priest of Taljmgton, and the men of
the said vill, sixty in number, laid the base of the second
column of the northern wall, and offered their labour one day in
every month until the said church should be finished. Stanard,
the priest of Uffington, laid the base of the third column of
the nothem wall, and with him forty-two men of the same
vill, who in like manner offered their labour one day in every
month, until the said work should be brought to a due con-

On the other side, and opposite to the men of Depyng,
Turgar, the priest of Grantham, and with him the two deacons,
Giva and Eilward, and two hundred and thirty other men of
the said vill, laid the base of the first column of the southern
wall, offering to the workmen for the completion of the said
column ten marks. The base of the second column of the
southern wall was laid by Turkill, the priest of Hocham, and
Elwy, the deacon, and the other men of the said vill, who offered
for tiie workmen twenty quarters of wheat, and thirty quarters
of malt. The base of iSie third column on the south side
was laid by Godescal, the priest of Eoutzeby, and John the
deacon, and the men of the said vill, eighty-four in number,
who offered six marks for the workmen, two quarrymen in
their own quarry, with carriage of the stone to the ship, and
from the ship the services of two carriers** to the church.

The venerable abbat Joffirid, after finishing his discourse to
all, while they were each laying their respective stones,
*» « Baiardours.”


granted to all the persons above-named the brotherhood
of his monastery, participation in all their prayers and de-
votionsy and communion in the other spiritual blessings, then
or in future to be obtained in the said church. He likewise
gave a portion of the indulgence before-mentioned, which had
been most graciously granted by the bishops of England ;
the same being a remission of one third part of the penance
imposed upon each penitent by his penancers for the sins com-
mitted by him ; and in conclusion, after giving Gk)d*s blessing
to aU, he invited the whole of them, men as well as women, to

For the venerable father, abbat Joflfrid, together with his bro-
ther the abbat Eobert, kept open refectory for all the monks
who had that day resorted thither from various monasteries,
being nearly four hundred in number. The two earls and the
two barons, with their wives and the knights, and all the rest
of the gentlefolk, were feasted in the abbat’s hall. The six
bodies also who had laid the six columns, together with their
wives, sat down to dinner in the cloisters ; while the rest of
the multitude ate in the open air in the court-yard. There
were counted on this occasion, of nobles and of common people,
more than five thousand, there assembled together. But the
Lord had given His blessing, and all, both great and small,
glad and exulting, rejoiced in the Lord, and considered it a
great miracle that the Lord should smile upon so mighty an
assemblage of people, the sun shining most serenely, and that
the feast should pass off without any murmuring and strife :
80 abundant was the love, which the Lord in His indulgence
manifested to all from heaven, so diligently did the monks
with their own hands supply those whose office it was to dis-
tribute, and so earnestly did they entreat their guests to have
patience, if there was any thing which in any measure tended
to displease them.

The feast being thus happily concluded with joyousness
and satisfaction on the part of all, and all the lords, with the
other families, dismissed to their respective homes, the vene-
rable abbat Jof&id, and all his holy convent, with active so-
licitude applied themselves to the work which they had com-
menced, until it should arise aloft upon the earth, and shew
to the skies its august and spiritual form;^” to the end that,

** ** £t quasi motabilem spiritam et nitentem ad aethera concepisset.”


the Dormitory and Kefectory being completely finished, the
more lofty Church, looking down upon the trees around
it, might be seen by those who approached, overtopping all
the woods throughout the whole marsh. The especisd su-
perintendence of the whole work was at length entrusted to
prior Odo, and brother Arnold, a lay monk of the said monas-
tery, but a most skilful master in the craft of building ; and
the venerable abbat Joflfrid, turning his attention to other
matters, repaired to London, where, through the intervention
of many of his friends, and, in especial, the noble baron, Alan
de Croun, at this time the king’s Seneschal, he obtained a
grant of confirmation to his monastery, to the following ef-
fect : —

‘* Henry, king of England, to the bishops, barons, and
sherijffs of England, and to all his faithful French and English
subjects, greeting. Know ye, that I have granted and con-
firmed unto JofBnd, abbat of Croyland, and all his successors,
and to the monks there serving God, all the possessions and
liberties set forth in the charter of the lord Edred, the late
king of England, of which charter, the most illustrious king
William, my father, has made mention in the charter of his
confirmation to the said monastery made thereof. I do there-
fore order, that they shall hold all their tenures and posses-
sions firee and absolved firom all secular services, that is to
say, from Scot, Geld, all aids to sheriffs and all their servants,
Hidage, Danegeld, suit of Court of Shires, Hundreds, Wapen-
takes, Trithings, Ixials and causes, and from all buildings of
castles, fortresses, bridges, and harbours, and from all repair
of roads, and from aU toll for carriage by cart, by horse, or by
ship; and from the building of the royal psdaces, and all
worldly burdens whatsoever they are to be exempt.

” I do also grant unto the said abbat and his monks, that
^hey shall have Frank Pledge*® in all the Demesnes in their
keeping, and I do forbid that any one shall intermeddle there-
with, except themselves and .their bailiflfe ; and T do grant unto,
them right of Soch, Sach, Thol, Them, Infangthefe, Hamso-

What this passage really means, as applied to a building, it is difficult
to say.

*” Right to call upon the freemen in decennaries or bodies of ten, to
be sureties for the good behaviour of each. It was also called ** tene-
mental/’ or *’ tementale.”


ken,” Gridbrege,*’ Blodwit,” cognizance of concealment and
treasure trove, rorestal,**riem and Flitte,” and Ordel,*® together
with the other liberties which the royal power has been ac^
customed to give to certain other monasteries. I do, in like
maimer, forbid that any one of another demesne shall take
toll, passage, or any kind of tribute whatever, within the
boundaries and limits of their vills, that is to say, Croy-
land, Langtoft, Cappelade, and Wendlingburgh, without leave
and license of the abbat and monks aforesaid, under pain of
forfeiting ten pounds, payable to my treasury or that of my
heirs, as often as such persons shall presume so to do, if they
shall be convicted thereof. To this my grant, these under-
written have been witnesses on my behalf. Eobert, bishop
of Lincoln, Hervey, the first bishop of Ely, Warner de
Lusors, Hugh de Essarts, and many others, at Oxford. In
the year from the Incarnation of our Lord, 1114, and in the
fourteenth year of the reign of king Henry. Under the seal
of the king himself.”

While this royal proclamation, which had been lately
signed, was yet passing tlirough the hands of the treasurer and
chancellor, there came to the king’s court, from France, two
most illustrious lords, who were, through his sister, closely
related to king Henry, their uncle, namely ; my lord Theo-
bald, the most noble count of Blois, and his brother Stephen,
then a most handsome youth, afterwards king of England,
both of them in their scholastic studies formerly disciples and
pupils, at Orleans, of Master Joffiid. They embraced their
old teacher and much-loved instructor with most affectionate
fondness; and on finding that he was extremely sad and
much perplexed at the demand by the king’s officers of a
certain sum of money which they required for the confirma-
tion which had been lately granted, and learning that his
monastery had been destroyed by fire, and that the rebuilding
thereof had been so strenuously attempted by him, with the
most liberal disposition they gave ten pounds to assist him,

‘^ The privilege which a man had to hold his house or his castle.
*3 Or <* Grithbreche,'' right to hold inquisition on breaches of the peace. •3 Amerciament of court for bloodshed. ^ Offences committed in the highway. « Or " Flemenefrit," the royal privilege of receiving or relieving out- taws* w Power of trying by ordeal. 252 PETER OF BLOIS* HISTORY OF CROTLAND. A.D. 1114. and 80 obtained the said deed from the king's servants, and gent him away with it greatly rejoicing. I shall have occa- sion to speak much more at length in the sequel of these two brothers, but first I must treat of a few events that occurred in the intervening time ; after which, in their proper order, their wondrous and most mighty deeds shall be treated of by my pen with the most becoming diligence, and so brought be- fore the notice of posterity. A few years before this, there had fallen asleep in the Lord, at the monastery of Evesham, the venerable Anchorite, Saint "Wulfsy,** formerly a monk of Croyland, £ind a professed inmate of the church of Evesham. He had first, for the love of Christ, lived the life of a recluse, in extreme abstinence, at Pegeland, in Croyland, but, afterwards, through the annoyance caused by the resort of people to Croyland, who frequently came to consult him on their affairs, and daily disquieted the peace of his soul, had retired to Evesham, in the time of th^ war between the two brothers, the sons of king Cnute, who were contending for the kingdom of England ; as their dis- sensions threatened before long to create the greatest tumults throughput the whole country. During the whole journey, he had his eyes covered with a bandage, so that he might not again look upon the vanities of the world which he had forsaken, and incur any taint therefrom in his heart, and afterwards have to repent therecf ; for this reason it was that he turned away his eyes from the vanities of the world, so as not to be- hold them. The holy man, on arriving at Evesham, served the Lord in the chapel of Saint Kenelm, the Martyr, which he him- self had constructed, in all holiness of life ; and, in the seventy- fifth year of his seclusion, perceiving that he was hastening to- wards the close of his life, is said, in his last moments, to have delivered a sermon of exhortation to his fellow-monks, to the following effect : — " My lords and most dearly beloved brethren in Christ, both you, venerable father, lord Mauricius, as also all others you my brother monks and feUow-soldiers — take it not amiss that I, illiterate as I am, and utterly ignorant, should teach you, who are so much more learned than myself ; but, as I am far more aged than you all, and am now standing at the gates of death, I am, as my conscience bears witness, attracted by the bonds of charity thereto, and do make my endeavour to give *• See pp. 116 and 117. A. D. 1114. EXHOKTATIOar OP SAINT WULF8T. 253 healthful advice to those who are younger than myself. Al- tboagh, as you well know, I am not acquainted with learning, still I am well versed in lie book of long experience ; I know that the commandments of God are holy, and I believe that love of one another will in a future life be deemed most meri- torious. I warn you always to exercise long-suffering in ad- versity, while, at the same time, I teach you to preserve pru- dence in prosperity ; I enjoin you to observe continence, I com- mend all good works, and all evil ones I forbid. And with you, my lords, it matters little, learned as you are, whether the words be written on the skin of goats, or of sheep, or of calves, so long as those words contain learning that is holy and edifying ; therefore, my fathers, though my learning be but simple, and savouring of the humble rank of the ass, still, it was an ass that bore the Lord into the Holy City, and in a tri- umphant entry so glorious, God deigned to use no other beast of burden. The ass, the nearer he approached , the walls of the city, the more truly did he listen to the cries of Hosanna, the more readily did he meet the multitudes, and the more boldly did he step upon the vestments laid by the children. Even thus have I determined the more truly to relate to you the things which in my prolonged life I have learned by experience as to the state of our monastery, the more nearly that I find myself approaching the close of my life ; feeling assured that I shall be, before long, by the favour of the Lord, a fellow- dweller with angels, there to pray that, at a future day, they may go forth to meet you, and may, for your good husband- ing of evil Mammon," receive you as well into eternal habi- tations. " I was bom of parents of no ignoble rank, and was brought up in this district ; but, making choice of exile, in order to gain a heavenly life, I embraced the spiritual training of the monks in a remote region, at the fSeunous and holy monastery of Croyland, the special habitation of Saint Guthlac, there to wage war against the Devil; and I declare that, after the lapse of a year, I professed obedience to the rule of Saint Benedict. Being really as ignorant as a layman, and not skilled in literary pursuits, and quite unsuited for joining in the choir of the monks, while, at the same time, I was utterly ^^ This is perhaps the meaning of ^ Qui pro bene administrate iniquo Mammona," 254 PETER OF BLOIS' HISTORY OF CROYLAND. A.D. 1114. imaoquainted with the ministering of Martha^ and the know- ledge how to cater in the market, I addressed repeated prayers to the venerable abbat of that most holy monastery, Brithmer byname; and at length obtained his permission to lead the life of an anchorite, a thing which had always been my wish, and for that purpose to be shut in a cell among them, that so I might, both day and night, pray unceasingly to God for the negligences of the whole community, as well as for my own sins. I was fortunate enough to obtain the fulfilment there» for some time, of my earnest wishes, and full many a time, as it then seemed to me, did I take part in the heavenly choirs, conversing daily with the citizens of heaven, and comforted by^ God in revelations that afforded me the greatest delight. But, behold ! amid the tumults which in those times brought great tribulation upon the whole land, in the contest wMch took place after the death of the renowned king Cnute, between Harold and Hardecnute, as to which of them should seem to be the more mighty and the more deserving of their father's sceptre, there was such a concourse of the natives of Croyland, in consequence of their fears of impending war, and such a din of men and women every day rushing in to me, in order to consult me upon their various necessities, that each day an immense multitude of people might be seen lying before the little door of my humble cell, just as though it had been the portals of some royal palace. The consequence was, that I was hardly able to run through the duties of the Holy Office that had been enjoined me, and very often had hardly leisure to snatch a moment for a single mass in the day ; very seldom in the night-time, even, was I able to observe the silence im- posed by rule, but I began day by day to fall away from the state of perfection to which I had formerly attained. As though one cast out from before the face of the Lord, I now began to be styled the legal adviser and the coimsellor of the neces- sitous, to be pronounced a most holy and most esteemed man ; and I should in consequence, when I recall to mind [the short- ness of] my years, have rushed headlong into the depths of wickedness and utter desperation, had not the most holy Lord, of His grace, which is ever most readily granted unto a sinner, inspired me with a resolution to seek the advice, in relation to my state, of my lord Aricus, the then prior of this monastery, who was my kinsman in the flesh, a most highly esteemed A. p. 1114. EXnOUTATION OF 8AJNT WITLFST. 255 adviser of the king and all tihe nobles of the land^ and a most holy searcher into their consciences ; him I resolved to ask what course I should adopt. That I might not chance to run, or to be likely to run into a course of vanity, I sent a message to him, on which he sent back word requesting me to come to him with all speed, and assuring me that I should thenceforth enjoy all the counsel and assistance that he could afford me ; which would ensure me the most abundant peace and the greatest tranquillity to which my desires could possibly aspire, for obtaining siire repose for my soul. With what urgent en- treaties I obtained leave to depart from my most holy brethren, with how many tears I parted from my holy abbat and other much-loved brother monks, with what reluctance at heart I left that most beautiftd place, it is not for me now to enlarge upon : but at last I did take my departure, and, coming hither, have passed many years in this ceU, a poor creature of a man, who enjoys, I confess it, a greater name with the world than he merits before God ; but still, to the best of my small abilities, a great ensample to all my brethren, and to the neigh- bouring people to whom I am known. " Now as regards the state of our monastery, which has ever been mutable and most unstable, we have never remained long in a state of prosperity ; but what one abbat has with much in- dustry obtained, the same has the first or second in succession to him, through shameful slothfulness, squandered away : and still further, I do most assuredly prophesy unto you, that much tri- bulation will, before long, biefaU. this monastery ; so much so, that the hands of all shall be lifted against you, and each and all shall take delight in either sweeping you from off the earth, or crushing you down thereto. Still, I hope that I may be found to be a lying prophet, and that truth may not abide in my words. At l£e beginning, this abbey, as my seniors bave often informed me, was foimded and built by Ecgwin, the most blessed bishop and our abbat ; and many in succes- sion prosperously held the same office until the time of one Edwin by name, on whose decease the monks were expelled, and a few clerks, called * canons,* introduced." But for me to insert in this history of Croyland the many ancient immunities and possessions of the monastery of Eves- ham, things which bear no reference whatever to Croyland, the many ezpuLdonB of the m:onks from Evesham by the 250 PETER OF BLOIS' HISTOEY OF CEOYLAND. A.D. 1114* tyrants of the province of Wiccia,** with their restoration by the most pious princes and prelates of the land, the many ac- quisitions of vills and states throughout the whole of the Vale, and the frequent alienations of the same, I think would be quite unnecessary and utterly improper, seeing that they bear no reference whatever to Croyland; and besides, all matters relating to the state of Evesham are fully contained in the collection of Discourses of the holy man [Wulfsy], which was formed for the instruction of posterity, and which col- lection is generally called "the Testament of Saint Wulfsy." I think it more becoming therefore, and more convenient, for the present, to pass by matter of this nature, and I deem it expe- dient here, in its order, to state such of the matter inserted therein concerning the manor of Badby as bears reference to Croyland, setting forth word for word how this most holy Anchorite in his last moments discoursed thereon at length, and what was the advice which, from his inmost convictions, he gave. After treating of many other subjects, then, he at last pro- ceeds to speak of the manor of Badby to the following effect : " At last the lord abbat Walter was succeeded by the lord Eobert, your late predecessor, lord Maurice, who was for- merly a monk of Jumieges ; how many lands of the monastery he bestowed on his kinsmen you know better than I do, as you have daily to lament so shocking a spoliation. You, my venerable father, lord Maurice, who now preside over this monastery, are in peaceful possession of Neuhamp, which was formerly a manor of my parents, and of the lease of Badby there are a few years still remaining unexpired ; I do advise you and do charge your consciences, immediately your term is expired, to restore the said manor in fiill to its just possessors, the abbat and monks of Croyland, and with due diligence to keep the other manors of this monastery, and all the rest of its goods which with a just title you possess; that so, for the &ith- ful keeping of the same, you may obtain of Qtod an everlasting reward at the time when, as we all hope to do, we shall meet in the kingdom of heaven. Amen." The above discourse, some few words being added thereto by way of embellishment, is said to have been delivered by the toly man Wulfsy to his brethren in his last moments ; imme- diately after delivering which, he fell asleep in the Lord. •8 Worcestershire. A.D. 1114. DISPUTE COirCESNlNG THE HAXOB OF BADBY. 257 The before-named Mauricius, abbat of Eveshain, was suc- ceeded in the pastoral rule of the said monastery of Evesham by the lord Eeginald, a monk of Gloucester. In the early days of this abbat the term of the lease of Badby for one hundred years expired ; on which Joffrid, the venerable abbat of Croy- land, although he was busily engaged in rebuilding his church, as well as other great and sumptuous edifices which had been lately consumed by fire, held consultations with those learned in the law, and considered with long deliberation what his convent was to determine to do with regard to the manor of Badby. Although the original charters had been burnt, and he was utterly at a loss to know in what place the charter of restoration containing the said manor had been deposited by his predecessor abbat Ingulph, still, all the monks of Croyland were of opinion and agreed that they ought to go to Evesham, and make demand of the manor of Badby in j*ight of the mo- nastery of Croyland, and put forward in support of such de- mand the royal roll, known as Doomsday. If they, like truly religious men, had well-regulated consciences, they would at once give it up, but if, putting trust in their money or their exemptions, they had seared and avaricious consciences, and struggled to hold it even though wrongfully, then they would have to go before the king's justices, and manfully smve for the maintenance of the rights of their monastery. This step was accordingly adopted, and the venerable abbat Joffiid proceeded to Evesham, and, making demand of restitu- tion of the manor, produced a copy of the charter of restoration of Croyland, and, among other things, alleged the authority of the said royal roll of Doomsday in support of his demand. On the other hand, Reginald, the abbat of Evesham, relying on his kinsmen and friends, and especially on the counsels of Milo, earl of Hereford, who was at this time staying at Eves- ham, and in whose might and words he put the greatest confi. dence against all his adversaries, briefly made answer (for he was very talented, and a young man particularly well skilled in temporal matters), that the manor of Badby was the pro- perty of his place, and had been acquired through the lord Avicius, who was formerly the prior of that monastery, and his kinsman, the lord Wulsin, the Anchorite, who lately died there, it having formerly been their patrimony by inheritance, and having from remote times belonged to their ancestors. s 258 7ETEB OF BLOIS' HXSIOBT OF CB0YI.A17D. A.D.I 114. To this was added the presence of the said earl Milo, -who most pertinaciously opposed the venerable father, the lord Jof&id, and engaged himself and all his to defend the said monastery in the king's court against the monks of Groyland. The venerable abbat of Groyland, seeing that there was no fear of the Lord in this place, and that he was entirely at a loss^ through want of tiie charter of restoration as well as the deed of the original donation, left the matter unsettled, and retuiTied to Groyland, and explaining before his community the most offensive answer both of the earl of Hereford and of the abbat of Evesham, despaired of successfully exerting him- self any further in relation to the said manor. Accordingly, he devoted his whole attention to his church which he had lately commenced, and with the greatest diligence urged on t]ie same, and anxiously promoted the building thereof as long a3 he lived. At the same time, also, king Henry confirmed the manor which had been formerly given to us by the sheriff Thorold, and our late cell, situate at Spalding in the same manor, unto the monks of Saint Nicholas, at Angers. This confirmation was granted to them by king Henry in the following words ; Henry, &c. * * * *'^ In the year following died Ivo Taillebois, who had always been a most bitter enemy to Groyland, and had proved in every place its stoutest foe, as well as a sacrilegious spoliator of all the monasteries and the churches of Ghrist. He was so much given to magic, that, during the siege of the Isle of Ely, lie even induced the most victorious kmg and conqueror of the English, reluctant as he was, to place a certain sorceress at the head of the army, and by his false promises made him believe that his adversaries could not resist her charms and direful in- cantations. This, however, was seen and ascertained by all to be utterly vain and untrue. For, being carried aloft in a kind of wooden tower, upon the bridge which the soldiers were forming for the purpose of crossing the marshes, she was quickly put to death ; for, when the soldiers and workmen held made some littiei progress, that most skilful baron Hereward of Brunne, attacked them in fiank, and setting fire to a bed of dry reeds close at hand, not only cut off the enchantress as well as all the soldiers with the heat and flame thereof, but ^ There is an ooiission in the MS . here. A.D. 1114. SE^TH OF lYO TAILLEBOIS. 25^ reduced to ashes all those portions of the work which they had commenced that appeared aboye the surface of the marsh. Thus did the most victorious Hereward, by his wisdom, con- found that which the most foolish Ito had with great pride devised against God and man. The same person also proposed, with his usual pompous ver- bosity, to Thorold, the abbat of Burgh, by the aid of a body of troops, to expel Hereward from the adjoining forests and woods ; but while the venerable abbat and nobles of higher rank were dreading to enter the defiles of the forests, and Ivo, taking with him all the soldiers, had entered the woods on the right, Hereward and his men made an onset on the left, and in- stantly took and carried off the abbat with all the noblemen who had been left thus unprotected, and kept him in great tribulation, confined in secret spots, until he had paid three thousand marks for the ransom of himself and the others. In such manner did Ivo make abbat Thorold fall into the pit, and force him to pour forth all the money of his mo- nastery into the hands of the enemy. He was a most assi- duous flatterer of the kings, both William, the father, as well as his sons, but was at tiie same time a most fickle turncoat, and constant in his adhesion to none ; for at one time he would favour the side of William the Second, and then shortly after, he took the side of Eobert, his elder brother, and created a great tumult, on which he was at last outlawed fi-om Eng- land, and went over to Eobert altogether. Then he forsook him in his turn, and joined the side of his younger brotheri when he saw that he was more powerful, found that he had more money, and considered him more prudent in ensuring a Buccessful result of their contest. On a final triumph being gained by the renowned king Henry, and his brother Eobert being placed in close confine- ment, all his army was disbanded imd allowed to return home ; on which the said Ivo returned greatly elated to his wife, the lady Lucia, who was holding her court at Spalding. Here he died a few years after, of an attack of pardysis, and his wife buried him in the priory of Spalding with some little sorrow on her part, but amid tie loudly-expressed exultations of all their neighbours. Hardly had one month elapsed after his death, when she married that illustrious young man, Eoger de Eomar, the son s 2 260 JETEB OP BLOIS' HI8T0ET OF CKOTLAND. A.D, 1114. of Gerald de Eomar, and received great honoiir from William de Romar, earl of Lincoln, the elder brother of her husband, while she entirely lost all recollection of Ivo Taillebois. Their only daughter, who had been married to a husband of noble rank, died before her father. Thus, in order that his bastard slips*^ might not take deep root in the world, did the accursed line of this wicked man perish, the axe of the Lord hewing down all his offspring. What, then, does it now profit thee, Ivo, ever most blood-thirsty, thus to have risen against the Lord ? Unto the earth hast thou fallen, numbered with the dead ; in a moment of time hast thou descended to heU, a successor of the old Adam, a frail potsherd, a heap of ashes, a lump of pot- ter's clay, a hide of carrion, a vessel of putrefaction, the nourishment of moths, the food of worms, the laughing-stock of those who now survive, the refuse of the inhabitants of heaven, and the avowed enemy of the servants of God; and now, as we have reason to suppose, an alien and an exile from the congregation of the Saints, and, for thine innumerable misdeeds, worthy to be sent into outer darkness. The noble baron, Alan de Croun, seeing that king Henry had confirmed the cell of Spalding to the monks of Anjou, while, through the might and influence of Milo, earl of Here- ford, the manor of Badby still remained in the hands of the monastery of Evesham, was afflicted with such violent grief of mind, that ho took to his bed, and his life was despaired of. Through the goodness of God, however, he at last recovered, and bade farewell for ever to the king's court ; and having been carried in a litter drawn by horses to his manor of Fres- ton, he sent a swift messenger to fetch the venerable abbat of Croyland ; on whose arrival, making him his most especial confessor, as to forsaking the vanities of the world, he consulted him relative to the gifts of churches, which he had formerly- promised to God and to Saint Guthlac ; besides which, he en- tirely confided his soul to his care, and commanded the whole management of his court to depend upon the expression of the will of the holy abbat in all things. The parsons of Toft, of Freston, and of Butterwick, wete still alive ; still however, calling together his most intimate advisers and friends, after invoking the Holy Spirit, he assigned to the monks of Croyland, as a sevenfold assistance in building a cell for monks in the church of Freston, seven churches ^ AUudip- to Wisdom iv. 3. A.D. 1107. CHABTEB 07 ALAN DE CROUK Ain> HIS “WISE. 261

to be held by them to their own use ; and at the same time
executed and delivered his charter as to the said chnrches and
his other gifts to God and the holy church of Saint Guthlac,
into the hands of his reverend instructor and confessor, JofiGrid
the lord abbat, to the following effect :

” Enow all, both present as well as to come, that I, Alan de
Croun, and Muriel, my wife, do give and do grant imto the
church of Saint Guthlac, at Croyland, freely and quietly to hold
the same as a perpetual alms-gift, the church of Freston, toge-
ther with all the tithes and customs which belong thereto, that
is to say, the lands of the church and the croft adjoining the
church, as also five tofts at Freston, and four bovates of land,
together with the meadow land, free from our demesne rights
and acquitted of all services, geld, and customs. Also, the
church of Butterwick, and all things that pertain thereto ; and
in like manner, the church of Toft, with all the tithes, land,
and other things pertaining thereto, as also the toft of Blan-
chard, and the land of our own demesne. Also, the church of
Wamebum, together with all things pertaining thereto, that
is to say, with the lands and shrubberies thereof. Also, the
church of Stonnesby, with all things pertaining thereto ; and
in like manner, the church of Claxeby, with all things pertain-
ing thereto. Also, the church of Burton, with the tithes and
other things pertaining thereto, that is to say, three bovates
of [arable] land, with meadow land, and one bovate of our
demesne, with the meadow land. These churches, with all
that belong thereto, and with the repairs which we shall make
thereto, we do give for ever, to find food and clothing for the
monks who shall serve God in the church of Saint James, at
Freston ; in the first place, in behalf of the souls of the father
and mother of the king, and for the life and health of them
and theirs, and then in behalf of the souls of our fathers and
mothers, and kinsmen, and ancestors, and for our own health,
and that of our souls. We do also grant unto them the tithes
of the pennies of our fair at Botulphston,*^ and pasturage for
their cattle together with oar own beasts in all places. Wit-
nesses hereto,” &c. His seal of wax being appended thereto.

At this period, Henry, the mighty king of the English, a
prosperous victory having been granted to him over his brother
Bobert and his other adversaries, with deep devotion gave and
« Now Boston.


returned manifold thanks for the same ; and holding a rery
full council at London, of the bishops and abbats of all the
clergy throughout England, as well as of the earls, barons^
nobles, and men of h^h rank of his whole kingdom, at the
entire and most holy prompting of his own heart, in presence
of all those who were gathered together, resigned from this
time forward for ever all claim to the investiture of churches
by ring and pastoral staff, and freely granted to all communities
the election of their prelates, and promised to restore in ftdl the
sums received during the vacancies of bishoprics and abbacies
to those who should succeed thereto; and with royal munificence
granted all other things for which Holy Mother Church had long
sighed, his own royal rights alone being sacred and excepted.
How great were the joys which the clergy then felt, how de-
lighted were the devout people, how solemnly and with what
holiness did each and all extol the king’s <£sposition to the skies, no one could say, nor could even Tully himself have ex- pressed. Por on this occasion, Anselm, the venerable arch- bishop of Canterbury, assisted by Gerard, the reverend arch- bishop of York, on one day consecrated six bishops, who had been canonically elected by their respective churches. In addition to this, for the further promotion of the service of God, this most devout king at great expense founded a most beauteous monastery at Eeachng, and giving it into the charge of religious monks, bestowed upon it many lands and tene- ments, numerous estates and possessions, with extensive liber- ties and privileges ; and, last of all, he cherished it with the royal favour, and put it upon a footing of equality with the other greater abbeys. Just at this time also, Gilbert de Gaunt, the illustrious and devout earl of Lincoln, refounded the most ancient monastery known as Bardeney, which had been formerly burnt by the fury of the Danes, and had for a period of many years lain utterly deserted, and only frequented by flocks and wild beasts ; it is situate not far from Lincoln, towards the east thereof, upon the banks of the river which we call the With- mum.^ To this, besides many other possessions and reve- nues, he most graciously granted the tithes of all his manors situate everywhere throughout England. Numerous other persons, also^ induced by the example of the most noble baron, •> Now Withiun.


Alan de Croun, founded monasteries, enriched and beautified
them. Some constructed cells of the monks of Bee, and be-
stowed on them many churches. Others, again, introduced
communities of Clugniac monks, and endowed them both
with churches and other possessions in the greatest abun-

The venerable father, abbat Joffirid, hastening jfrom the
king’s council to Croyland, published a most healthful enact-
ment for his brother monks, at all times to be observed by
them, on account of various negligences and omissions of
what was their duty. To employ his own words, it was in
form as follows : —

“I, Jofirid, a sinner, appointed abbat of the church of the
glorious Confessor and most pious Anchorite, Guthlac, by the
Divine counsel, and with the consent of my brethren, en-
trusted by God unto my charge, have enacted for the health
and repose of our fathers and mothers, our brothers and sis-
ters, our kinsmen, and all our benefactors, and for the sake of all
those to whom we are under obligations and indebted, and to
whom we have promised alms-gifts, masses, and prayers, and
whose alms we have received, that we will, on the last day of
the month of May, perform the Maundy of the poor, and will
feed them, and will, for the love of Christ, give to each of
them one penny, to the end that they may feed and refresh us
in our extreme necessity. Por we know that we have en-
tered into many promises of fastings, prayers, and masses, to
Qod and our benefactors, of which we have not been thought-
ful, nor have all been careful to perform the same, but have,
like miserable and negligent creatures, neglected the most
thereof, and have performed but few. “Wherefore we have,
by the mercy of God, determined to perform the said good
Maundy which we have mentioned, to the end that we may
not be found to be liars towards God and our own souls by
those to whom we are indebted, as being false promisers. I
do, therefore, with a devout heart and most kindly words,
pray my brethren and successoi-s, that they will keep and ob-
serve this good enactment, that so their souls may ever find
repose in Christ, the Lord. From the tithes of Morbume,
bread shall be received for the performance of the said Maun-
dy, and the pennies to be given with the bread shall be
taken from the tithes of Elmington.”


Eobcrt, the venerable bishop of Lincoln, had shewn himself
kind and favonrably disposed in all affairs relating to Croy-
land ; still, however, he was always most intensely execrated hy
the monks of Stowe, whom he had transferred to Eynesham.
For, induced by cupidity alone, when he was the king’s jus-
ticiary, he had by the royal authority removed their monas-
tery, greatly beloved by the kings and the earls of the land, and
enriched with many gifts, from a most fruitful spot, and the
neighbourhood of a most beautiful river, Trent by name, to a
barren place, that was destitute of all signs of opulence.
After this, he presumed to boast, that his Eynesham was
comparable with the royal foundation at Beading ; on which,
he incurred the king’s indignation to such a degree, that he
was deprived of the ofBce of justiciary, and was afterwards
afflicted with penalties and hardships, and could neither, ac-
cording to his intended purpose, complete Eynesham, nor yet
entertain his court with his wonted lavishness of expendi-

Speaking of the life of this man, Henry, archdeacon of
Huntingdon, thus expresses himself: — ** As very great mis-
fortunes are wont often to overtake many worldly men before
their deaths, I would mention what befell our venerable
bishop, Eobert, before his end. As justiciary of England, he
had been very greatly dreaded, but towards the close of his
life, held been twice put on his trial by the king, before a
certain justiciary of ignoble birth, and had twice, to his great
grief, been visited with the most severe penalties. He was
consequently afflicted with such a profound stupor, that when,
on one occasion, (dining with him, as archdeacon,) I beheld
him shedding tears, and asked the cause, he made answer,
‘ In former times, those who waited on me, were arrayed in
costly apparel ; but now, the penalties inflicted by the
king, have obliged them to be clad in vestments of lamVs>
wool.’ So great indeed, after these events, was his despair of
ever being able to regain the king’s esteem, that, when the es-
pecial commendations of him were repeated, to which the king,
in his absence, had given utterance, he said, with a sigh, * The
king praises none of his people except such as it is his intention
utterly to ruin.* A few days after this, while the said bishop
was at Woodstock, where the king had appointed a gathering
/or the purpose of hunting, conversing with the king and


Roger, bishop of Salisbury, who, next to the king, was at
this day the most influential man in the kingdom, ho was
smitten with apoplexy, and was carried still living, but speech-
less, to his inn, and shortly after expired in the king’s pre*
sence.** His epitaph was to the following effect :-*-

*’ Robert, the pride of pontiffs, whose great name,
Dead though he is, shall live in endless fame.”

“WTiile the most glorious king Henry was prospering in his
kingdom, and his fame was re-echoing in the ears of all the
countries around, there were sent to England some envoys
from Henry, emperor of the Germans, persons of tall stature,
remarkable for their polished manners, of noble rank and
surpassing wealth ; their object being to request the king’s
daughter in marriage for their master. He accordingly held
his court at London, making the most splendid preparations
and surrounded by the most refined luxuries, and in a very
numerous assemblage of his barons, demanded and received
the oaths as to the marris^e of his daughter from the envoys
of the emperor during the celebration of the feast of Pentecost.
In the following year the lady was sent, sparkling with such
an abundance of jewels, and accompanied by such a noble
retinue of envoys, and such vast sums of money, that to de-
fray the expenses of all this, three shillings had to be paid for
every hide of land throughout England.

In the meantime, there had died that most holy philosopher
of Christ and most excellent archbishop of Canterbury, An-
selm, a most distinguished doctor, a most stout wall of de-
fence of the Church, the patron of all the oppressed, a most
devout preacher of the Christian faith, and a most perse-
vering imitator of Angelic purity. He was succeeded in the
archbishopric of Canterbury, at the king’s nomination, by
Badulph, bishop of Eochester.

^ This event is mentioned more folly in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle :-r
” It fell out on a Wednesday, being the fourth day before the ides of
January, that the king rode in his deer-park, and Roger, bishop of Salis-
bury, was on one side of him, and Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, on
the other : and they rode there talking. Then the bishop of lancoln
sank down, and said to the king, — * My lord king, I am dying ;* on
which, the king alighted from his horse, and took him in his arms and
bade them bear him to his inn, and he soon lay there dead.”


At this tiine, the emperor Henry, who, throwing aside all
scruples of reverence and natural affection, had incarcerated
and put to death his own father, then a decrepit old man, was
also devising crafty and most horrible machinations against
the Church. For, proceeding to Home with a royal escort,
that he might be duly anointed and consecrated to the im-
perial dignity by our lord the pope, when he had arrived at
the gate of Saint Angelo, and our lord the pope, suspecting
nothing sinister, had goae forth to meet him with all due
honor, attended by the cardinals and clergy bearing crosses
and numerous torches, he suddenly seized the pope and aU the
cardinals, and put them into close confinement ; where he kept
him most rigidly shut up, until the Church had conceded to hun
a new privilege as to the investitures of churches by the ring
and pastoral staff, and the same had been handed over to him
signed with the papal bulla. He was likewise anointed em-
peror, a thing that his father had not been able to obtain
during the fi%^ years of his rule of the empire, so greatly did
he exult in having commenced this career of error ; however,
it was all in vain.

For, in the following year, the most holy pope Paschal,
having convoked a general synod at the Lateran, in the
Basilica of Constantine, with the consent of all the arch-
bishops, bishops, abbats, and the whole of the clergy there
assembled, quashed this, not so much ” privilege,” as ” pra-
vilege,”** which in the preceding year, the emperor Henry
had extorted from him ; on which, (xerard, bishop of An-
goMeme, the then legate of the Apostolic See in Aquitaine,
openly read the decree of the Holy Synod in the hearing of
all, and proceeded to pronounce sentence of excommunication
for ever against all who should give or receive ecclesiastical
dignities from lay hands, with the acclamations of all then
present, who cried aloud, — “So be it! so be it! Amen!
Amen !” This pope Paschal granted to the abbey of Saint
Botolph, at Colchester, great Absolution on the feast of Saint
Denis and the octave following, to be granted to all pilgrims
for sins of which they made true confession and were really
contrite, the same to last to all future time. The said Qe*
rard, bishop of AngoMeme, while at this time he was a zea-

^ He puns on the resemblance, and invents a word, which would
•ignify *’ bad law.”


lous and devoted champion against the said ” pravilege/’ so,
on the schism of Peter Leonis against Innocent, the catholic
pope, did he prove a most determined enemy of the Church,
died under sentence of excommunication, and utterly cast

The above-named Gerard, archbishop York, was succeeded
by Thomas, who, after a short tenure of office, was followed by
Turstan, the best of them all, except that, for a long time, he
declined to pay obedience to Radulph, the archbishop of Canter-
bury. After Eadulph, Amulph, abbat of Burgh, was appointed
to the see of Rochester, and consecrated by that archbishop.

Just at this period of time, the venerable abbat JToffrid in-
troduced a most devout observance, to be thenceforth continued
at Croyland, on the feast of the Preparation.** For he enacted,
and enjoined that obedience to the same should be always ob-
served by his successors, that, on the day of the Passion of our
Lord Jesus Christ, to which the holy Page gives the name of
”Parasceue,”^ the abbat of that house should, in presence of
all, strip himself in the chapter-house, and, according to rule,
receive stripes upon his own flesh ; and that the whole convent
should, each in his order, do the same ; to the end that, in the
same way that the Lord Jesus, after his denial, mercifully
looked back upon Peter the Apostle, and he, grieving for his
offence, bitterly bewailed his sin, so He, in His mercy, may
look down upon us, and make us bitterly to lament our sins ;
and that as, by so doing, we are made partakers of His Passion,
80 we may be rendered partakers of the joys of His Eesurrec-
tion. Amen, Amen.

At this time there was a very mighty earthquake in Italy,
80 much so, that many walls fell down, strong fortiflcations
were overthrown, and a great town was removed from one spot
to another at a considerable distance. At this time, the fol-
lowing miraculous event happened at Milan, and rendered the
philosopher Solo feunous in the eyes of many. For, while
several men of Patrician rank were discoursing on the affairs
of state of the city of Milan beneath a certain tower there,
one was called by name, and invited to come forth, and on his
delaying so to do, a person came, and with entreaties begged
him to leave his companions in council for a few moments, and,

«» <* Parasceue," or " Good Friday." « Or ** Preparation." St. Matthew zxyii. 62 ; St. Mark xv. 42, 268 PETEB OF BLOIS' HI8T0EY OF CROTLAND. A.D. 1118. immediately after he had heard the matter, return. Accord- ingly, he Came forth, and hardly had he gone thence, when the tower fell down and crushed all the rest heneath its ruins. Many parts of England, also, were most dreadfully afiicted with this earthquake, and the new work of the church of Croy- land, which as yet was weak in consequence of having no roof to hold it together, split asunder, most shocking to relate ! in the southern wall of the body thereof, with horrible yawnings, and threatened immediate ruin as the consequence, had not the industry of the carpenters been exerted in firmly keeping it together, with timbers of great length and beams laid trans- versely, until such time as it had gained the support given by the formation of the roof, which, after that, firmly held it together. At this time died Matilda, the queen of the English, and the glory of the Scots, the foster-mother of the poor, the re- fuge of all the wretched, and the most especial patroness of the abbey of Croyland, and of abbat JofMd. She reposes at Westminster, as your records say. Her epitaph was to the following effect : — ** Great queen ! sprung firom the line of England's kings, The Scots thou didst ennoble by thy nobleness" — Then, after enlarging on the worth of her character, it pro- ceeds — ** No pleasures pleased, no sorrows made her sad ; Adversity she lov'd, joy was her dread — No honors made her vain, no sceptre proud ; Humble in power, in lofty station chaste. The first of May, of day for us the night ! Snatch 'd her from us to everlasting day." But the revolving wheel is hurrying me away from the fulfil- ment of my promises made as to matters previously mentioned. At the time at which this most pious queen put off mortality, in order that evils might not come alone, but, multiplied in numbers, might be enabled to say, " Bow down thyself, that we may pass over thee," a most grievous dissension had pro- ceeded to great lengths between the two kings of France and England. The cause of this discord was my lord Theobald, the renowned count of Blois, previously mentioned. He had been held in great contempt by Louis, king of the Franks, on account of his sanctity, and had been often provoked by dcri- A.D. 1117. CHi:aA.CTEs OF oouirr theobald. 269 uve insults on the part of the youths about the court. This did not escape the king of England, who, feeling vexed that the high-bom station of his kindred should be thus subjected to maltreatment, sent envoys to the said illustrious earl, over to be mentioned as my lord Theobald ; namely, Gilbert, abbat of Westminster, and JoflWd, abbat of Croyland, both of them bom and bred in France, both of them Doctors, remarkable for their skiU in the seven liberal axta, celebrated for their under- standing, venerable for their old age, held most dear by my lord before-named, and well known and much beloved by all in Belgic France. Being presented by the king with a large sum for their ex- penses, they proceeded, not as royal envoys, but like natives of the country about to visit their fellow-coimtrymen, and to pay their compliments to the learned men, their contemporaries, at Paris and Orleans. On their road, without any noise or pomp they turned aside to pay a visit to the count, and speedily tell- ing him their business, took their departure ; but, setting out on their return to England, they crossed the sea by ship, and brought an answer to the king, that the count would with all speed repair to Normandy, for the purpose of having an interview with him. Both of the envoys, receiving his com- mendations, returned to their monasteries, but they were al- most drained to the very last farthing of the immense sums of money which each had teJ^en with hun from his monastery. It is proper that I should now set forth the most holy cha- racter of my lord before-mentioned, the most renowned count Theobald, show what were his alms-deeds, how devout an imitator he was of our holy father Job, whom Satan afflicted with every kind of tribulation, and thus, to the best of my humble ability, hand down the same to posterity. Stephen the Elder, count of Blois, by his wife, the countess Ada, daughter of king William, the most glorious conqueror of the English, had three sons, Theobald, the first-bom, after- wards count of Blois, of whom mention is made abov€ ; Stephen, the second son, afterwards count of Moretuil, and king of Eng- land; and Henry, the third son, afterwards a monk, then bishop of Winchester, and Legate in England of the Apostolic See. Of the two latter brothers, mention shall be made more at length hereeifter ; at present, the object of my pen is to treat of Theobald, the first-bom. With reference to him, Geoflfrey, 270 PETEB OF BLOIS* HI8T0ST a7 CmOYLAKD. A.D.1117. abbat of Clairval, in his second Book on the miracles of Saint Bernard, writes to the following effect : — " The Lord did set free, in a manner not less wonderful than merciful, that most faithful prince, count Theobald, after he had been proved by great tribulation. Though the most powerful man in the kingdom, and second only to the king, he entirely devoted himself to alms-deeds, and was intent upon objects of piety, while he showed himself a most devout lover of all the servants of (rod, and of [Saint] Bernard of Clairval in especial. Still, God suffered him to be harassed and afflicted to such a degree, that, in consequence of the king, as well as nearly all the neighbouring influential men, entering into a combination against him, his escape was nearly despaired of; he was pub- licly insulted, his piety was arraigned, and his alms-deed im- pugned, while his knights and arbalisters were styled monks and useless religionists . And not among strangers only, but even in his own cities and castles as well, were blasphemous remarks of this nature to be heard repeated." Arnold, also, abbat of Bonneval, after enlarging upon this subject, writes to the following effect : — " That man [of God], count Theobald, while intent on heavenly things, was not without temptations of great weight and of a terrible nature ; for the king, as well as tiie nobles, attacked him, and the earth was moved and trembled ; and, as though God were enraged against him, nearly everything that belonged to him was ex- posed to the ravages of conflagrations, while the armies of the king covered the &ce of the earth, and laid waste the land in all directions. I^or was it safe for him to oppose or face his persecutors, for even his own friends had forsaken him, and had ppenly joined in harassing him ; while those who remained with him were of no advantage in being able to afford him assistance."" * * * * ^ The narrative abruptly terminates here. ZSh OP P£T£B OV BLOIS' HISTOBY OF CBOTLAinr. A SECOND CONTINUATION 6f ihb HISTORY OF CKOYLAND. * * * * denouncing their impiety, [blood] gashed forth from the walls. After the lapse of several years, king Stephen, being ex- ^mely desirous to grace his son, Eustace, with the crown, our lord the pope, by his letters, forbede it ; on which he placed the archbishop and all the bishops who opposed him in strict (Custody, and mercilessly seized many of the nobles of his kingdom in their respective castles, and reduced them to a stato of famine. Induced to do so by the necessities of the oppressed, Henry, duke of K'ormandy, hastened over to England with a great army, at a moment when his arrival was least looked for. King Stephen, on the other hand, collecting troops from every quarter, met him with all speed near Malmesbury. Atleugth, however, a truce was concluded between them; and Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, after frequently conferring with the king thereon, and appealing to the duke through messengers, at last effected a reconciliation between them, on which the king adopted the young duke as his sou, and, binding himself by oath, appointed him heir to his kingdom ; while the duke promised to pay all due honor and fealty to the king as long as he should live. 1 We learn from Hoveden and Henry of Huntingdon, that the follow- ing circumstance is here referred to : — ^While the church of Ramsey was being held by the impious Geoffrey de Mandeville as a castle, hlood gushed forth from the walls of the church and adjoining cloisters, in ma« nifestation of the Divine displeasure, and foreboding the extermination ol the wicked. a.d. 1144. The MS. is defectiye at the beginning. 272 coNTnnrATioN op the histoet of choylaxd. a.d. 1155. This same king Stephen, being besought by abbat Ed- ward with urgent entreaties, graciously granted him a con- firmation of the boundaries of the abbey, which was to the following effect : — " Stephen, king of England, to his arch- bishops, bishops, abbats, earls, justices, sheriffs, barons, officers, and all others his faithful Franks and English throughout all England, greeting. Know ye that I have granted and con- firmed unto God and the church of Saint Guthlac, at Croyland, and £he monks there serving God, all the lands and tenures, and other the possessions to the said church belonging, as also the marsh in which the said church is situate, together with the boundaries thereof by name, as follow : — ^From Croyland to Asendyke, thence to Aswyktoft, and so along Shepee to Tydwarthar, thence to JSTomannesland, and so through the river Nene to Fynset, and so to Greynes, and thence to Folwardstakyng, and thence along the course of Southlake, as it falls into the river Welland. Thence, on the other side of that river, to Aspath, and thence to Werwarlake, and so to Harenholte, and thence upwards through the waters of Men- gerlake, and thence along the course of Apynholte, as it falls into the Welland. Wherefore, I do will and strictly command that the before-named church, and abbat, and monks, shall hold and for ever possess whatever is contained within the said boundaries, and all other their lands, tenures, and possessions, fully, peaceably, freely, honorably, and quietly to enjoy the same, in wood and in plain, in meadows and in pastures, in waters and in marshes, in preserves and in piscaries, in mills and in miU-dams, and in all other things, as also places, with right of Sach and Soch, and Thol and Them, and Infangethefe, and with all other free customs and acquittances, as fully, freely, and quietly as any church in my kingdom holds the same. Witness myself, the queen, and earl Simon, and others, at Stamford." After king Stephen had had a most toilsome and unfortunate reign of nearly nineteen years, he departed this life, and was buried at Feversham, near his wife and son. In the year from the Incarnation of our Lord, 1155, Henry the Second, duke of l^ormandy, was crowned by Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, on the seventeenth day before the calends of January. In the time of this king, Thomas, archdeacon of Canter- A. D. 1 1 7 1 . KOBERT DE EEDINGES ABBAT OP CEOTLAND. 2 73 bury and prior of Beverley, was created archbishop of Canter- bury. But, a disagreement afterwards arising between him and the king, on certain customs of the kingdom, which mili- tated to the utter subversion of the liberties of the Church, he withdrew from the council held at Northampton, £ind, with great sorrow of heart, remained in exile for a period of seven years. In the sixteenth year of his reign, king Henry had his eldest son, Henry, [crowned] by Roger, archbishop of York. * * * * [Archbishop Thomas] was received fin the name] of the Lord, while all cried aloud, and said, " Blessed is he, who Cometh in the name of the Lord." On his arrival, the Su- preme Pontiff suspended Roger, archbishop of York, and some other bishops, from all their duties ; while others he placed under the ban of excommunication. ******* cruelly slew with their deadly swords the man of God* who was struggling for justice, in the church of Canterbury, like another Zacharias ;' on which occasion, a person composed the following rhyme : — ** In eleven hundred and seventy^ne, The primate Thomas his course had run.'' In the meantime, Abbat Edward ably ruled this church, and greatly amplified it with decorations, books, and extensive pos- sessions. But, still farther to prove his endurance, a great misfortune happened; for, in his time, the church of Croyland, with its outbuildings and most of its furniture,* was again burnt, on the Nativity of Saint Mary. But, by the aid of the right hand of Gtod, he almost immediately rebuilt it magnifi- cently, in great part, with the active assistance of his bre&ren. After enduring many hardships for thirty years, as boldly as manfully, in behalf of the* rights of his church he at last fell asleep iu the Lord. He had for his successor Robert de Redinges, prior of Lemster,* who was appointed to the office by king Henry the Second, son of the Empress, and archbishop Richard. He carefdUy completed the building of those parts of the church ' Archbishop Thomas & Becket. > Alluding to 2 Chron. xxiv. 21 ; and St. Matt, xxiii. 35.
* This seems to be the meaning of ‘* necessaria.”
^ Or Leominster. The abbey of Redinges, or Reading, was endowed
by Henry the First with the possessions of this abbey.


574 CONTIXUATiaX op the HISTOKY OP^JEOYLAXl), A.D. 117l-

which remained unfinidhed at the death of abbat Edward ;
and, hiring artificers for the purpose, had the front of the
shrine of Saint Guthlac constructed of work of remarkable
beauty. Upon this occasion, he suppliantly besought of the
said king Henry a confirmation of the boundaries of his abbey,
and obtained the same, by royal charter, in the following
words : — ** Henry, king of England, duke of Normandy and
Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to his archbishops, bishops,
earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, officers, and all other his
faithful Franks and English throughout all England, greeting.
Know ye, that I have granted and confirmed unto God and tire
church of Saint Guthlac, at Croyland, and the abbat and
monks there serving God, all the lands and tenures, and other
the possessions to the said church belonging, and, in especial,
the site of the said abbey, together with the boundaries there-
of, herein named, which extend as follow : A distance of five
leagues, being from Croyland to the place where the Asendyk
falls into the waters of the Welland, and thence along the
Asendyk to Aswyktoft, and thence to Shepee, and thence to
Tydwarthar. Thence through Fynset, upwards to Groynes,
and thence to Folwardstakyng, and thence along the course of
the Southlake, as it falls into the river Welland. And so across
the Welland, towards the north, as far as Aspath, and thence to
Werwarlake, and so to Harenholte, and thence upwards
through the water as far as Mengerlake, and so through the
Lurtlake as far as Oggot, and thence along the course of
Apynholte as it falls into the Welland; together with all
piscaries to the said boundaries belonging. Wherefore, I do
will and strictly command that the before-named church, and
abbat, and monks shall hold and for ever possess all their lands,
tenured, and other their possessions, and all the gifts which,
since ‘ the death of king Henry, my grandfather, have been
reasonably given to them, fully, peacefully, freely, quietly,
and honorably to enjoy the same, in wood and in plain, in-
meadowB £ind in pastures, in waters and in marshes, in pre-
serves and in fisheries, in mills and in mill-dams, and in all
other things and places, with right of Sach and Soch, and Thol
and Them, and Infangthefe, and with all other free customs
and acquittances, as fully, freely, and quietly as the said
church, and abbat, and monks held the same in the time of
king Henry, my grandfather, or other my predecessors, king^^

A.D. 1189. CASE OF THE abbaIt bobebt. 275

of England, and as ftdly, freely, and quietly as any church in
xny kingdom of England have held the same. Witness^ * * *
at Lincoln.”

King Henry, the son of king Henry, son of the Empress,
twelve years after his coronation, and while his father was
fitill alive, was seized with a severe fever ; and being after-
Wards attacked by a flux of the bowels, departed this life,’ and
was interred at Eouen.

In the year of our Lord, 1186, being the thirty-second of
his reign, king Henry, son of the Empress, gave to Hugh,
prior of the house of Witham, of the Carthusian order, the
bishopric of Lincoln ; on which he was consecrated by arch-
bishop Baldwin.

The before-named abbat Kobert carried on a very heavy
suit, in behalf of his church, against the Prior of Spalding,
and the men of Hoyland, who had, with a large force, made
an irruption into the precincts of Croyland ; this, the follow-
ing case, drawn up at fiill length by him, relative thereto,
will show :—

“The abbey of Croyland was begun to be built by Saint Guth-
lac the Confessor, who is also buried there, four hundred years
since, or more. It is of the proper alms of the kings of Eng-
land, having been granted by their especial donation from the
ancient times of the English, when it was founded by king
Ethelbald, who gave the marsh in which it is situate; as we And
stated in the Life of that Saint which was formerly written.
The abbey, being situate in the midst of the marsh, stands
at a considerable distance from the rest of the mainland. Now,
the men of Hoyland, who are our neighboiLrs on the northern
side, greatly desire to have tenancy in common of this marsh
of Croyland ; for, as their own marshes, of which each viU
had originally one of its own, have been dried up, they have
converted the same into good and fertile arable land. Hence
it is that they stand in need, beyond measure, of common pas-
ture land for their cattle, in which they do not so greatly

” Now, in the thirty-fifty year of king Henry, it being the

last year of his Ufe, while he was in his territories beyond sea,

and busied in wars and other pursuits, there came over to

England a Mse report of his death. On hearing this, th^

» The twelfth of May

T 2

276 CONTIiarATION op the filBTOET OF CEOTLAKD. A.D. 1189.

men of Hoyland considered how they might invade the
marsh and hy force ohtain possession of it; imagining that
they could easily overcome the poor abhat of Croyland and his
little house, and confiding in their own prowess and the vast-
ness of their riches. Accordingly, Gerard de Camville^
Fulco de Oiri, Thomas de Multon, the father of Thomas, and
Conan Fitz-Eloy, persons, who, for other reasons, enter-
tained great animosity against the house of Croyland and its
abhat Robert, after being joined by Eichard de Elet, and
Walter, and mtmy others, called upon Nicholas, the prior of
Spalding, to place himself at their head as the chief and prin-
cipal actor in this piece of violence. Why enlarge ? All the
most powerful men of the wapentake of Ellow, a few only
excepted, entered into a conspiracy against Croyland, and
met together, sometimes in a bam belonging to tiie prior of
Spalding, at Weston, and sometimes in the church of Hol-

” Accordingly, the abbat of Croyland, in conformity with
his usual custom, put his marsh-lands in a proper state of
defence, as is usually done each year about the time of the
Eogation days ; and proclamation was publicly made upon the
bridge of Spalding, that the men of Hoyland and others should
prevent their cattle from entering the marsh, in order that
the crop of hay might have liberty to grow ; upon which, they
refused to listen thereto, and persisted in forcing an entrance
to the marsh even more than before. Hereupon, the servants
of the abbat, who had been, according to custom, appointed
for the purpose, by his orders impounded the cattie, as they
had been in the habit of doing in former years. The men of
Hoyland, being very indignant at this, on a day named, the
feast of Saint Kerens and Saint Achilles, came to the mareh of
Croyland, armed, all of them, with aU kinds of weapons ; just
as tiiough in array for battle, and exceeding in number three
thousand men. At the embankment of the Asendyk, where
the boundary of the marsh of Croyland is situate, they were
met by abbat Eobert, and a few of his people, who suppli-
antly sued for peace ; for both he and the others supposed
that they had come for the purpose of levelling the whole
abbey with the ground. On this, they gave him a haughty
answer, and made a show of resistance to his face. God,
however, wrought a change in their malicious intentions^ and


in some degree mitigated the evils wiuch threatened the
abbey ; but, armed as they were, they proceeded through the
middle of the marsh, and divided it among themselves, ad*
cording to the situation of their respective vills, although lo*
cated at a considerable distance around the marsh. They
then encamped around the abbey, erecting their tents and
taking up their quarters just like so many hostile nations, and
placing men-at-arms to act as sentinels in each division of
their encampment. Accordingly, they dug up turf, cut down
the greater part of the wood and alder-beds of Croyland, and
depastured upon the meadow land ; while they carried off
fire-wood, and committed other acts of violence for fifteen
days, just like so many armed men in camp.

” In the meantime, the abbat and monks of Croyland with
their servants were placed in great straits, and were affected
with profound grief, as they hardly dared venture beyond
the gates of their church. The monks accordingly deter-
mined to lay their complaints before the justices of our lord
the king, and sent a message to the one whom they found
nearest at hand, Geoflfrey Fitz-Peter by name, who was then
staying at Clive, in Northamptonshire ; whereupon, he sent
9ix knights of I^orthampton to see and fiilly learn ^e extent
of this incomparable outrage. On their arrival at the eastern
side, they first met with the tents and quarters of the men
of Sutton, the liegemen of Gerard de Gamville, and found
them provided with all kinds of arms. Upon being ques-
tioned by them, these men answered, that they were there by
the orders of their lord ; and so, in like manner, throughout
each of the quarters, until they came to the quarters of the
men of Spalding, which they found to be the most remote, did
each pariy name its respective lord as its authority for so

“In the meantime, however, abbat Kobert secretly has-
tened to London, and sought the presence of Hubert Eitz*
Walter, who then occupied the place of Ranulph de GlanviUe,
who was staying with our lord the king, in the parts beyond
eea. Accordingly, he made complaint before lum and his
fellow-justices, of these many injuries committed against the
peace of our lord the king, and shewed to them the great
charter of our lord the kmg, which sets forth by name the
boundaries of the marsh : upon which, they exceedingly con-


doled with him, and, being greatly surprised and moved to
anger, sent word in the king’s name to the before-named
Geoftej Fitz-Peter, commanding him at once to summon
before him the prior of Spalding and all the men of Hoyland,
and give the abbat full redress against them. On hearing’
this, the armed men, who had now kept ward in their
quarters for a period of fifteen days, burned their encamp-
ment and returned home.

” Accordingly, upon the summons of Geoffirey Fitz-Petear,
the men of Hoyland, together with the prior of Spalding, came
to meet him at Depyng ; and, in the week of Pentecost, on
the sixth day of the week, Geofirey Fitz-Peter arrived, bring-
ing with him many men of rank, and members of the king’s’
household. Upon this, those parties were there charged by
abbat Eobert with breaking the king’s peace, and with aU
the violence and injuries before-mentioned ; and there arose
on behalf of the abbat, seven of his men, who being tenants
of his f» eapite, charged each of them, one of their adver-
saries, with doing injury to the abbat to the amount of twenty-
marks. Hugh PoU charged Gilbert de Peocebrig ; Eobe^
Bee, ELfric de Fulvey, his brother ; Hugh Molende, Conan
Fitz-Helye ; Eobert de Baston, Fulco de Oiri ; Alfred de
Leverington, Thomas de Multon ; William de Gliat, Alger de-
(/olevill ; and Eobin Eobet, Alexander de Whappelode. Some
of those who were thus charged, as well as many others, were
taken and imprisoned : Gilbert, for instance, and his brother
Elfiic, at Northampton ; William Puley and Hugh de Whap-
pelode at Kokingham,^ and others at other places. After
this, the judge appointed a day named for either party to
come and appear before the chief justice at Wisstmiusta:, at
the feast of Saint Michael.

‘* In the meantime, our lord Henry, king of England, de-
parted this life ; upon which, our lord Bicbard was crowned,
king, on the third day of September, and the justices wero
i^hanged ; in consequence of which, the men of Hoyland took
courage, for they had feared that had the king survived, they
should be condemned. Accordingly, on the day named, th^
JEibbat of Croyland came with his friends and champions to
support his accusation and the charges made. There wad
ialso present, the prior of Spalding, with his accompUcea i hut
* A town and castle in Norihamptonfthire.

•A. D. 1189, CASE 0]P TEE ABBAT BOBEBT. 279

Thomas de Mulet^ being ill, sent his seneschal in his stead.
At this period, Hugh, the lord bishop of Durham, was sitting
as chief justice. Upon this, Conan Fitz-Helye, Fulco de Oiri,
the seneschal of Thomas de Multon, Alexander de Whappe-
lode, and Alger de Colevill, became greatly alarmed, and
through the intervention of friends, entreated the abbat to
grant them peace and reconciliation, and that his appeal
•might be put an end to. They furtiier, with their friends,
^pledged their faith to the abbat, that they would never from
this time prefer any claim to the marshes of Croyland, and
that they would throw themselves upon the king’s mercy for
.the injuries they had committed, and would, according to the
arbitration of [mutual] friends, make good the damage which
l^y had done. Accordingly, they appeared before the justices,
^and confessed themselves guilty ; on which, they were
amerced, Thomas de Multon in five pounds of silver, Fulco in
■five marks, and Conan in the same ; while the two otiiers, who
‘were poor men, at the entreaty of the abbat, were not, on
«this occasion, visited with a penalty. The prior, however,
^and his liegemen, Gilbert and his brother, Elfric, persisted
in their contumacy.

1 ” Accordingly, another day was named ; upon which the
abbat, and the prior, and their respective followers appeared.
The abbat preferred his complaint against the prior and his
>bien, that they had come in arms to the marsh of Croyland,
-which is held of our loitL the king, and had so broken the
king’s peace. To this the prior made answer, that he certainly
‘had come with an armed force to his own marsh, which belonged
*to the priory of Spalding, as of the fee of William de Romar ;
-and promised* the king that he would prove this, or forfeit forty
marks at the next grand assize held. As for the abbat of
Croyland, he had not on this occasion taken due precaution, as
he had neither brought with hinn the king’s charter, nor yet
had he come attended by any stout young men, who could offer
wager of battle and fight on the abbat’ s behalf, to assert his
right of property in die marsh ; with the sole exception of
Hugh Poll and Robert Bee, who had respectively charged
Gilbert and his brother Elfric. As he could not^^ make choice

* Clearly a mistake for Multon.

^® Probably for the following reason : because, in the trial by battle,
on issue joined’ in a writ of right, the battle could only be waged by cham-


of wager of battle, he was obliged to submit to the matter bein^
brought before a jury, althou^ a course attended with danger
to hmself. For the knights of that county live at a very con-
siderable distance from the marsh of Croyland, and know no-
thing about its boundaries ; and besides, there is no one hardly
to be found in the county of Lincoln, who is not in some wav
or other connected either with the house of Spalding, or wiui
William de Eomar, or else has laid some claim to tibe marsh.
And, although the persons before-named withdrew their daim,
they still secretly gave aid and counsel, * * *
and pay a sum of money to the prior and his people. Accord-
ingly, knights of the county” were chosen in the king’s court,
whose names were set forth in a writ, for the purpose of trying
the cause ; upon which, the men of JBioyland rejoiced at tii«r
victory, as they imagined that they would now be enabled to
settle the matter with money.

” Accordingly, our lord the king directed his mandate to the
sheriff of Lincoln, to the following effect : — * Greeting. We
do command you to summon Eoger de Huntingfield, Conan de
Kirket, Walter Maureunard, Radulph Fitz-Stephen, Alan de
Wichet, William de Foleteb, Alan de Marc, Bichard de Brace-
brigg, Alveram de Hugwell, Robert de Thorp, Alan Mersoou,
Hugh de Neville, Hugh de Bobi, Robert Fitz-Henry, Radulph
de Reping, Geoffrey de la Mar, and Robert de Guing, who have
been named by four knights chosen for that purpose, to make
view of the marsh as to which there has been a dispute in our
court, between the abbat of Croyland and the prior of Spalding;
and they are there to make view of the s^d maish, on the
Monday next before the Nativity of our Lord ; and you are to
be there, with four or six of the lawful knights x)f the county.
And, after view made thereof, you are to summon the said
knights to appear before us on the fifth day after the octave
of Saint Hilary, wherever we may chance to be, or else beforo
our justices on the same day at Westminster ; there to try upon
oath which party has the better right to the said marsh, in
which the encampment has been so made, and the burning

pions, and not by the parties themselves ; as, in civil actions, if any party
to the suit died, the suit of necessity instantly abated, and no judgment
could be given. Probably Poll and Bee were looked upon as parties to
the suit, and could not act as champions.

1^ ” Comitibus ” seems to be an error for ** Comitatu.” ^


of the turf and alder-bed have taken place, the abbat of Croy*
land or the prior of Spalding, according to the seisin which
the same persons have had thereof since the first coronation of
our father, king Henry. And you are to have there this writ
and a summoner. Witness, the bishop of Durham.’

** Accordingly, on the Monday next before the Nativity of
our Lord, Nigel, the sheriff of Lincoln, did not come in person to
make view of the marsh, but sent in his stead Walter de Sart,
who was a supporter of the men of Spalding. A very few
came of the knights named ; who, having made view, caused
their verdict to be written to the following effect :—r

” * This is the verdict of the knights, on view made of the
marsh as to which there has been a trial between the abbat
T)f Croyland * * it being averred that the marsh where
the encampment was made, and the fire, and the rooting up
of the alder-bed took place, is his own, and of the fee of the
abbey of Croyland ; by reason whereof the said abbat hath this
year, and every year since he has been abbat, received rent for
the same,^ as he alleges. The men of Hoyland say that the
said marsh does not belong to the abbat, but is their own pro-
perty, from Munechelade towards the east, and that they are
not answerable for the burning or the uprooting which took
place below Munechelade. The men of Hoyland, on being
questioned whether they woidd or would not be answerable
for the burning and uprooting that took place beyond Mune-
chelade, said &at they would not give an answer thereupon,
because the justices of our lord the king have cognizance of
those questions, by virtue of the king’s writ’ ”

Li the mean time, the men of Hoyland, by favour of the
sheriff, changed such of the knights named as they pleased,
without consent of the abbat ; such, for instance, as Boger de
Huntingfield, Hugh de Bobi, and Geoffrey de la Mar. On the
approach of the day of trial, the abbat of Croyland, intending
to proceed thither, was detained by sickness ; on which he had
himself essoigned for illness on the road,^^ and another day

13 This appears to be the meaning of the sentence, which seems to be
in a veiy corrupt state.

1′ The essoign de Mah vub was an excuse made for him who had been
summoned to appear and answer to an action, on the ground of falling
sick on the road. It was a kind of imparlance, or craving of a long»”

^82 coirrrsuATiON of the history of crotland. a.d. 1191,

•was named at “Westminster, after the Purification of Saint
Mary. Abbat Eobert accordingly set out for the purpose of
going thither, but became so extremely ill at Cottenham, that
£e had himself essoigned for illness,, which confined him to
his bed.** Upon this, four knights, by precept of the justice,
“<»me to view him ; and appointed another day after the octave ^f Easter. His malady still increasing, abbat Eobert died, on Ahe vigil of Easter ; upon which Croyland was seized in the name of the king and of his chancellor, whom, when he icrossed beyond sea, he had left to act as chief justice of the whole of England. The abbacy of Croyland being thus vacant ^d held in &e king's hands, there was a lull in these tempests. This same king Richard, in the first year of his reign, de- afforested** all the marsh lands of Hoyland and Kesteven, be- Jtween the river Welland and the river Witham, which had been previously deafforested in the time of kings Henry the First, 'Stephen, and Henry the Second ; and he granted to the men on both sides thereof, to whom, before, it had of right belonged, 'leave to build upon the said marshes, and to till die same, and to enjoy all their easements upon the same, according to the metes and boundaries in their charter contained. In the mean time, William de Longchamp, the lord bishop :of Ely, chancellor to our lord the king, and at this time legate • &om the Apostolic See, sent messengers to the king in j^or- -mandy, where he was anxiously making arrangements for his . expedition to Jerusalem, and obtained leave from him to appoint ion abbat for the abbey of Croyland. Accordingly, with the consent of the king, and on the election of the brettiren of Croy- land, the lord Henry, a monk of Evesham, and brother in th^ flesh to the before-named chancellor, was chosen abbat of ' Croyland. So long as the chancellor continued to sit as chief justice, the men of Spalding made no mention of any claim upon Croyland : but afterwards, through earl John, and by means of the conspiracy entered into against the chancellor, or rather against our lord the king, who was now in Judeea - devoting himself to the service of God, the chancellor was expelled from England, and his brothers Henry and Osbert, ^* The essoign deMalolecH; on wbich» as Bracton informs us, the -^ defendant was by writ viewjed by four kniffhts. " i« freed and exempted from' the forest laws. A.D. 1191. • SISPTTTE A8 TO THE 3CAB8H OF C&OYLAHTD, ' 293 and many others of his kinsmen and Mends, were taken and * thrown into chains of iron, and the strictest confinement. And now, William de Eomar, who was a devoted adherent of earl John, and had already taken the oaths of allegiance to him, commenced a persecution of Henry, the abhat of Croyy land, upon strength of the hatred entertained against hiji brothers ; and, taking the opportunity, caused the beforO' ^named abbat to be summoned by the justices on the king's writ, to appear on a certain day named at Westminster, against the abbat of Saint Nicholas at Angers, (for the before-named Nicholas, prior of Spalding, had previously been deposed), to hear the verdict upon the view made of his marsh. TJpoa this, he was full of anxiety, and quite at a loss which way to tain, as he foresaw danger impending on every side ; and ha did not dare to step beyond the precincts of his monastery^ lest he might chance to be seized like his brothers, or even killed ; for threats to that effect had been recently uttered against him, as he had been informed by many persons. Ac« cordingly, he had himself essoigned on the first day for ill. ness on the road, and on the second for being confined to his bed. Upon this, orders wete sent firom the king's court by the justices to Gterard de Camville, the sheriff of Lincoln, an enemy of the chancellor, and the especial leader of the opposite faction, immediately to send four lawful knights of the county to make view of the abbat on a certain day named. Accordingly, four knights were appointed, whose names were as follows : Walter de Braytofb, and Eeginus de Beniton — ^the names of the others have not been preserved. These, however, did not come on the day named, but only one of them, Beginus de Beniton, and some low retainers of the prior of Spalding, together with tome other persons. Abbat Henry, however, thinking that they would not come, had, the previous night, embarked in a vessel at the gates of Croylaiid, though he had not yet fiilly recovered from his illness, and caused himself to be earried to a manor of his in Cambridgeshire, on his way to court. As for the before-named B.cginus, summoning the prior of Croyland to appear, he said that he had come to make view of the illness of the abbat, according to the king's precept : but as he did not find there those who had been named as his as? sociates in making such view, he would by no means ^one de^ ^84 COiniNTTATION 07 XHE HISIOBY 07 CBOTIAKD. A.D. 1191. inaitd view of him. However, they named a day for the ahbat according to the precept, as those who came said that the jus- tices ***** ' The day now approaching, and the abhat of Croyland feeling Kjiore anxiety on account of the perpetual spoliation of his church than of his own peril, set out for London, where he amved on the day of the Ascension ; and here he found ^thered together against him the princes of the land, namely, earl John, Walter, archbishop of Bouen, Hugh de Koyant, bishop of Chester, William de Eomar and Ms accomplices, 'Gerard de Gamville, and Eoger de Stikelwald, his under* sherifi^ and the abbat of Angers, together with others innume- "Table, who took part against him through hatred of his bro* thers. For William de Eomar, and the abbat of Angers, who at that time were great in the land, had, through many prayers imd great gifts, and by means of evil suggestions, moved them against the abbat and the house of Croyland; so much so, that it did not seem to them that they had gained a fdU and complete ^ctory over the chancellor and his party, so long as the abbey
ther precept before the day named, he should give seisin to the
people of Spalding, in conformity with the king’s precept.
Upon this, the abbat, being fiill of anxiety, in coiibrmity
with the advice of his convent and his friends, made pre-
parations for crossing the sea. For he had been summoned,
not to plead his cause, but to hear the king’s precept, in the
following form : — ** Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, to the
sheriff of Lincoln, greeting. Summon by two summoners
the abbat of Croyland to appear before us at Westminster, at
the end of fifteen days from the day of the feast of Saint
Michael, that he may hear the precept of our lord the king,
concerning the marsh situate between Croyland and Spald-
ing, as to which there has been a dispute between him and
the prior of Spalding. And you are in the meantime to see
that the said marsh, together with all the profits arising
therefrom, is kept Gcee from ravages or waste. Witness, Si-
mon de PattishiU.”

Accordingly, on the day ” of Saint Hippolytus the Martyr,
being the Lord’s day next before the Assumption^ of the
blessed Virgin Mary, the lord abbat of Croyland, bidding
adieu to the brethren, took his departure amid the blessings
of all, and set out with a most resolute mind on his intended
journey ; having first directed them to put up prayers both
individually and in common, and duly to celebrate masses.”^
When he had arrived near Winchester, he heard that arch-
bishop Hubert, so often named, the primate of all England,
and legate of the Apostolic See, and chief justice of our lord
the king of England throughout the whole kingdom, was at
that place on the king’s business. He therefore waited upon
him, and stated to him the necessity he was imder of crossing
over ; upon which, he obtained his permission, and on asking
for his blessing, received it, and then hastened onwards to the
sea-shore at Portsmouth.

Here he found a vast concourse of the nobles of England,
of earls namely, barons, and knights, who were waiting for
a calm, and were extremely desirous to cross over, in con-
aequence of a most urgent summons on part of the king

u Thirteentb of August. ^ Fifteenth of August.

‘^ To promote the 8uc<^s of his suit. V '290 CO^rUrUATIQN Of the HISTOKT of GSOrULVDr .A.D. 119|. their master. Ear, at this period, there was a mortal hatred and a dreadful rupture between him and Philip, king of France, who, by fraud rather than by violence, had wrested from our lord, king Eichard, the greatest and best part of Normandy, while he was detained a prisoner in Germany. Our lord the king, being consequently desirous to avenge him- self, had summoned the chief men of England, and these making preparations to cross over, the abbat joined them. Accord- ingly, they embarked, and making a prosperous voyage, landed at Barbeflet,** on the feast** of Saint Augustin the Doctor. Being still in the company of the said nobles, who paid him every mark of respect, he arrived at the city of Bouen. The king of France, having led an army into Normandy, had al- most entirely laid waste those territories ; in consequence of which, thaking of England was so crippled and reduced to such straits, that he was able to attend to nothing else but expeditions, encampments, and the garrisoning of castles; The abbat, therefore, deferred mentioning, for the present, to the king the business upon which he had come. In the meantime, the bishop of Ely, the chancellor of our lord the king, returned, by way of England, fit)m Germany; whither the king of England had sent him to carry tribute^ to the emperor. On hearing of his return, the abbat went to meet him^ and disclosed to him the purport of his mission. A short time having elapsed after this, on the day of Saint Lambert, the king arrived at a manor of his called Ponsarche. The abbat, hastening thither, found the chancellor with the king, and being imwilliijg to put it off any longer, besought his lord the king to give his attention to the business upon which he had come. Accordingly, he began humbly, but emphatically, to state to him the cause of his journey ; the chancellor, however, took the word from his mouth, and explained the whole circum- stances of the case. Upon this, the king made answer, that he very well remembered that he had come on the same busi* ness to him when in Germany, and that he would with pleasure grant him a full measure of justice: "But follow me," said he, ** until I can give you my entire attention." Accordingly, the chancellor, with the abbat, and others who were his wd^^ wishers, returned him thanks ; and the chancellor, once mot^ set out on his road for Germany, to visit the emperor, , w Harfleur. »3 Twenty-eighth of August. ^ A. portion of hi:> ransom money, probably. ^

A.o. 1193, !rsB aBbai’s tsriKayiBw with the xo^o, 291

Ab for the abbat, and those who were with hun, they followed
the king through villages^ and castles, and cities, until the
king at last arrived at Falaise. Here ike lord abbat earnestly
and suppliantly entreated him, and at the king’s commaad
briefly and succinctly stated with his own lips l£e whole cir-
cumstances of the case. Upon this, the king seemed to be
much pleased both with his firmness of determination and the
succinctness of his address ; at the same time, seeing that hisi
adversaries, as above stated in the king’s writ which they
had brought over, had promised him a payment of twentr*
marks, he promised that he himself would pay the samw
number to his lord the king. On this, the king briefly made
answer, that he wished to discuss the matter with his council.
These events took place on the day of St» Mauricius** the

After this, the abbat followed the king for several days
through numerous plsu^es, imtil at last he came to Gorham, on
the vigil of the feast of Saint Michael. On the following day,
during the solemnization of the holy mass, he approached the
king as a suppliant petitioner, and was favourably heard.
Galling to him Master Eustace, the keeper of his seal, ^’ Make
haste,” said he, ” and despatch the business of this abbat,
and send our mandate to the archbishop of Canterbury, in the
following words : * Kichaxd, by the grace of Qtod, king of
England, to the venerable father in Christ, Hubert, by the
same grace, archbishop of Canterbury. The abbat of Croy-
land, coming to us while we were in Germany, stated unto us,
that, under pretext of default on his part, when, on account of
his brother, he did not dare appear, he had been disseised of a
certain marsh situate between Croyland and Spalding : upon
which we made enquiries of him and others, and found that,
through fear on account of his brother * * he had taken
to flight and concealed himself, and had thereby committed
de&ult ; which default we did forgive him. Wherefore we
did, by our letters when we were in Germany, command that
the said abbat should have full and entire seisin of the said
marsh, in such form as the charter of Henry our father testi-
fies. Again commanding the same, we do will and have here-
by commanded you to carry out that which is stated according
to the tenor of the charter of our father and in conformity
‘* Twenty-second of September^

292 coNinnjATioN of the histoet op cbotlai^d. a.d. 1193,

with the customs of England relative to the said marsh ; and we
do warrant to him our charter hereupon, .as also our forgive-
ness for his said default. And if it shall so happen that the prior
of Spalding has paid the twenty marks into our Exchequer,
which he promised unto you for receiving seisin of the said
marshy you are to cause tike same to he returned to him ; and
if he shall not have paid them, then you are not to receive
them ; seeing that he ohtained the said letters from us by
means of a false suggestion.^ I^or yet is he to remain in pos-
session on account of the letters which the abbat of St. Nicho-
las, at Angers, has obtained relative to the said marsh. And
this ypu are to do, when you shall have received the com-
mands of “William de I’Eglise Saint Mary, hereupon. Witness
myself, at Gorham, this thirtieth day of September.”

To the said William he also wrote as follows : ” Eichaid,
by the grace of God, &c. To William de FEglise Saint Miuy,
greeting. We do command you, that as soon as the abbat of
Croyland shall have given good sureties for payment to you of
fifty marks, payable within a certain time which we name to
him, you are to signify the same to the archbishop of Canter-
bury, that he may then do for the abbat those things relative
to ttie marsh of Croyland, which, by our letters, we have com-
manded him. Witness, myself, at Gorham, this thirtieth day
of September.”

Accordingly, the abbat, on receiving these commands, de-
parted in all haste from the court, and made for the sea-coast,
in order that he might arrive by the fifteenth day after the
feast of Saint Michael, and appear against his adversaries.
But when he had arrived at Barbeflet, he had to wait there
for some time, being unable to cross over for the boisterousness
of the sea and waves ; consequentiy, he was unable to appear
at London before the justices, on the appointed day before-
mentioned. His deputies, however, whom he had left in
England, the monk Nicholas, and William the clerk, appeared
in court on the day named, and essoigned their abbat lor de-
tention on the road beyond sea ; upon which, a further period
was granted him, according to the custom of the kingdom, of
one and forty days.

*• The words ** Bpiscopi conventum ‘* occur here, but they are capable
df no translation. Probably the meaning is, ** a false suggestion that his
appeal had been approved of by the bishop^.”


On the day of St. Wulfran, the abbat landed at Portsmouth,
and, ^Eitigaed as he was, hastened with all possible speed to
Jjondon, to bring the business to a condusion. On finding the
BTchbishop, he presented to him the mandate of our lord the
king ; after looking at which, or hearing it read, he inquired
whether William de TEglise Saint Mary, of whom mention
-was made in the king’s mandate, had the requisite evidence ;
and, because he was not present, declined to take any further
steps on that ooci^Bion. Li a short time, however, the said
William arrived ; and the abbat on learning his arrival, being
in no degree forgetful of his cause, immecUately waited upon
him, and saluting him on the king*s behalf, presented his man-
date : on reading and under8tan£ng which, the said William
asked if he could find sureties in conformity with the king’s
conmiands, fur payment of the fifty marks at the times named
for payment Upon this, the abbat produced the lord William
d’Aubigny, and Master Stephen, archdeacon of Buckingham,
as his sureties. This took place before the solemn festival of
All Saints, and the before-named William appointed as the
period for payment of the first half, the ensuing Easter, and
as the time for the second payment, the feast of Saint Michael :
after which, he wrote to the lord archbishop a letter, containing
the precept of our lord the king, directed to himself, and stating
that he had satisfied him by finding most unexceptionable
sureties, and eamestiy entreating him no longer to put off the
Qonsideration of the abbat’s business.

When the lord archbishop heard this, he said that he was
desirous to confer with his brother justices on the subject.
Accordingly, the abbat waited there ten days, urgently en-
treating tiie archbishop, every day when he could find the
opportunity of approaching him, and until he was quite weary,
to give his attention to him and his suit. The prelate, how-
ever, was so much engaged with a multiplicity of affairs, that
he could give no attention whatever, to the conference. Still
however, in consequence of the importunity of the abbat, he
at last sent with him two of his private advisers, to appear
with the king’s mandate before the justices on the Bench, in
order that they might hear, understand, and pronounce what
ought to be done in the matter. Accordingly, after reading
the abbat’s charters as well as the letters from our lord the
king, it appeared to them that the seisin of the marsh ought to

694 cwrmniATioK ot the histoey ov (morhwt. a.d.1195>

remain peaceably in the abbat*& hands. But as, in ihe king’s
mandate, a direction was contained, that the trial respecting
the marsh should be carried on in conformity with the customs
bf England, the archbishop desired especially to be informed
as to that expression, and what was requisite to be done. To
this question the judges made answer that as the abbat had
been disseised for his default, and the king had forgiven him
that default, and had warranted to him his charter and his
pardon for the said default, he was said to recover Ids seisrn
according to the custom of England, which through the
said default he had lost. The persons who had been sent, on
their return, stated to the archbishop what they had he^
from the justices. This took place on ^e day of St. Germanus.
The archbishop, however, sent word that it was his duty to
make enquiry of the abbat, whether he had been guilty of
such default through fear, as our lord the king had stated in
his letter, or whether through contempt of the king’s court
In this way did his lordship put off the business until the mor-
row of All Saints.

At length he took his seat in court, on the day of All SoulSi
and the justiciaries being seated on either side of him, the
abbat made his appearance, indefatigably entreating him to
bring the business to a conclusion. Upon this, the arch-
bishop ordered the king’s precept to be read aloud. This
having been read in the hearing of all, he began to enquire of
those who at the time were seated on the bench, which cause,:
fear or contempt of the king’s court, had given rise to this
legal default. After the judges had conferred together pri^
vately on the subject, one of them, a most worthy and prudent
man, Eichard Heriet by name, arose and said to the aick*
bishop, that the enquiries which our lord the king, in hid
present letter, testified that he had made, ought to be quite
sufficient for tiieir purpose, just as the fact was openly stated
among other matters in the royal mandate. The archbishop,
as well as the other judges, concurred in this opinion ; their
names were as follow : — ^Eoger Bigot, William de Warenne,
William de Brinner, Eichard Harte, archdeacon of Ely, Eich-
ard Heriet, Simon de Pateshill, Osb^ Eitz-Hemey, and Henry
de Chastell.^

Upon this, the archbishop wrote to the sheriff of linooln;
to the following effects— “Hubert,. by the. grace of God^ &e.,


to the sheriff ^f lincoln, greeting. Know that our lord the
king grants unto the abbat of Croyland his pardon for the
default which he made at the time when our lord the king
was upon his pilgrimage, and in consequence of which de-
fault he was disseised of his marsh, which lies between Croy-
land and Spalding ; and has commanded that he shall have
full seisin thereof. Wherefore, we do command you, without
delay, to let him have such seisin as he had thereof before
that, by reason of the before mentioned default, he was disseised

• Accordingly, in the year fix)m the Incarnation of our Lord,
1.193, abbat Henry returned with full seisin of the marsh.
However, on the day named, as before-mentioned, for his de-
puties to appear, he wished, for the sake of additional pre-
caution, to be present, and on the morrow of Saint Edmund,
the king ancL Martyr, made his appearance at London. The
prior of Spalding, however, was im willing that all his labour
should be in vain, and though he understood for certain the
success which had attended the abbat of Croyland in his suit,
he sent thither one of his monks, Hugh, sumamed GruU, who
used every exertion in his power to our disadvantage. How-
ever, when he appeared before the justiciaries, he was in-
fbrmed by them, that the abbat of Croyland, in conformity
with the king’s precept, and the common opinion of them-
selves, was entitled to possession of his nmrsh, and ought
quietly and peaceably to hold the same, unless our lord the
king should command otherwise. Upon this, GruU departed
in extreme sorrow and con^ion, tiiereby illustrating the
Vrords, ** Let them be confounded and put to shame who wish
me evil.”*

In the following year, being compelled by necessity through
the debt due to &e king, the abbat had to sell the greater
part of a plantation of alders, a considerable portion of which
he had only begun to plant in the preceding year. In the
same year, being the sixtieth from the first removal of the
remains of our patron, Saint Guthlac, the Confessor, another
having taken place, for the purpose of bestowing additional
honor and glory upon his ^irine and the workmanship by
which it was distinguished. Accordingly, on the fifth day
before the calends of May* being Saturday, after matin lauck
a» Psalm xU 14.


were ended, the shrine was moved from its place and placed
in another quarter, the community and many other persons
with due reverence standing around and chaunting psalms.
The hody of the blessed man was then placed in a coffin,
sealed down with iron and lead in six different places, and
set upon a new altar, which had been built in the meantime
above the steps. On the Monday following, being the mor*
row of the day of^ Saint Vitalis the Martyr, the workmen
began to excavate beneath the great altar, for the purpose of
repairing it. This work of the altar was finished on the day
of the Apostles Saint Philip and Saint James ; upon which,
our workers in marble set to work at the erection of the slabB
of marble, and placed columns beneath for their support.
After the marble casing had been completed, the most holy
[body] was placed thereon, upon the calends of June, being
Thursday. On this day there was great rejoicing among all
the people ; as vast multitudes had assembled together &om
every quarter, upon hearing reports of the intended removal
of the body. The abbat and the convent, amid joyous
chaunts and with becoming pomp, and with the greatest
manifestations of gladness on part of the clergy and the popu*
lace, placed the relics of the holy body in its shrine upon the
marble slabs, in manner to be seen at the present day. And,
in order that this day might thenceforth be distinguished, it
was by the common consent of all ordained, that on that day
the sequence^ should be sung at the celebration of high mass
in the convent in honor of Saint Guthlac, the occasion being
such that the sequence might appropriately be sung. For,
though from ancient times, Thursday had been assigned at
Croyland to their patron, and the monks wore their copes in
the choir ; on this occasion in especial, the veneration shewn
to him was redoubled, adding thereby to the praise of our
Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and glory for ever and
ever. Amen.

After this, the lord abbat Henry and the church of Croy-
land, entrusted to his charge, held their marsh, so often men*
tioned, in peace and quietness for nearly nine years, to the
great sorrow and indignation of the prior of Spalding, Nicho-

‘9 Twenty-eighth of April.

><) The sequence was the hymn of praise snng on the principal fesU-. vals before the Gospel. A.D. 1202.. THS ABBAT OF ANOEBS APPEALS TO KING JOHN«. 20% las by name, and his monks, as well as many others who wera partisans of Hoyland: who, however, awaited and pondered over the time that was to come for taking their revenge. At last, after king Eichard had departed this Hfe, and his bro* ther John had succeeded him, they thought that their m(W ment of good fortune had arrived, and that luck smiled more, auspiciously upon them ; because, as has been already men* tioned, it was through the same John, then earl of Mortaigne,, that they had contrived to gain seisin of the marsh. Accordingly, in the year of grace, 1202, which was, if 1 am not mistaken, the third year of the reign of king John^i they sent envoys beyond sea, the above-named Hugh the. monk, with some others ; who paid a visit to Jocelyn of An- gers, their abbat, and stated to him the cause and design of. their joulney. Upon this, attended by them, he appeared be- fore king John, and by a careful relation of the facts endea- voured to recall to lus recollection how, in his presence, he had, by judgment of the court of king Eichard, obtained seisin against the abbat of Croyland of a certain marsh; adding, that afterwards the same abbat had, without trial, and through the violent conduct of his brother, the chancellor, recovered seisin thereof. At last, he promised our lord king John that he would give him forty marks to have judicial record and reasonable judgment upon the matter : upon which, the king wrote to Geoi&ey Pitz-Peter, who was then sitting as chief justice in England, and whose grace and favour the men of Spalding had, by many acts of great obsequiousness, obtained^, to the following effect :— ** John, by the grace of God, king of England, to his dearly- beloved and faithM Geoffirey Eitz-Peter, earl of Essex, greet- ing. You are to know that the abbat of Saint Nicholas, at Angers, has come unto us and has promised to ]is forty marker for gaining seisin of a certain marsh between Croyland and Spalding, relative to which there was a trial between his prior of Spalding and the abbat of Croyland in the court of king Eichard our brother at Westminster ; and which was by rec^ and reasonable judgment of the said court awarded to the said prior, as he says. Wherefore, we do command you,, after talang security from him for the payment of the said forty marks at fit and proper times, to hear read before you^ tlie record of the said trial, and, according to the record m<^ ^Wf CbimNTTATrON i)t tHE HISTOEY OF CEOTLAST). 1202? Reasonable judgment of the said trial, without delay to let him have fdU seisin of the said marsh in conformity with justice, and according to the customs of England. Walter." ■ Upon this, Geoflfrey Fitz-Peter directed this mandate under Mb seal to Gerard de Camville, the then sheriff of Lincoln, and wrote to the following effect : — " Geofirey, &c. to the dieriffof Lincoln, greeting. Know that the prior of Spal- ding has given us security by Simon de Lima, that he will pay iorty marks unto our lord the king, which he has pro- mised to him for having seisin of the marsh between Croy- land and Spalding ; as to which a trial took place in the court of our lord tiie king,. between him and the abbat of Croyland. IWTierefore, by trusty summoners, you are to summon the said abbat to appear before us at Westminster, on the octave of Saint Martin, to hear record and reasonable judgment thereon, ^d are there to have the summoners, and this writ." This 'summons was made at Croyland, on the morrow of the Apostles, Saint Simon and Saint Jude, before the ninth hour ; but the lord abbat had departed from Croyland early in the morning. The writ of summons was sent after him ; on hear- ing which, he waited upon Geofirey Pitz-Peter, that he might obtain his advice ; and was, among other things, recommended by him to cross the sea to our lord the king. Accordingly, the abbat appointed as his deputy to appear throughout the suit, before tiie said Geoffirey, John de Sandon, who was then seneschal of the abbey of Croyland. Before the day named, he also presented him at London before the ju8[tices on the Bench, whose names were Bichard Hcriet, Simon de Pattishill, John de Cestling, Walter de Orepinges,. Eustace de Fautub, and Master Godfrey de I'lsle. After this, the abbat proceeded to wait upon the lord archbishop of Can- terbury, because it was while he was sitting as chief justice of England, tiiat he had, in conformity with the precept of king liichard, as above stated, recovered seisin of his marsh ; and upon Eustace^ the lord bishop of Ely, who was the then chancellor of the same king ; and, as they were both ac- quainted with the circumstances of the case, he asked Hieir lidvice upon the matter. They both condoled with birn on this imjust and vexatious conduct, and bringing to their re« oollection, as well as they could, the true circumstances of the itae, gave testimony thereto, and wrote' letters in his favour* A.D. 1202; fiUGH, BISHOP OF LIKCOLK, DIES. ' 299 The lord archbishop of Canterbury wrote to the following effect : — ^* Hubert, by the grace of God, archbishop of Canterbury, &c., to Geoflfrey Pitz-Peter, earl of Essex, greeting. We send imto you a most truthful copy of the letter sent to us by king Richard, of happy memory, on behalf of the abbat of Croy- land, as to a certain marsh,^ which lies between Croyland and Spalding, and relative to which there is a dispute between the said abbat and the prior of Spalding. We believe that if it had come to the knowledge of our lord the king, that his said brother sent unto us such letter, you would [not]*^ have re- ceived from him such commands as you have now received against the above-named abbat. Wherefore do you make it your care to* come to such conclusion as, in your discretion, vpu shall consider to be consonant with what is reasonable and just." The tenor of the letter written by the king will be found set forth at length above* The lord bishop of Ely also wrote to the following effect :— ^ '* Eustace, by the grace of God, bishop of Ely, * * * to his friends, the justiciaries of our lord the king, on the Bench seated, greeting and brotherly love. As we do well recollect^ while king Bichard, of happy memory, was still living, the abbat of Croyland appeared before him at Gorham, upon which the king fiilly pardoned him for the default of which he had been guilty on the trial concerning the marsh between him and the prior of Spalding. This we have thought proper to notify to you, in order that the truth relative thereto may be fiilly known and ascertained." * In this year died, at London, Hugh, bishop of lineoln, of holy memory : upon which, his body was carried to linoolm where it was buried with great pomp by king John, who had lately come over to England, together with the archbishops, and bishops, and other dignitaries of the kingdom. In the meantime, the octave of Saint Martin, the time named to the abbat of Croyland for hearing the cause, drew nigh ; upon which, the before-named John, the abbat's deputy^ had himself essoigned for illness on the road ; and the justices, in (oonformity with the precept of. Geoffirey Fitz-Peter, gave him ^^other very short day to appear at the end of fiLfteen days, t)6iiig the day after the feast of Saint Andrew. Upon heannj^ *" «i The negative is here oitiitted by accident, ' ■' * '* 800 GONIINUAXIOV or the HISIOBT of OBOTLOrS. A.D. 12Q2. of this, the abbat and his Mends were ledueed to still greater straits ; for they had hoped that a longer time would have! been granted them, a day, namely, after the ootaye of Saint Hilary ; that so, in the meantime, they might be enabled to cross over to our lord the king, and make known to him the true state of the case. Indeed, he had made every prepara- tion for crossing over, the last time that he had left Croyland before the feast of All Saints ; and consequently, the convent of Croyland thought that he had already crossed over, as, in the meantime, he had neither returned nor sent any message home. It was quite unexpectedly, then, that a messenger ar- rived from him, ordering his prior, Nicholas de Toft, Geofl6:ey de Horva, the cellarer, and the proctor of the abbey, to meet the lord abbat at London, on a day named. Hastening thither, ihey found the lord abbat in the county of Cambridge, at his manor of Drayton : upon which they proceeded onwards together to London. Here they were met by Osbert de Long- champ, the brother of the lord abbat, and a certain wise and discreet knight, Eeginald de Argent by name ; by whose advice the lord abbat addressed his entreaties to each of the most powerful men in the court, namely, John de Gray, the then lord bishop of Norwich, and a great favourite with the king, and Simon de Pateshill, and Eichard de Heriet, with many others, begging them to show a kind attention to his interests. Nicholas, prior of Spalding, also came, together with his supporters and many friends of high rank, for a rich man ge- nerally has many friends. Upon the day named for the trial, he appeared before the justiciaries on the Bench, and preferred his claims against the abbat of Croyland ; who, on being called, immediately appeared, and, in conformity with the usual cus* tom, demanded to hear the ivrit: upon which the writ of summons was produced and read. But the original could not be heard, as it only spoke of the abbat of Saint Nicholas at Angers : and to this the abbat of Croyland was not bound to answer, seeing that the abbat himself was not present, nor yet had appointed any one to act in his stead. In consequence of this, they decided that he was only bound to answei the last writ, the one which Geof&ey Fitz-Peter had directed, under his seal, to the sheriff of Lincoln. Upon this, the abbat of Croyland withdrew with his friends and counsel, and, after holdiDg a short conference, returned. The prior, however, i:t. 1202. DELIBERATION OF THE JUDGES. 301 urged most strenuously that the precept" of our lord the king ought to be catrried into effect, and that record should be granted to-him and reasonable judgment as to a certain marsh between Croyland and Spalding. To this, a certain man, wise in the things of this world, who spoke in the abbat's behalf (John Gluccente by name, a citizen of London), made answer, that the lord abbat of Croyland had no wish whatever to avoid record of the court and reasonable judgment, but that he de- manded the writ which contained the foundation of the trial, and from an examination of which the judgment and record ought to be formed ; and, if he could in no way ob- tain that, he demanded view to be made of the marsh be- tween Croyland and Spalding, as, in consequence of many former trials, many points were to be easily obtained upon thiiei spot. Upon this, the judges enquired at what time this suit was first mooted ; to which the men of Spalding made answer, in the time of king Eichard, when Walter, archbishop of Rouen, was chief-justice of England, Robert de Whitefeld, of whom mention has been previously made, acting as his assessor. The abbat and his Mends admitted that such was the fact, and were greatly rejoiced at it ; both because, most unjustly and contrary to all forms of civil law, he was dragged to trial by that writ by which abbat Robert, his predecessor, had be«i summoned, as also, because the forgiveness of his default which king Richard had granted him, and the charter confirming pos- session of the marsh to the abbat was posterior thereto in time ; and, x)f two mandates, the one that comes last prevails. The justiciaries, on hearing this, arose from the bench and held conference with the barons of the Exchequer, and the faithfid servants of our lord the king who were there sitting. On the morrow they took their seats on the Bench, and both parties made their appearance : upon which, Simon de Pates- bill stated that the question required still frirther considera- tion, and several of his brother judges were not then present, aa the Advent of our Lord was just then being celebrated, and no other trial, except the one in question was going on ; in con- sequence of which, it would be necessary to postpone the trial for the present, that it might be heard more at length, and time might be gained for due deliberation. Accordingly, thej appointed another day, eight days after the octave of SaiuC ^ llie king's letler w jfnofl tff Qnflkegr FUs-Pcteb 302 005TIXUATI0X OF THE HISTOKT OF CROYLAKD. A.D. 120^ i ' - Hilary ; in order that, in the meantime, the original writ, the foundation of the whole cause, might be searched for, and those persons might he enquired after and summoned, under whose care the matter in dispute had been enquired into, see- ing that not one of them, except the said Simon [de Pateshill], was then sitting on the bench ; and he was unwilling alone to give judgment, from a feeling that he ought not to do so. The abbat and his Mends were much pleased at this delay, as he was quite ready to cross over ; but he first gave the letter of his lordship of Canterbury, and that of his lordship of Ely, to John de Sandon and his Mends who stayed behind, in order to strengthen their cause, in case he should not be able to return to England by the day fixed for the trial : immediately after which, he set out, but was delayed some time at Ports- mouth, waiting for a fair wind and a smooth sea. The prioi^ of Spalding also sent an envoy in his behalf to act against him, a very shrewd monk, Godfrey by name, who then held the office of cellarer in his monastery. At this time, also, his lordship of Canterbury, and his lord- ship of Ely, having been summoned by the king's most urgent mandate to come over, were at Shoreham, waiting for a fair opportunity of crossing. The abbat of Croyland, however, embarked on the feast of Saint Lucia at Portsmouth, and making a prosperous voyage, landed the next day at Barbeflet ; his lordship of Canterbury having arrived in Normandy four days before. On landing, the abbat immediately proceeded towards Montfort, as the king and the archbishop had just arrived there. On the vigil of Samt Thomas the Apostie, the abbat had an interview with the king, in presence of the archbishop, and in a suppliant and simple narrative related his story in the hearing of the king ; briefly stating how that he had been disseised of his marsh, on account of a default which he had made through fear, as he did not dare appear before a court of justice, his brotiier the bishop of Ely having been just expelled from Eng- land, and his other brothers thrown into prison, while oui* Iqrd king Richard was tarrying in the land of Syria ; how, too, that the same king, when he had waited upon him in Germany, and made his complaint, had fully forgiven him his default. Ho also stated hov/ that the lord archbishop had, in confoimity with the king's mandate, restored him to seisin and possession^ The arc^bishopi who was present, on hearing this statement^ ^.«ui203« ^xut oif Tax evtt^ 30^ testified to the tnith thereof and supported the prayer of tbg ^bbat addressed to the king, to the effect that he would ratify and grant forgiveness for lus default^ in the sapie manner that the &g his brother had granted it to him. Upon this, th^ ^ng very graciously promised that he would shew unto him a full measure of justice ; but ga^ve orders that he should attend him until he could give more leisure to the consideration of hi^ case. - At the same time, one Gbdfrey, a monk, and a very crafty^ forward man, who had been sent by the prior of Spalding t9 ami against the abbat of Croyland, offered every possible oppof sition, resisted him to his face, both in presence of the king and elsewhere, and in every way impeded the transaction of his business. The consequence was, tiiat it was protracted for a very considerable time. Still, however, the abbat of Croy^ land, following the king about through castles and villages^ unweariedly persisted in the prosecution of his suit. In the mean time, king John determined to celebrate the approaching festival of our Lord's Nativity in a style of kingly magnificence at Argenton, convoking the princes and nobles of his territorie9 for the purpose. Being, among the rest, and before all others^ invited by name, the earl of Chester came ; a man who was tbe patron and advocate of the people of Spalding, and diligently promoted their suit. Accordingly, he eamestiy entreated the king, and his Mends and advisers, to favour the interests of his monks ; for, as he said, what was done for them would be considered as done for himself. After thus recommending tp each and all the monk Godfrey and his suit, he departed j&oia court. Upon this, gaining fresh courage, Godfrey often and earnestly entreated the king, by fresh letters to command the justices of England, without excuse or delay, to dispatch the business of the prior of Spalding, according to the tenor of the letters formerly written, and promised the king twenty marks of silver in addition to the forty marks that had been previously promised. The abbat of Croyland, on hearing this, was extremely anxious, both because our lord the king had so greatly delayed the settlement of his business, as also because the courtiers did not, as yesterday and the day before, shew to him a favouribU). countenance. At length, however, being sensible that in this ...oourt hardly any business could be expedited, unless through 804 COKTUffTJATIOK OP THE HISTORY OF CROTLAin). i.u. 1202, the intervention of presents or promises, after holding connsd with his well-wishers, he offer^ the king no smaU sum of money, on condition that he would by his charter grant to him the same forgiveness for his default which king Eichard had granted him ; this, however, the king put off until he should have arrived at Saint Susanne. Here the abbat entreated th^ Icing, with his usual earnestness, that he would deign to listen to his prayers. . The monk Godfrey, however, pressed the king with no less degree of earnestness. Upon this, the king, fol- lowing the counsels of his prudent advisers, and desirous for the time to satisfy both sides, determined to accept the promises inade by both. Accordingly, he gave to the monk Godfrey his letters, to the following effect : " John, by the grace of God, king of England, &c. to Geoffirey Pitz-Peter, greeting. You are to know, that the prior of Spalding, besides the forty marks which he had previously promised us, has made a final arrange- knent with us, on payment of twenty marks of silver, to have record and reasonable judgment against the abbat of Croyland, in the suit between them relative to the marsh. Where- ifore, we do command you, that if he shall give you security for payment of the said money, at the times which are known to you, then you are, without delay, to let the said prior have record and reasonable judgment, according to the custom of JSngland, and according to the tenor of our former letters which ybu have received upon the subject, and according to the terms of the said suit which has been reasonably carried on between them. Witness, myself, &c." He also gave a letter to the abbat of Croyland, to the fol- lowing effect: — "John, by the grace of God, &c., to Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, greeting. We command you forthwith to hear the cause between the abbat of Croyland and the prior of Spalding as to a certain marsh, and to award to the abbat of (>oyland what, on hearing the said trial, ought to be awarded
to him, and to the prior of Spalding the same. You are also
.by your letters to signify unto us ttie progress of the whole
matter, and your determination hereupon. Witness, myself, at
.Feschamp, on the tenth day of January.”

Godfrey, the monk of Spalding, on receiving his letter, de-
.parted from the court with exultation, and hastened to returii
, to England, expecting that he would be able without any op-
‘{lodtibn to bring his business to the desired conclusion^ before

A^-1202. L-ETTBU or TUB 4ltCnMSH0? OP CANTBPBUBT. 305

the abbat of Cr^jland should be able to return ; as he was
aware that he had hitherto made little or no progress with the
king in the promotion of his suit. Por the abbat had departed
fix)m court at the same period, but stiU remained for a short
time in those parts, being occupied about this as well as various
other business of his, as he had no wish to be i^ too great haste
to return, a day having been given to him and his adversaries^
to appear before the judges in the [King’s] Bench at West-
minster, — the octave of Saint Hilary; and besides, he had
prudently taken all due precautions before crossing over, ap-
pointing John de Sandon to act as his attorney in his stead,
and to promote his suit. However, his attorney was not able
to appear on the day named; upon which, he had himself
essoigned until a future day, and another day was named, at
the end of three weeks.

In the meantime, by the providence of God, the abbat of
Croyland safely crossed over, and on the day named came to
Westminster and presented himself before the judges. His
adversaries also appeared, and with them many of the wise
men of this world whom they had induced by entreaties and
hired with fees, making sure beyond all doubt that they should,
on this occasion, cany their entire wishes fully into effect.
jA^ccordingly, when the justiciaries had taken their seats on the
bench, both parties appeared, and the prior of Spalding prayed
the judges that the precept of our lord the king might be read
aloud, and judgm^ given in his favour without delay, as the
king had commanded. , The abbat of Croyland, meanwhile,
delayed producing his letters, thinking it neither a fitting time
nor place for that purpose. While, however, the judges were
.discussing this matter with the nobles of the kingdom, the
abbat of Croyland came before them and produced to them a
fetter written by the archbishop of Canterbury, and directed to
the judges, to the following effect : ” Hubert, by the grace of
God, aschbishop of Canterbury, &c., to GeoflBrey Eitz-Peter,
greeting. We send unto you a most truthful copy of the let-
ter sent to us by king Bachard of happy memory, in behalf
of the abbat of Croyland, as to a certain marsh which lies be-
tween Croyland and Spalding, and relative to which there is a
dispute between the said ab^t’and the prior of Spalding. We
believe that if it had come to the knowledge of our lord the
|dng that his said brather had sent unto us such letter relative

306 CM)NTnnjATioir 07 the hisioby of cbotiaitd. ji.o. 1202.

to this matter, you would not have received from him such
commands. Wlierefore, do you make it your care to come to
such conclusion, as, in your discretion, you shall consider to be
consonant with what is reasonable and just/’

The lord archbishop of Canterbury also sent the letters
which he had received pi the time of king Bichard, when he
himself was justiciary of all England, relative to the grant of
pardon for the defauU which the abbat had made ; which were
enclosed under the same impression of his seal with the last.
When the letters of king Bichard had been read, in which the
result of the whole case was set forth, as well as the letters of
his lordship of Canterbury, in which he testified that he had
received them by conmiand of king Eichard, after much dis-
cussion, all the judges there present, together with the council
of the wise men of the kingdom, were of opinion that a war-
ranty thus made by the king ought to be confbmed and ratified ;
and that the abbat of Croyland ought not to incur any harm by
reason thereof. The names of the justiciaries who were on
the Bench are as follow : Simon de Patishill, Bichard Heriet,
John de Sestinges, Walter Crepi, Eustace de Fauconberg, and
Godfrey de Tide. Besides these, many nobles also appeared
in court, to support the interests of the realm, and were pre-
sent at l^at day’s deliberations. The names of these were as
follow : John, lord bishop of Norwich, Boger, earl of Clare,
Bobert Fitz- Walter, Geoflfrey de Bouchlande, William de
Warenne, with many others, all of whom, without the slightest
difference, were of the same opinion. Still, however, judg-
ment was not publicly given on that day, because Geoffirey
Fitz-Peter, who was then the chief justiciary of England, was
not present ; for it seemed proper to all, that, as the king^s
letters relative to the said business had been directed to tiie
said Geoffirey as chief justice, judgment should be given in his
presence. Accordingly the abbat and the prior were called in,
and a day was appointed for them, at the end of eight days
from that day.

Accordingly, on the day named, the said Geoffrey Fitz-Peter
appeared, and the other justiciaries with him. After the pro-
ceedings had been read before him, which had taken place
between the said abbat and prior, he differed with them all,
and wished to overthrow and nullify die judgment which the
justiciaries and barons of the exchequer had given. However,

.^.D,1202. tXrSJSB, TO JOWSTf SDTQ 07 ENGIANJ). 30 1

they all with one voice made answer, that they neither would,
nor ought to, have any firesh consideration of the matter, as it
appeared to them that the judgment which they had given was
right. After they had cont^ded long and eamesUy on the
matters aforesaid, Geoffirey Fitz-Peter, seeing that he could not,
imaided, struggle against them all, put off the trial until the
following day. The next morning, he ordered all the justices
to appear before him, to discuss the matters before-mentioned.
When they again differed on the same- point, Geoflfrey Pitz-
Peter replied, that it seemed just to him that, as a difference
on this matter had arisen between them, a statement of the
whole case, from the very beginning up to that day, should be
sent to Normandy, to the king ; and that our lord the kiug
would do what should seem to him to be just. This he said,
because he favoured the side of the prior of Spalding. At last,
liowever, all the justices agreed that the abbat of Croyland and
the prior of Spalding should have letters to the same effect,
and send their deputies to carry to the king the letters of the
justiciary on the said matter, and that whatever directions the
king should write in answer, Hiey would willingly carry out
the same.

• The form of these letters was as follows : ‘* To his reverend
lord, John, by the grace of God, the illustrious king of England,
&c., Geof&ey Pitz-Peter, greeting and faithful obedience in all
things. You have ordered us to let Hie prior of Spalding have
record and judgment of the trial which took place between
him and the abbat of Croyland, relative to the marsh situate
between Spalding and Croyland ; which was to the effect, that
in the time of king Eichard, your brother, the prior of Spalding,
in his court, claimed against the said abbat the aforesaid marsh.
After summons, the abbat made essoign for being confined by
illness to his bed, by reason of which he was detained at Croy-
land. When, by judgment of the court, four knights went to
Croyland, to make view of Hie said abbat and his illness, they
did not find him there, and so, through his default, the prior
recovered seisin of Hie marsh by judgment of the court. After
this, the abbat appeared before king Eichard, your brother,
and gave him to understand that it was through the banish-
ment of his brother from England, and the imprisonment of
some others of his brothers, that he had not dared to appear,
)nit had taken to flight, and so prevailed upon him to warrant

.d08 COKTHr^ATIOir 07 XHE HISTOST of GB0YIA3n>. Jl«D. 1202.

to him pardon for his default, upon which the abhat was rd-
instated in seisin of the said marsh. Wherefore, upon con-
sidering the said warranty, although it does not appear to your
court in England, but that our lord the king, your brother,
could lawfully enough grant such warranty, and that you have
.a similar power, we have been unwilling to give an expresB
judgment hereupon, before you should be certified upon the
before-mentioned record, and should have more expressly stated
your wish hereupon. May our lord long fare well in the

When these letters had been written and sealed, one was
delivered to each party. The abbat of Croyland, on departing
from court, returned home ; while the prior of Spalding imme^
diately despatched his monk, before-named, to the king, that
lie might arrive before the deputy of the abbat of Croyland,
and, by means of presents and promises, accomplish his object.
On this, the monk of Spalding, making all haste, left London
on the succeeding Saturday, before any of the others, hastened
;to the sea-side, and speedily arrived at Portsmouth, hoping to
make a quick passage over, and to reach the king in a very
short space of time. But, by the providence of Grod, whom
the sea and the winds obey, it happened otherwise ; for he had
to stay there nearly forty days, and, although he repeatedly at-
tempted it, was never able to cross. Li the mean time, the
abbat of Croyland had returned home, in order that he might
take a little rest, after the fatigues of so long a journey : on
which occasion he was met by his people, who received him
with joy.

A few days after, the lord abbat dispatched his envoy to the
king, John de Treston, who had crossed over twice before.
Trusting rather to the goodness of Gfod than his own wisdom,
he commended himself to God and the prayers of his brethren,
and immediately set out for the sea-side. On arriving at the
port called Shoreham, he found there some of the nobles of ihe
kingdom, who were intending to visit the king, and among them
the bishop of Coventry ; upon which, thfe monk attached him*
self to him, and begged that he would receive him in his
retinue, so that he might pass over under his protection. Ac*
cordingly, the bejfore-named bishop graciously received him,
and showed the greatest kindness to him as long as he was
staying at the before-mentioned harbour. At thia time na

A.D.1202; ‘JlS ENYOT D£gPATCH£D TO tHS KING. ^ 300

one was able to cross over, either at Portsmouth or at Shore^
ham, in consequence of ike badness of the weather and the
fury of the winds ; consequently, the said John stayed there a
‘whole week, in a state of the greatest anxiety, being feaiM
lest his adversary, who had proceeded to the o&er port, should
get to his journey’s end before him, and appear first before the
king, and so execute the commission of the prior of Spalding,
there being no one to oppose him. One day, however, it so
happened that the tempest was lulled, and the sea became
pretty calm, upon which there was great gladness among the
people who were desirous to cross over. StiU, not one of the
nobles who were there dared venture to make the passage^ in
consequence of the troubled state of the sea, and the uncer-
lainty of the winds, which were not quite lulled. The said
John, however, seeing one vessel, which had on board some
poor people and pilgrims, ready to cross over, embarked among
the rest, and, by the guidance of the Lord, landed the next
day in Normandy ; while all the nobles were still staying be-
hind, at Shoreham, and the monk of Spalding as well, who
had long preceded him, and had been detained at Portsmouth.
: Directly the said John had landed he set out to wait upon
the king, and found him at Bouen. On coming into his pre-
tence, he produced the letter of the justiciaries, and delivered
it to him, and at the same time related to the king with his
ewn lips the circumstances of the case, which were not so
fully entered into by the letter. After the king had discussed
the matter with the wise men of his court who were then
present, and had enquired of them what he ought to do, they
made answer that in such manner as he himself would wish
his own warranty, if he should give one to any person, to be con-
firmed and held good, he himself ought to confirm the warranty
that had been made by his brother king Eichard, whose heir
be was. Our lord the king, on hearing this, expressed his
willingness, both to let the warranty of king Richard hold
good, and to receive the sum of one hundred marks that had
been promised him by the abbat of Croyland. Accordingly,
he stated to the said monk of Croyland, that, if he would en^
gage that the sum promised should be paid at the fitting time,
he would by his charter confirm the warranty which king
Bichard had made to the abbat of Croyland ; and would be-
aides give a favourable ear to any other business of. his which

SIQ GOKTUfUAnoir of the msTOHT OF CBortAsno. a.i>. 1202^

he might happen to have in his court. Upon this, tne said
John (reflecting how delay often hrings with it danger, and
fearing that even yet the envoy of the prior of Spalding might
arrive at court, and hy means of presents and promises throw
impediments in his way), hy advice of their lordships, the
archhishop of Canterhury and the hishop of Ely, whom he had
found at court, acquiesced in the wishes of the king. Accord*
ingly, our lord the king gave orders that the warranty made to
the ahhat of Croyland hy king Eichard should he confirmed
hy his charter, and that the marsh, relative to which the de-
fault had heen made, should, under his seal, be confirmed to
the ahhat of Croyland in such manner as it had been by the
charter of king Henry his father. This was accordingly done,
in manner hereinafter stated.

When, therefore, the Lord guiding him, the said John had,
by the king’s permission, transacted this and the other business
entrusted to him, he returned to England as quickly as he
could, on his road home to Croyland, whence he had been sent ;
while the envoy of the prior of Spalding was still staying on
this side of the sea. However, he afterwards crossed over^
and waiting upon the king, made great promises ; but effecting
nothing thereby, he withdrew firom court and returned home,
in accordance with the words, ‘* Let them be confounded and
put to shame who wish me evil.”*

The charter of our lord the king, John, as to the confirma-
tion of the boundaries of the abbey, and of which mention is
made above, was to the following effect : ” John, by the grace
of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Kormandy
and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops,
abbats, earls, barons, justiciaries, sheriff, and all his bail^
and faithful subjects, greeting* Know ye, that we have
granted and confirmed unto God and the chiurch of Saint
Guthlac at Croyland, and to the abbat and monks there serving
God, all the lands and tenements, and other the possessions to
the said church belonging, and in especial the site of the said
abbey, together with the boundaries thereof herein named,
which extend as follow ; a distance of five leagues, firom Croy-:
land to the place where the Asendyk falls into l^e waters of
the Welland, and thence by Asendyk to Aswyktoft, and thence
to Shepishee, and thence to Tydws^ar. Thence to Noman»>
28 Psalm zl. l4. ^ Twenty-dgtith of ApiiL

A»t>. 1202. CHiiMEB OF KING J0H:5r. 311

land, and bo through the river called Kene to Fynset, and
thence upwards through Eynset to Greynes, and so to Polk-
woldstakyng,*^ and thence along the course of Southlake, as
it falls into tiie WeDand. Thence across the Welland, towards
the north, as far as Aspath, and thence to Werwarlake, and so
to Harenholte, and thence upwards, through the water, to
Mengerlake, and so through Lurtlake as far as Oggot, and
thence along the course of the Apynholt as it falls into the
“Welland, together with all piscaries to the said boundaries
belonging. Wherefore we do will and strictly command that
the before-named church, and abbat, and monks shall hold and
for ever possess all their lands, tenements, and other their pos-
sessions, and all the gifts which since the death of king Henry,
the grandfather of our father, have been reasonably given to
them, fally, peacefully, freely, quietly, and honorably, to enjoy
the same in wood and in plain, in meadows and in pastures,
in waters and in marshes, in preserves and in fisheries, in mills
and in mill-dams, and in all other things and places, with
right of Sach and Soch, and Thol, and Them, and Infangthefe,
and with all other free customs and acquittances, as ftdly,
freely, and quietly as the said church, and abbat, and monks
held llie same in the time of king Henry, the grandfather of
our father, or other our predecessors kings of England, and as
fully, freely, and quietly as any churches in our kingdom of
England hold the same, in such manner as is by the charter of
king Henry our fether reasonably testified, &c. Given by the
hand of Simon, archdeacon of WeUs.”

Not even thus, however, did the venerable abbat Henry gain
the wished-for repose, but, like a stone out of the living rock to
be placed in a heavenly house, was he squared, both on the
right side and on the left, by repeated blows and numerous
buffetings. For Acharius, also, the abbat of Burgh Saint
Peter (not content with his own boundaries, but desirous, con-
trary to the prophetic warning, “to join house to house, and
lay field to field, till there be no place,”^^) first, by the royal
writ, obtained of the king from beyond sea, impleaded the said
abbat Henry, and without any good reason claimed against
him our southern marsh called Alderland, of which our monas-
tery had held undisturbed possession from its foimdation until
the times of our said father, just as the Assyrians did against
fre people of God. Upon tiiis, Hubert, archbishop of Canter r
‘o Called previously *’ Folwardstakyng.” ” Isaiah v. 8.


bury, who was then chief justiciary of England, sent letteis’
mandatory to the abbats of Eamsey and Thomey, directing >
them to make inquisition in his behaK upon the oaths of
eighteen knights, mutually agreed upon, what right each of
them had to the lands, meadows, pastures, and marshes^ and
all other things, between the river Nene and the river Wei*
land, and which ought to be the boundaries between the abbey
of Burgh and the abbey of Croyland, and fully to state the said
inquisition under their seals and those of the knights to the
before-named archbishop and justices. A dissension,. however,
arising between the inquisitors, they returned to their homes,
leaving the matter unsettled.

At length, however, after many conferences, discussions,
delays, and expenses on both sides, the dispute between the
two abbats having been enquired into at great length before
the justices of our lord the king at Lexington, was finally
settled, to the no small detriment of the church of Croyland, as
will be seen at length in the following stat^nent : ” This is
the final agreement made in the court of our lord the king at
Lexington, on the Monday next after the Purification of the
blessed Mary, in the seventh year of the reign of king John,
before our lord the king, &c., between Acharius, the abbat,
and the convent of Burgh, claimants, and Henry, the abbat, and
the convent of Croyland, holders of, one virgate of land, with
the appurtenances in Peykirk, and a certain marsh, of which
the boundaries are as follow; from the river of Croyland,
which is called Kene, to the place called Eynset, and from
that place to Greynes, and from that place to Folwardstakyng,
and thence to Southlake, where Sou^ake falls into the rivets
“Welland, and thence according to the course of the river Wel-
land as far as Croyland, where it falls into the Nene. As ta
which, it was agreed between them in the said court, that the
said abbat of Croyland acknowledged and conceded that the
said land and marsh with the appurtenances were of the fee of
the abbat and church of Burgh St. Peter j^’* and, for the said
acknowledgment and conoession, fine and agreement, the said
abbat and convent of Burgh conceded to the before-named
abbat and convent of Croyland the aforesaid virgate of land
with the appurtenances in Peykirk, to have and to hold the
same tb themselves and their successors of the abbat and mo-^
nastery of Burgh, and his successors in the said abbacy, h^
^ Peterborough.

A;0. 1206. AeBSEMENT M^l>£ AT LEXIX6T0!B?. ^ ^l^

Hie service which bel<»igs to the said land, according as thcr same has been divided among those who hold it, to wit ; as to the toft with the land in the field which Eeginald the black* smith has held of the same, by service of ploughing one day in the winter, and one day in Lent, with as many ploughs as he who holds the said toft and land shall possess, and of hoeing the same for one day ; and of making and carrying] hay fos one day in the meadow of Makesey, ti^e same being meadow land, in demesne of the abbat of Burgh, together with the men of the said abbat. In autumn, he is also to reap one-half of the said land ; and to bind the sheaves, and to gather in upon the said land, all which he is to be bound to do at his own cost In autumn also, he is, .together with one man, to reap the com of the said abbat of Burgh for provision, either in the fields- of the abbat at Peykirk or at Glynton. But if the abbat of Burgh shall not supply him with food on that day, he shall not be boimd to reap beyond the ninth hour. As ta the toft with the land in the field which Gocelm Fitz-Godwin has hel(} of the same, he is to be bound to do all the services before* mentioned, and comply with the customs before stated. As to the toft with the land in the field which William Fitz-Ealph has held of the same, he is to be bound to do all the services before- mentioned, and comply with the customs before stated. As tQ the toft with the land in the field which Aver Pitz-Alwold has held of the same, he is to be bound to do all the services before* mentioned, and comply with the customs before stated. As to the toft with the land in the field which Peter Pabner has held of the same, he is to be bound to do all the services before- mentioned, and comply with the cu8tam» before stated. As to the toft with the land in the field which William Pitz-Sewen has held of the same, he is to be bound to do all the services before-mentioned, and comply with the customs before stated. As to the toft with the land in the field which Walter Pitz- Eeginald has held of the same, he is to be bound to do all the services before-mentioned, and comply with the custoQis before stated. As to the toft with the land in the field which Eegir nald Carpenter has held of the same, he is to be bound to dp all the services before-mentioned, and comply with the custom^ before stated. As to the toft with the land in the field whicti Richard Fitz-Alwey has held of the same, he is to be bound tp .do all the services before-mentioned, and comply with th^ customs before stated : and in addition thereto^ he is to b^ 8l4 CONTDmiLTlOir of the HISTOKT of CR0YJJA.1S[D. A.J>. 1206»

Iwund to plough twice in winter and twice in Lent ; bo that
he shall plough three times in winter and three times in Lent
at his own cost ; and he shall he hound to le^d one cart-load
of hrushwood from the marsh to the court-yard of the ahhat of
Burgh at Burgh, at the feast of Saint Michael. And further^
all men who hold the said land shall he hound to pay suit at the
hundred court of the ahhat of Burgh for any fifteen days, and
to pay six pence per annum for hidage. They shall also he
bound to shew unto the ahhat of Burgh or his hailiff their
irank pledge. They are also to keep watch with the other
men of the county at the due and appointed place, as they
have heen accustomed to do, hetween the feast of Saint Michael
and the feast of Saint Martin. The ahhat and convent of
Burgh hefore-named and their successors shall have these
iservices and customs as to the lands hefore-mentioned : and
shall . not be at liberty to increase or to change them, nor
yet in any way to make ftirther demands upon the said
lands. The abbat and convent of Burgh have also granted
to the said abbat and convent of Croyland the before-men-
tioned marsh, according as the same has been set out by
the metes and boimdaries before-mentioned, to have and
to hold the same to themselves and their successors of the
abbat and convent of Burgh and their successors, for ever,
paying for the same each jrear, in the church of Saint Peter,
at Burgh, four stones weight of wax, before the octave of
the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, for all services
and demands : and the abbat and convent of Burgh, or their
successors, shall not be at liberty to demand from them anything
beyond the said four stones of wax ; saving, however, that th6
abbat and convent of Burgh shall have the right of herbage
for all their cattle, as well as those of their tenants, as also for
the cattle of any other persons which shall enter the said
marsh besides the cattle belonging to the demesne of the abbat
and convent of Croyland, and to their tenants at Croyland and
Peykirk. It is also to be known that it shall be lawful for the
abbat and convent of Croyland, without any let, or hindrance, or
gainsaying, on the part of the abbat and convent of Burgh
and their servants, to dig turf there, and where they shall dig
turf, to take beneath the turf potter’s clay and sand ; and to
cut in the marsh rushes, bulrushes, osiers, and withes ; upon
eondition, however, that they shall not disturb the cattle that


ore feeding there. They shall also be at liberty to cut and take
brushwood, and all kinds of trees which shall be in the said
marsh. Also, as to the other marsh of Peykirk, which is
«ituate beyond the said boundaries, it is agreed between the
said abbats and convents, that it shall be lawful for the abbat
and convent of Bui^h, without hindrance or gainsaying on
part of the abbat and convent of Croyland and their servants,
to make meadow land of the same, according to the extent of
their fees, which have right of common in the said pasture
Aand : and, in like manner, it shall be lawM for the abbat and
convent of Croyland to make meadow land on the same marsh,
according to the extent of their fees, which have right of com-
mon there, without hindrance or gainsaying on part of thd
abbat and convent of Burgh, and their servants.”

In the tenth year of king John, being the year from the In**
carnation of our Lord, 1208, sentence of interdict was pro-
nounced throughout all England and Wales ; both on account
of the expulsion of Master Stephen”* from the kingdom, who
had been consecrated archbishop of Canterbury by our lord
£the Pope], and whom the king resisted with all his might,
and pronounced all parties enemies who should so much as
lionor him with the name of archbishop ; as well as on account
of the expulsion of the monks from Canterbury, because either
by tacit consent, or by publicly attesting the same, they had
acquiesced in the election of the said Stephen. Buring the
interdict, the king of England was excommunicated, and the
only indulgence granted tibroughout his kingdom was, that the
£dthfrQ, when at the point of death, might be fortified with
the holy viaticum ; which was to be sought by the hands of
the priests of the conventual churches, to whom the indul-
gence was granted once in each week to perform Divine service.
At last, in the sixth year of this interdict, the king being
inspired, as it is believed, by Him in whose bands are the hearts
of kings, signified to the nuncio of his lordship the pope his
acquiescence in his commands, and vowed that he would com^
ply with the form of satisfaction to him * *** which he had
sent with his own signature. He also added, by “^ay of suppler
ment to the satisfsuition, that lie himself and his heirs would,

** Stephon Langton.
– M There is an hiatus here. The sum agreed on was seven handi«4
mulu of silver for England, and three hundred for Ireland.


OS a sign of their subjection, pay yearly for the two kingdoms
of England and Ireland ♦ ♦ Upon this, Stephen, arch*
bishop of Canterbury, William, bishop of London, Eustace,
bishop of Ely, Giles, bishop of Hereford, Jocelyn, bishop of
Bath, and Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, returned to England, as
well as the monks of Canterbury and all others in general
who had been in exile on account of this dispute ; to each of
whom, by the royal favour, ftdl restitution was made of all
their possessions. After this, the king was solemnly absolved
at Winchester, in ecclesiastical form, by the lord archbishop of
Canterbury, and was, at the same time, devoutly received by
him and the other bishops with the kiss of peace, and admitted,
as a son of the Church, into the, bosom of his mother; and
hearing the solemn service of the mass, he thereby gladdened
the hearts of many of the people.

‘ Having completed a reign of seventeen years and five months,
the aforesaid king John, fdling ill from an attack of dysentery,
breathed his last at Kewark, a castle of the bishop of Lincoln;
upon which, his body was carried to Worcester, to be buried
there. His entrails remained at Croxton,” where they were

In these days, before the report of his decease was folly
promulgated, some armed men, who had be^i previously sent
by the said king to make enquiries and seize some knights and
esquires, enemies of his, who were lurking in remote and
secret spots, suddenly made their appearance at Croyland, on
the morrow of Saint Michael. I^ot finding those of whono.
they were in search, they immediately forced an entrance into
the monastery and church, where, rushing in their headlong
course through the cloister and the offices, during the celebra-
tion of the mass, the troopers and men-at-arms mercilessly
dragged the people from the ehurch, and even frx)m before the
altar; while, at the same time, they plundered with th^
greatest violence whatever they took a fancy to, and where-
ever it was found : so much so, that, on their departure, they
took with them an immense booty, collected from the herds of
cattle and beasts of burden.

1 King John being- dead, as above stated, his eldest soni
Henry, then about nine years of age, was chosen king, and
ftras devated to the royal throne at- Gloucester, the impositioii

3B A house of canons regular in Lincolnshire, the abbat of which sfei»
(ended the king on his death-bed»


of hands being made by the bishop of ‘Winchester, with the
assistance of the other bishops who were then in the kingdom’^
the arehbisho^ of Canterbury being absent at the court oif
Borne. However, in the fifth year after this, by the mandate
of our lord the pope, he was again solemnly invested with the
royal robes and with the crown of the most holy king Edward>
at Westminster, by Stephen, the venerable archbishop of Can-
terbury, who was then present, in presence of the prelates
and nobles of the realm. In the same year also, that is to
say, in the year of our Lord, 1220, the translation of Saint
Thomas the Martyr was solemnly made by the before-named
venerable father, Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, in pre-
sence of the lord Pandulph, legate of the Apostolic See, of
Henry, king of the English, and of three archbishops, and
other bishops and nobles who had flocked thither from all parts
of England, as well as nearly all quarters of the world ; it
being the fiftieth year fbom the passion of the said martyr;
So great was the lavishness, and so munificent the bounty of
the said archbishop, and so worthy to be proclaimed to the
whole world, as being displayed towards all who devoutly
attended the translation of tiie martyr, that no one then living
in the flesh could remember any such solemnity being oele*
brated in such manner in England at any previous time.
Among the rest whom the said archbishop thought proper to
summon to the votive solemnity of his glorious translation, he
deigned, by his letter, to invite the father so often mentioned,
Henry, abbat of the monastery of Croyland ; who, however> being
precluded from attending by the urgency of numerous matters of
business, was not able conv6niently to appear in person ; but stiU^
wishing, to the best of his small ability, to make some offering in
his honor, * ♦ ♦ he humbly sent to his excellency, the «aid
venerable pontifl*, a book on the Life and Passion of the said
martyr, which had been skilfully compiled by a monk of his
monastery of Croyland.^ This compilation contains and dis-
tinctly sets forth the birth of the glorious martyr, his liftv
studies, deeds, exile, agony, passion, canonization, and, what
is still more excellent, the Epistles of the said martyr, both
those which he wrote to others, and others to him, or for him:^
or against him, becomingly inserted in their proper places^
togetiier with a list of ti^e learned productions of the same
inartyr* . . ..^ ._ -.^•

” Roger of Qroyland, prior of Frestoit


< At this time also, the Minorite*" biethren first began to settle in England, two years before the death of Saint Francis. King Henry, at the instance of the venerable father, abbat Henry, graciously confirmed all the liberties of the abbey of Croyland, in the following terms ; ** Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of 19'onnandy and Aquitaine and earl of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops, abbats, earls, barons, justiciaries, sheriff, and all his faithful subjects and bailiffs, greeting, Enow ye that we have granted and confirmed unto God and the church of Saint Gulhlac at Croyland, and to the abbat and monks there serving God, all the lands and tenures and other the possessions to the said church belonging, and in especial, the site of the said abbey together with the boundaries thereof herein named, which ex- tend as follow ; a distance of five leagues, icom Croyland to the place where the Asendykfedls into the waters of the WeUand, and thence by Asendyk to Asw^sktoft, and thence to Shepishee, and thence to Tydwarthar. Thence to Komansland, and so through the river called Kene to Fynset, and thence upwards through Fynset to Greynes, and so to Folkwoldstakyng, and thence along the course of Southlake, as it Mis into the Well- and. Thence, across the Welland, towards the north, as &r as Aspath, and thence to Werwarlake, and so to Harenholt, and thence upwards through the water as &r as Mengerlake, and so through Lurtlake as far as Oggot, and thence along the pourse of the Apynholt, as it falls into the Welland, together with all piBcaries to the said boundaries belonging. . Where- fore, we do wiU and strictly command that the before-named church, and abbat, and monks shall hold and for ever possess ail their lands, tenures, and other their possessions, and aU the gifts which, since the death of king Henry our grandfather, have been reasonably given unto them, fully and peaceably, freely, quietly and honorably, to enjoy the same in wood an. 1247. AeilBEKSNT BETIfESN THS TWO ABBAT8* 823

Upon which, a recognizanee of grand assize has been entered
into between them in the same court, to the effect that the
said abbat and prior have granted, for themselves and their
successors, that the before-named William and his heirs shall
have common of pasture for their cattle of all kinds, from
TJffingtoni Gaswyk, and Talyngton, in the before-mentioned
marshes of Croyland, Spalding, Pinchbeck, Langtoft, and Bas-
ton, for ever. For which grant, fine, and agreement, the said
William hath granted, for himself and his heirs, that the said
abbat and prior, and their successors, shall enjoy their own
advantages and profits in the before-mentioned marshes of
Croyland, Spalding, Pinchbeck, Langtoft, and Baston, so that
they may cut brushwood in the said marshes, and cultivate the
land of the same, without hindrance or gainsaying on the part
of him or his heirs, saving always to the said William, and to
his heirs, their right of common in the said marshes, in man«
ner before stated, for ever,”

Afber this, the said venerable father, abbat Eichard Bar*
deney, stoutly impleaded William, abbat of Burgh, because
the said abbat, contrary to the tenor of the fine whidi had been
lately made between their predecessors at Lexington, in the
time of king John, frequently, by his men and servants, hin-
dered the said abbat of Croyland, at the time of holding his
fairs, from taking stallage or levying impost at the bridge of
Croyland, at which place neither his men, nor any other stran-
gers, hod free liberty of passing with their cattle. They had
also inflicted other grievances, to no small extent, upon him
and his people, contrary to the terms of the said fine ; in con-
sequence of which, after there had been repeated grounds for
dissension between them, the matter was finallv settled at
Korthampton, before the justices of our lord the kmg, in man-
ner here set forth :

” This is the final agreement made in the court of our lord
the king at Korthampton, one month after the day of Saint
John the Baptist, in the thirty-first year of the reign of king
Henry, son of lang John, before Eoger de Turkelby, &c. and
other faithful subjects of our lord the king then present, be-
tween Bichard Bardeney, abbat of Croylan^. complainant, and
William, abbat of Burgh, deforciant, as to one virgate of land,
‘with its appurtenances, in Peykirk, and a certain marsh which
lies between the boundaries underwritten, namely ; fh)m the

T 2


river of Croyland, which is called K’ene, to the place which
is called Eynset, and from that place as far as Greynes, and
from Groynes to Polwardstakyng, and thence as far as South-
lake, where the Southlake falls into the Welland, and so along
the course of the river “Welland to Croyland, where it falls into
the Nene ; as to which, a fine was levied in the court of our
lord king John, the father of our lord the before-named king,
before our lord king John himself, at Lexington, between
Acharius, the former abbat of Burgh St. Peter, predecessor of
the said abbat of Burgh, the demandant, and Henry, the former
abbat of Croyland, predecessor of the said abbat of Croyland,
the holder ; and as to which the said abbat of Croyland has
made complaint, that the before-named abbat of Burgh has,
contrary to the before-mentioned fine, by his men and servants,
hindered him icom taking stallage and levying imposts within
a certain part of the vill of Croyland, which lies within the
before-mentioned boundaries ; and in like manner that he has
kept wateh on a certain bridge of Croyland, within the before-
mentioned marsh, so that he and his men might not have a
passage thereby, with their cattle, to the other side of the said
bridge. Likewise, that he has rooted up and destroyed the
trees planted in the said marsh, and has seized the cattle of
the said abbat of Croyland, and of his men at Croyland and
Peykirk, in the said marsh, in contravention of the said fine.
As to which, record has been made of the said fine so made
between them in the said court, to the effect that the said
abbat of Burgh has, for himself and his successors, and his
church before-mentioned, granted that the said abbat of Croy-
land and his successors shall, henceforth, without gainsaying
on part of the said abbat of Burgh, or of his successors, or of
his or their men or bailiffs, freely take stallage and tolls, and
levy aU imposts in any place whatsoever in the said vill of
Croyland, as also in the said part of the vill of Croyland which
is situate within the said boundaries, on the day upon which
the present agreement has been made, as well as elsewhere in
the said vill ; so that neither the said abbat of Burgh, nor his
successors, shall henceforth be at liberty to levy any imposts
in the said vill of Croyland, nor in any part of the said viU,
nor to take or demand any other thing therein, nor yet offer
any impediment to the said abbat of Croyland, or his successord,,
or his men, or their cattle, at the said bridge, for ever. More-


OTer, thfe said abbat of Burgh nas granted, for himself and his
anccessorsy and his church before-mentioned, that neither they
nor their men shall be at liberty to hold any fair or make any
sale of cattle, or of any other thing whatever, or to hold the
same without the said vill of Groyland, so long as the fair of
Croyland shall continue to be held, by means whereof the said
abbat of Croyland, or his successors, may incur any loss in
their said fair of Croyland for ever. And for this grant, fino,
and agreement, Eichard de Hottot, at the prayer of the said
abbat of Croyland, has granted unto the aforesaid abbat of
Burgh, and his church before-mentioned, to receive an annual
rental of one mark, payable yearly to the said abbat of Burgh,
and to his successors, and his church before-mentioned, at the
hands of Robert de Weston, and Eichard, the brother of .Mric,
for all the tenements which they, the said Eobert and Eichard,
held in viUenage of the before-named Eichard de Hottot, in
the said vill, on the day on which this agreement was made,
and at the hands of all others who shall hereafter hold those
l^nements, at two periods for ever, that is to say, one moiety
at the Feast of Saint Michael, and the other moiety at Easter,
saving to the said Eichard de Hottot, and his heirs, all the
services from the said tenements arising. This agreement has
been made between them, saving to the said ablmt of Burgh,
and his successors, and to his church before-mentioned, and to
the said abbat of Croyland and his successors, and to his church
before-mentioned, all other the articles, in the former fine levied
between the predecessors of the said abbats as to the said land
and marsh, contained.*’

Still, although the venerable faliier, Eichard, was often
harassed by the grievances of this world, he always, as oppor*
tunely as he could, turned his attention and thoughts to the
advancement of their temporal interests. For he enclosed the
land which is called Aswyk from the wide extent of the marsh;
and in like manner began, with great labour, to enclose Doves-
dale, which was afterwards completed on behalf of the convent
by abbat Thomas, his successor. Being likewise prompted by
the most fervent devotion, in his reverence for the holy body
of Christ, and their holy patrons and relics, for the maintenance
of one wax taper, Hke a continual sacrifice, perpetually to bum
day and night before the high altar, he gave one hundred shil-
lings, arising from the fee of his church at Whaplode ; the

326 coiminTATioK of the histobt of cbotlakd. a.©. I24f .

same to be set aside for ever, for providing a light in honor
of the blessed Mary. He moreorer largely increased the in-
comes of nearly all &e officers, and left behind him each of the
manors, both within and without, in the best of order and in a
most flourishing state.

After he had, with care and ability, completed ten years hi
the ministry entrusted to him, being worn out with a seyere
malady, he departed the way of all flesh, to receire at last the
heavenly reward of his labours. His successor in the govern-
ment was the lord Thomas Welles, a member of the said
society, and sub-prior thereof, a venerable man and of dis-
tinguished sanctity. Besides the other numerous beneflts
which he conferred upon the convent, he becomingly and be-
nignly enlarged the incomes of all the officers, and, by charteri
with the greatest liberality, conveyed the enclosed land which
is called Dovesdale, together with piscary in the whole river,
and the lands arable and non-arable, and together with the
reservoir and buildings and all their appurtenances, to the con-
vent, for the sole advantage and private use tibiereof. Of
this new enclosure one comer abuts upon the embankment of
the marsh of Aswyke towards the east, and extends through
Shepishee as far as Southplantes on the south, and so through
Leoldee to the embankment called Eededos on the west, and
thence as Bedeclos runs towards the north, for Ave” quarentenes
and two perches and a half, and &om that spot on the north
through the new embankment which runs beyond the before-
mentioned dyke of Aswyke on the east : together with thirty
acres of meadow land near the above-mentioned new enclosure^
lying on the western side near the water-course by the em-
ban^ent of Rededos ; for the purpose of finding milk for the
supper of the convent throughout all the summer, as also fit
and proper tunics, each year to be faithMly distributed by the
hands of the pittancer to the said convent. He also granted
to it all the tithes of wool to be paid to it wholly and in ftdl
by all our parishioners in Croyland and within the precinct
and the marshes thereof

This venerable father also patiently endured many perse*
cutions for justice, especially while on his way to the court of
Some on the business of his church ; on which occasion he
was taken prisoner in Italy by the most abominable Lombards,
and kept in prison for some time ; but, through the providence
^ See p. 20.

A.0. 1254. PEAT9 OF ABBAT IHOICAS* 327

of God, was miraculously liberated from their power. Taking
the narrow path which leadeth unto life, and with frequent
watchings and &sting8 crucifying his flesh with the vices and
lusts thereof he always clothed himself in turn with a hau-
berk and a ooat of serge, as so many changes of raiment. This
man was, besides, a servant of God exceUently versed in the
Divine law, so much so, that he not only spiritually refreshed
the flock entrusted to his charge by the words of holy ex-
hortation in the chapter, but also, frequently, on solemn days,
gave utterance to words of holy instruction in the churches
when preaching to the people.

At last, having achieved a glorious triumph in his contest,
in the seventh year of his government, being happily sum-
moned to the nuptials of the Lamb witliout blemish, he de^
parted from the world, to receive in a heavenly country the
due reward of his labours. After his decease, it is said on the
authority of many, that divers sick persons, at his tomb, re-
covered the health which they had so long desired. Among other
things, this wonderful event, according to the assertions of
those who were present on the occasion, took place. I^early
twelve years after, when for some manifest reason, his body
was about, on one occasion, to be transferred from the place
where it had been formerly buried to another more becoming
spot, as soon as the sepulchre was opened, his body appeared
clad in the sacerdotal robes, with the flesh entirely whole
and uncorrupted. On seeing this, those who were present
glorifledGod who is wonderful in His Saints in the voice
of gladness and of praise. From his sepulchre issued an
odour of surpassing sweetness, with such powerM force,
that those who stood by could hardly endure it : however,
taking his holy body in their hands with fear and reverence,
they transferred it with the greatest devoutncss to another spot,
which had been most becomingly prepared, inder a stone arch
in the extremity of the northern aisle. One of these persons,
being led away by rash presumption, violently tore off the
little finger of the right hand of the father, together with the
flesh thereoj^ and carried it away with him ; but shortly after,
by a premature death, he paid the penalty of his rashness.
Deservedly therefore is this Saint preserved in the memory of
men, who has thus passed to the joys of the angels.

He was succeeded in the of&ce of abbat by the lord Ralph
Meishe, a monk of the same monastery, very experienced in


matters both spiritual as well as temporal^ constant and mag-
nanimous in adversity, amid doubtful fortune prudent and cir-
cumspect, and in prosperity cautious and moderate : duteous to
God, and scrupulously careful in his religious observances f
bountiful and munificent to the world, faitiiful and cheerful to
all, and one who in the performance of his religious duties
passedanirreproachable life. Indeed, like another Simon the son
of Onias,*’ in his life-time he repaired the house, and strength-
ened the temple in his days. For, by means of his unbounded
expenditure of money, and a heavy trial in the king’s court,
he manfully obtained the manor of Gedney, and likewise the
church of Whaplode, to our own use, together with the ad-
Vowson of the church of Eaton. Besides these, by especial
request he obtained of king Henry the Third a market in the
villa of Whaplode, Baston, and Croyland, and right of warren
in hia manors of Croyland, Langtofb, Baston, Thetford^ Bur-
thorp, Bukenhale, Halyngton, Dovedyke, Whaplode, Holbech;
and Aswyke.

About this time also. Saint Edmund of Abingdon, who was
then treasurer of Salisbury, was elected to the archbishopric
of Canterbury ; he died in exile in the parts beyond sea in
the eighth year of his prelacy, having selected Pontigny, in
Burgundy, as the place of his burial. In the seventh year
after this, he was solemnly translated, under the auspices of
[Innocent] the Fourth. This holy man being still alive, and
studiously devoting himself to hia paatoral duties** * * ♦

* *** «< in Weston, and nine hundred acres of marsh land with the appurtenances in Multon. As to which it was recorded between them in the said court, to the effect that the before* named Thomas, acknowledging that the said tenements of right belonged to the said abbat and his church of Croyland^ remitted the same, and for himself and hia heirs quitted claim thereto unto the said abbat and his successors, and to his said church for ever. And further, the said Thomas remitted and quitted claim for himself and his heirs unto the before- named abbat and his successors, and to his said church, of all right which he had in all the tenements with the ap- ^ This may also mean, ** in the obsenrance of his oath.'* ^ AUuding to Ecdes. 1. 1—4. *i There is an hiatus here from a.d. 1254, the date of the electioh of abbat Ralph. *'* This is a fragment of a fine« «A.D. 1281. • AALPH, A.BBAT OF CBOYLAKDy DI£8« 829 portenances which thd said abbat and his church aforesaid held within the limits of Croyland on the day on which this agreement was made : that is to say, in Ihose tenements with their appurtenances, which extend from the vill of Croy- land on the eastern side of the Welland as you go down across the river to Brotherhouse, and so through Asendyk to Aswyk- tofb, and thence to Shepee, and so through Shepee, as far as Southee, and so through Oldhee and Nomansland, as far as the river None, for ever; insomuch that neither the said Thomas, nor his heii-s, shuil in future be able to claim or de- mand anything in the said tenements, with their appurtenances either in demesne, or in service, or in right of common. The said abbat has also received the said Thomas and his heirs to partake of all benefits and prayers of his said church from hence- forth for ever." Although the little bark of our house was in his times buf- feted about on every side by the waves of adversity and the storms of litigation, still, it could not be made to founder, so Idng as the pilot before-named sat at the helm. For, which- ever way he directed his course, by the gracious favour of Christ; he always had success and prosperity to his utmost wish. The before-named father Ealph built the tower of the church of Croyland, beyond the choir, together with the chapel of Saint Martin, near tiie gate of the Almonry. After he had endured the varying and grievous hardships of the world for nx and twenty years, and had ably and manfully endured al- most insupportable exactions by the kings of money from his church, he departed the way of «dl flesh, on the feast of St. Mi- chael, in the year of our Lord, 1281. He was succeeded in the rule, his merits so deserving it, by the lord mchard of Croyland, a monk of that place, and a na- tive of the vill ; who prosperously increased the resources of his monastery, as well as promoted religion therein in many respects. For, at avast outlay and expense, he began the new buildings of the church on the east thereof, which still, in our day, by far excel all the neighbouring churches of the whole county, both in elegance of workmanship and gracefulness of style. Besides this, at lavish expense, he built the manor- house of Dovedykej and the halls of Langtoft, Wendlingburgh, 4nd Morbum, togetiier with many out-buildings on each of our manors. ooNmruATioK or xhx htbiobt ar cbotlakd. a.o. 128I» In the time of this abbat, there arose grierances and frequent dissensions and quarrels, between the lord of Depyng and the men of Kesteven on the one hand, and the abbat of Croyland, the prior of Spalding, and the men of Hoyland on the other, as to the marshes of Hoyland and Kesteven ; for the marks, denoting the boundaries of which mention is made in the above charters of the kings of England, had been obliterated and co« vered with mud, so that no clear and distinct knowledge could possibly be derived from them. Upon this, the men of Hoy« land and Kesteven, in the time of tiie before-named illustrious king Edward, son of king Henry, presented their petition in parliament, written in the French language, in conformify with the usual custom, and addressed *' A nostre Seignior U Boy^^ &c. In order that this petition may be more easily un* derstood by those of posterity who may not be so well versed in the above language, it will not be considered a loss of time to translate it in more common form into the Latin tongue; to the following effect : '* To our lord the king shew and address their entreaties his faithful subjects of Hoyland and Kesteven, in the county of Lincoln, and in the marshes residing, — that the ancient boundary, called Middefendyke, which extends through the middle of the marsh, frorxL the river Welland to the Wi- tham, which has been the dividing line between Kesteven and Hoyland, (as still appears by stone crosses there stand- ing, as well as by other apparent signs, by means of which men might be able to repair the ancient channels), has been so undermined by the water, and covered over with mud, that no knowledge whatever can thence be derived of the boundaries, according to which the king's writs ought to be carried into execution when issued, whether in the office of coroner, sheriff, or bailiffs ; in consequence of which, conten- tions and disputes frequently arise between the lords and people of either district, bv reason of their ignorance of the before-mentioned boundaries. For the same reason, also, the said writs either cannot be carried into execution at all, or but badly, to the prejudice of our lord the king, and to the grievous loss and penl of his people there dwelling, through the divers punishments which may be&ll them when wa;^aring, and at other times. Wherefore, they entreat our lord the king, that some man of wisdom and influence may be appointed to re-erect the said boundaries, as they used to be in the olden A.&. 1S27. EDWIBD THS THIBD CB0W3fED AT WESTMINSTER. 331 tiine, for the avoidance of these said perils* !they do also en- treat"* * * ♦ * [Edward, being then a youth], but fifteen years of age, was solemnly crowned at Westminster, and raised to the throne of England on the feast of the Purification of the blessed Mary^ his Either being still kept in prison. However, shortly after this, they conreyed the old king to Berkeley Castle; where, as many were forming plans for his liberation, he died a hor- rible death, being most nefariously pierced with a red-hot spit. But a few matters ought to be here inserted, which are mentioned as haying taken place during the before-mentioned vacation of the abbacy of Groyland, through the resignation of Simon, the late abbat, as already stated.^ For, immediately after the first day of the said vacation, which took place in the eighteenth year of king Edward the Second, one Matthew Brown, the escheator of the said king in the counties of Ian* coin, Northampton, Cambridge, and Eutland, seized all the property of the said abbey, as being confiscated to the king. Upon Uiis, the venerable father, now abbat Henry, his suc- cessor, duteously entreated his royal Highness, that he would, during the time of the said vacation, graciously deign to make the allowance out of the income of the house, which had been assigned from ancient times for the purpose of finding clothes, shoes, linen, and other necessaries for the monks, as well as tapers for the church, and so provide for the maintenance of the prior of the said monastery and of the convent, as well as the corrodiers and servitors of the said house. Accordingly, the king directed his writ to the treasurer and barons of his exchequer, conmianding them diligently to search the rolls and archives of the said exchequer, in order to learn, by the registers of escheats, what sum had been usually allowed to the keepers of the said abbey, during the time of such vaca- tions, for the support of the prior and convent as above stated. After searching the archives above-mentioned, they certified to our lord the king, that they had found two vacations of the said abbey, but, at the same time, declared that they could find no allowance whatever made for the support of the prior and convent. Upon this, the king was of opinion that ^ There is an hiatus here from about a.s. 1281 to a.d. 1327, the firsi' year of Edward III. ^ In the part that is last. •832 CONTINUATION OF THB mSIO&r OF CBOTLAKB. A.D. 1327. , it was just, and consonant with reason, that the said prior and convent, with its corrodiers and servants, should, during the time of the said vacation, be supported from the revenues of the house, and that, in like manner, tapers should be supplied for the worship of God. He accordingly, by his mandate, di- ' rected one William Brocklesby, a clerk, and the remembrancer of his exchequer, to make enquiry, upon the oath of good and lawful men, how many monks there were in the said abbey during the whole time of the said vacation, as well as how many corrodiers there were, and how many servitors and ne- cessary servants. This inquisition was taken before the said William, at Stamford, it being then the second year of king Edward the Third, upon the oaths of eighteen jurors, who afiirmed that there were, continually, in the abbey of Croyland, throughout -the whole time of the said vacation, forty-one monks, fifteen corrodiers, and thirty-six servitors and necessary servants, each of whom they mentioned by name. After it had been thus cer- tified as to the said inquisition by the said remembrancer of our lord the king, he sent letters to the treasurer and barons of his said exchequer, directing them thenceforth to allow to Jthe said Matthew, the escheator, on his account, during the time of the vacation of the said abbacy, for the prior, ten- pence per day, for each of the monks, threepence, for each of the corrodiers, in like manner, threepence, and for each offi. cial or servant, twopence : at the same time strictly command- ing the before-named escheator to pay the stated sum to the said monks. The clear profit to our lord the king each week was eight pounds and eighteen-pence. But, as we have here somewhat digressed, let us return to the continuation of our narrative. . In the meantime, the lady Joanna Wake, who, even to the very last moment of her life, heaped the most wanton injuries XQ us through her servants, at last departed this life : upon ch, the lord Thomas, her son, who had married the lady Blanche, sister of Henry, earl of Lancaster, in conformity with the laws of the kingdom, entered upon his lands. This Thomas Wake claimed demesne in the marsh of Croyland, called Goggislound, saying that it was parcel of his manor of West Depyng, while, at the same time, he committed repeated fosults and daily injuries, not only to the people of Croyland, A.D. 1388* TflOMAB WAXE CLAIMS THE HAB8H OF CBOTLAKS. 33^ but of Spalding as well. However, Henry, the abbat of Croyland, most stoutly opposed him in all points, and in no degree gave way to his tyranny. For, on one occasion, the said Thomas Wake, assembled together a multitude of noble youths, no less distinguished for their high birth than their valour, among whom was the lord Henry, afterwards duke of Lancaster (whose sister, the lady Blanche, the said Thomas had married, as we have already stated), and determined to make a violent attack upon the people of Spalding. On learn* ing this, the prior of Spalding, for the purpose of resisting his malicious attempts, immediately collected an invincible band of the men of Hoyland, well equipped with shields and arms. And these would have manfully enough escaped his ferocious attacks and the malignant intentions of his mind, had not a person of Spalding, Thomas Thurgard by name, acting the traitor to his people, hindered the said prior and those with him from carrying their designs into effect ; saying that he had recently come from the court of the said lord Thomas Wake, and that common report among them stated that nothing would be done.** * * * * * * when [the abbat] returned, feeling confident that he should see an auspicious day, in his indignation he*^ gave such an answer as this : " Know for certain, my lord abbat, and rest assured of it, that the whole that the lady, my mother, the princess, held before me, and which has clearly come to me by hereditary right, I will keep to the best of my ability, and will, with all my might, defend the same.'' After saying which, he departed with precipitation, and the abbat, being disappointed in his hopes, returned home in sorrow and confusion. Although he had sustained so grievous and so ungracious a repulse, still, however, he remained unbroken in spirit, nor did he desist from the task he had undertaken, but, again and again, both opportunely and inopportunely, accosted the said earl ; on one occasion at his manor of Brime, on an- other at Cambridge, in the same year in which the parliament was held there ; and where he entreated, with repeated sup- plications, that he would deign to appoint a day and place for certain of the learned men of his council to meet, to whom the M The narrative is interrupted here, and is continued in the year A.D. 1388, the twelfth year of the reign of Richard II. See Preface. «7 Thomas, sou of Joanna, countess of Kent, wife of Edward the Black Prince. .•334 CONnVTIATION OF THE HX8I0BT OF CSOTLAITD. A.O. 1389. abbat would more fiilly disdoee his evidences. Not eren then, however, did he gain the object of his wishes. Accordingly, seeing that not thus even could his efforts prevail, he betook himself to Henry, the earl of Derby, son of the diUce of Lan* caster ; for, at this time, John,^ duke of Lancaster, his father, was in Spain, engaged in the wars there. With most urgent prayers, he also entreated him, that he would be pleased to request the said earl of Kent, that the abbat of Croyland and the tenants of the prior of SpalcUng might at least wait until the duke's arrival in England, without annoyance on the part of him or of his servants ; and that, if he had any demands to make against thenii he would hold them over until the time before-mentioned. To this the earl assented, as he trusted that the duke would never again return to Eng^d. However, in the following summer, by the providence of GK>d, the above-named duke arrived from me parts beyond sea;
through whose aid and &vour the commons of Hoyland again
presented a petition for making a division of the marshes he*
tween Hoyland and Kesteven, to the parliament held at West-
minster, in the thirteenth year of the reign of king Eichard,
and in the year of our Lord, 1389. The king readily assented
to their petition, and, after the dose of the parliunent, di-
rected a commission to issue from his court of Chancery to the
most powerfid and influential men of the county, commanding
them, without further delay, to give their diligent attention to
the matter aforesaid, and, accor£ng to the tenor of the said
petition, to bring it to a happy conclusion. He ordered them
to make enquiry, upon the oaths of knights and other good
and lawful men of both the aforesaid parts of Hoyland and
Kesteven, both in the liberties thereof as well as without,
through whom the truth of the matter might be best ascer-
tained as to the metes, boundaries, and divisions that had,
‘from ancient times, been had, made, placed, or fixed between
the parts aforesaid ; and as to the places and streets, wh^^
the said metes, boundaries, and divisions had been formerly
placed or made ; and to erect, limit, and assign as metes, boun-
daries, and divisions between the places aforesaid, posts,
embankments, stone crosses, or other sufficient marks, in the
places and streets aforesaid, by means of which the said metes,
boundaries, and divisions might be known and recognized for
<8 John of Gannt, A.l».la89. nrQUXamOH A8 TO XHB 90Uin>AXIX8 07 CBOXtAJrD. 385

oertain at all fdtnre times : so that the men of both districts
before-named might clearly and distinctly for the fdture know
and recognize, by the said signs, the said metes, boundaries,
and divisions.

Our lord the king also gave orders to the sheriff of Lincoln
that he should summon to appear before the judges, at the stone
cross upon the Briggedyke, on the borders of Hoyland and
Kesteven, in the said county, between Donyngton in Hoyland
and Seyntsavos in Kesteyen, on the Friday next after the
Feast of Corpus Ghristi, then next ensuing, twenty-four
knights and outer good and lawfU men, by whom the metes,
boundaries, divisions, and perambulation between the parts
aforesaid might be trustily and securely made, and the truth
of the matter in the premises be more fiilly leamt, known,
and enquired into. He also commanded the said sheriff, pub-
licly and solemnly to cause proclamation to be made in divers
places in the parts aforesaid, both within the liberties as well
as without, that all those whom the premises should in ieuiy
way concern, should personally make their appearance before
the said justices at the day and place named.

Accordingly, on the Wednesday before the said festival of
Corpus Christi, there came to Crovland the men who had been
as^gned by the sheriff for the said enquiries, to make view of
the metes and boundaries which had been placed in ancient
times, and to seek full information of the abbat of Croyland,
who had in his possession the best evidences on the matter.
These having been sufficiently instructed by him, and most
courteously provided with refreshments, unanimously pro-
ceeded upon the purposed business. On the following Fiiday,
the inquisition was taken before SobertWilloughby, Philip le
Despencer, Ealph Crumwelle, William de Skypwytii, William
Thymyng, Eichard Sydenham, John Markham, Edmund del
Clay, and Bobert Kartell, at the stone cross upon the Brigge-
‘ dyke, as to the metes, boundaries, and divisions placed in an-
cient times in a certain marsh, situate between the rivers Wel-
land and Witham, and below the said river Welland, in the
county of Lincoln ; upon the oaths of Andrew de Leek,
knight, John Holbech, knight, John Meers, Banulph BoUe,
Hiilip Samon, Thomas Welby, Richard Stevenson, Wil-
liam Wyhum, Stephen Copuldyke, John Bly, Ralph Farceux,
and Jolm Grane, on part of Hoyland ; and upon the oaths of


John Paynell, knight, Nicholas Hobden, knight, John Walsh,
knight, Elias Medelton, WiUiam. de Boston, William de
Cranewell, John Leeke de Cobbye, Thomas de Sleford, Alan de
Hekleshale, Antony de Spanby, Ealph de Stanton, and Johxi
de Haryngton, on part of Kesteven.

All tiiese, with the justices before-named, proceeded together
on the perambulation, supervision, inquisition, limitation, and
assignation for faithfully making metes, boundaries, and divi-
sions, between the parts before-named. Accordingly, they
began on the Saturday following, at a certain place on the
southern side of the said marsh, called Kenulphston, from
Kenulph, the first abbat of the monastery of Croyland, and
placed there by him as the boundary between Croyland and
Depyng ; and they stated upon oath, that the metes, boun-
daries, and divisions set and fixed, from ancient time, between
the parts before-named in the said marsh, between the said
rivers, and below the stream called Welland, begin at the
before-named place called Kenulphston, on the southern side
of the said marsh, close to the waters of the Welland ; in
which place a certain cross of stone was formerly erected and
built, as one of the ancient metes, boundaries, and divisions
between the parts aforesaid in the said marsh ; the body of
which cross, through the action of the water and the force of
the winds, had been broken down and destroyed ; and that a
certain stone which had been the foot and foundation of the
said cross, was still lying there unmoved, but covered by the
water ; and that this place, which is called Kenulphston, and
is the first ancient mete, boundary, and division between the
‘ parts aforesaid, is situate on the southern side of the confines
thereof, and is distant from the vill of Croyland, in the parts
of Hoyland, about two leagues by estimate towards the
west. On view of the said place called Kenulphston, both
by the justices aforesaid, as also by the jurors before-named,
it seemed requisite that one or two crosses should be erected
there, for the better knowing of the ancient metes, boim-
daries, and divisions between the parts above-mentioned,
in fdture times. It was therefore thought proper that two
crosses, one of wood and the other of stone, should be placed
and erected on the spot before-mentioned, contiguous to the
said stone that was lately the foot and foundation of the
ancient cross, the same being set on the eastern side of the said
stone facing Croyland. The said jurors fiirther said, upon


oath, that the metes, honndaries, and divisions -which from
ancient times were had and founded between the parts afore-
said in the said marsh, extend from the place aforesaid called
Kenulphston to a certain place called Wodelode-Graynes on
the north, beyond a cert^ lembankment which had been
lately erected by force by the men of Depyng, in the time of
the lady Blanche Wake, the same being distant from the
before-named place called Kenulphston about one mile to-
wards the north. It was therefore thought proper that in the
said place a cross should be erected as one of the metes, boun^
daries, and divisions between the parts aforesaid, above that
embankment, in order that the metes, boundaries, and divi-
sions, from the place called Kenulphston to the said place called
Wodelode-Graynes, between the parts aforesaid, might be seen
and known. And frirther, the perambulation being made to
the aforesaid place called Wodelode-Graynes, called also by
the other namo of Oggot, the jurors before-mentioned said,
upon their oaths, that that place was one of the metes, boun-
daries, and divisions between the parts aforesaid from ancient
times founded and placed in the said marsh, and that it was
necessary that a certain cross should be erected there for the
better declaration and understanding of the metes, boundaries,
and divisions frx)m ancient time had between the said parts.
And because it seemed expedient and necessary to the justices
before-named, it was therefore determined that a certain cross
of stone or wood should be erected there, lest by some means
or other the metes, boundaries, and divisions had and madi3
from ancient times in the said marsh between the parts before-
mentioned should, by some means or other, in future times be
forgotten. As far as this place called Wodelode-Graynes, or
by the other name of Oggot, these are the metes and boundaries
of the abbat of Groyknd of a certain parcel of tiie said marsh
called GK)ggisloiind. As these do not extend any frirther, we
shall forbear to copy any more of the said perambulation for
the present.

The said perambulation being completed, and new crosses
and landmarks being erected and established between Hoyland
and Kesteven, as already mentioned, still, from day to day
multiplied threats were fulminated against the abbat of Croy-
limdf and many grievances were inflicted upon the more dik-


tant manors of the abbat, by the said Thomas Holland, earl of
Kent, and his servants.

In the first place, in the court of the king’s Marshalsea, then
held at Stamford, they greatly molested him by preferring bills
of a most grievous nature, but utterly void of truth. They also,
by means of a stratagem, drove away the beasts and other
animals of various kinds, more than fifty in number, fi^)m the
manors of the said abbat at Langtoft to the manor of the said earl
at West Depyng, and detained them there for a considerable
time. Disturbing the abbat also in his peaceable possession,
they fished in the waters of the Welland, it being his own
several piscary from Kenulphston to Brotherhouse ; the nets,
too, which they found there they tore to pieces. In the
marshes also of the said abbat pertaining to his manors of
Langtoft and Baston, they would on no account permit his
tenants to dig turf and receive other advantages therefix^m as
they were entitled to do. Also, for non-repair of Northee,*®
near Bastondyke, and beyond the demesne of Depyng, they not
only amerced the said abbat and his tenants in the court of
Depyng, but also laid a heavy distraint upon him in his own
marsh of Baston for the said amercement. When the servants,
also, of the said abbat came to the market of Depyng to pur-
chase -provisions, they beat them to the hazard of their lives,
and throwing them from their boats into the water, heaped
such insults and injuries upon them, that they were unable to
enjoy any benefit whatever of carriage by water to the said
abbey. They also violently attacked two waggons belonging to
the abbat, and drawn by sixteen horses, upon the road to Croy-
land, laden with provisions for the household and necessaries
for domestic use, and detained them at Torpel for their own
purposes, until, by letters of the duke of Lancaster granted at
the entreaty of the abbat, they were compelled to restore them.
Besides this, they uttered such shocking and undisguised
threats against the abbat, and his tenants and servants, of kill-
ing, beating, and injuring them, that they did not dare venture
more than half-way to Depyng, or the country round about it.

On the morrow of Saint Martin, however, then next ensuing,

being the fourteenth year of king Eichard, a parliament was

held at Westminster. In this, the before-named earl of Kent,

besides ^hat has been already stated, made grievous com*

*^ Probably the banks of the stream*


plaints, by word of mouth, against the abbat of Croyland, for
the many and intolerable injuries which he had inflicted upon
him. John of Gkiunt, however, the duke of Lancaster, who
was then present, publicly asserted in parliament, that every
one of his complaints were utterly untrue ; for he said that in
the preceding summer he had been in the same districts, and
had been witness, with his own eyes, that nearly everything
was directly the reverse of what he had stated. *’ Abbat Joka
fleeing the said earl so dreadfully excited £igainst him, and stil:
obstinate in his claim, being sensible that he could not easily
withstand the ill-will of so powerful a man, shortly after waited
upon king Eichard, his foftnder, and resolutely pointed out to
him the perils that threatened his monastery, asserting that
he would not be able any longer to support the onerous duties
of his foundation, unless the royal clemency should deign
speedily to provide him with opportune assistance. He alsp
presented to him a bill> containing a statement at length of
each of the injuries and damages which had been inflicted on
him, in manner before stated. This bill the king immediately
delivered to the duke of Lancaster, who was then present,
to keep, at the same time giving strict injunctions that he
would have it read before the learned men of his council, in
order that they might secure peace and quietness, such as the
law of the land and justice demand, for this house of his own
foundation.*® The lord duke readily undertook the perform-
ance of his commands, and efficiently fulfilled them all, in con-
formity with the royd order and wishes.

The abbat made his appearance before them in person, and
suppliantly requested the said council of our lord the king, out
of regard for common charity, to allow his evidence to be
stated before them, ^d to give their judgment, as justice die-
tated, in conformity with the same. Seeing tiiat they could
not without evidence give a just decree in the cause, and at
the same time perceiving that the earl, his adversary, for want
of evidence on his part, was unwilling to appear, they agreed,
of their own accord, to inspect his evidence, and, so far as the
law would allow, to ensure to him a prosperous result; besides
which, they appointed a day for him carefully to observe.

^ John de Asheby.

*^ He obtained the title of re-founder from certain acts of mumficence,
whifh have b^n stated in the portion of this narrative which is now lost.


the octave of Saint Hilary, on which he was, all delay laid
aside, again to make his appearance before them with his
proo&. The abbat, however, fearing that from this delay
detriment was threatened to himself, and that in. the meantime
no small grievances m^ht be inflicted upon him by the aer«
vants of the said earl, humbly requested the king’s council to
ensure him peace and quietness until these dissensiona should be
more effectually put an end to, between the said earl and hm*
self. This they willingly agreed to, and gave him a letter ia
the kingf s name, and under his private seal, to be directed to
the servants of the said earl ; the tenor of which letter, al?
though dictated in the French language, is here set forth in

” Biohard, by the grace of God, &o. to our dearly^belovej
John de Bepynghale, seneschal, and John de Solland, receiver,
of our most dear brother,^^ the earl of iKent, and all other bis
servants whatsoever, in the counties of lincoln, ^Northampton,
and Huntingdon, and to each of theiU) greeting. With the
consent of our council, we do and will strictly enjoin and com-
mand you, henceforth, neither by yourselves, nor by others, to
inflict any grievances or injuries whatsoever upon our dearly-
belojed abbat of Groyland, or his tenants or servants ; but you
are to suffer the said abbat, and his teivants and servants, to
^0 and return peaceably through the demesnes of the said earl,
for the performance of his necessary business, until such time
as certain controversies and disputes now pending between the
said earl and the before-named abbat shall have been duly
discussed and rectifled by our council. And we would have
you, the aforesaid seneschal and receiver, oad all men, tenants
and servants of the said earl, in his demesnes within th^ afore-
said counties, in our name to be strictly warned to be obedient
and attentive to the injunctions which, by these presents, we
have given them, and in no wise to act contrary thereto, under
peril of what may ensue therefrom. In like manner, also, you
are to cause onr commands aforesaid, on your behalf, to be
strictly regarded and observed, according to the effect and
tenor of the same, as you shall answer for the same, and under
the peril aforesaid. Given, &c. on the ninth day of December,
in the fourteenth year of our reign*”

When the king’s letter had been read, or set forth, in the
« HjUf-brother. …

ft.D. 1991^ ‘ ABBAT JOHN PBOCEEDS TO LOKDOlf • 341

earFs court at Depyng, before his tenants, they all became
quite mad, as it -wiere, and with blasphemous language cursed
tiieir lord, and seeing a stop thus put to their malicious pro-
ceedings, gave utterance to loud yells and roarings. The ab-
bat, however, and his people, passed freely, unmolested and
witiiout insult, through the earl’s viUs, for the performance of
his necessary duties, until the time appointed ; besides which,
bis supplies of provisions were allowed to pass in peace through
their districts.

Accordingly, on the approach of Hilary Term, the abbat
hastened towards London, to be there at the day appointed ;
but, after having awaited the arrival of the earl many days,
he saw that his endeavours would be intentionally frustrated,
unless he should hasten to adopt another course ; upon which,
he presented himself before the king’s council, and, with well-
timed words, declared the cause of his coming. Knowing thai
bis declaration was true, and admitting tihe justice of his
prayer, they immediately gave commands to one John Wod-
rove, who was then present, to warn the earl’s advisers imme-
diately to appear before them, and without any further delay
to inform them what they had made up their minds to do on
the day appointed. Complying in every respect with the com-
mands which he had thus received from them, on the following
day he publicly stated before them what answer he had had
from the earl’s advisers, which was to the effect, that, being
hindered by other business on that day, they could not possibly
appear before the king’s council, while at the same time they
stoutly asserted that they had received no notice whatever to
attend on the day named. On hearing this, being men of
shrewd understanding, they knew for certain that the earl was
unwilling to appear, but was trying to protract the time to no
purpose, until he should find an opportimity of avenging him-
self on the abbat ; and accordingly they discussed the matter
among themselves, how to devise a suitable remedy against the
purpose of the earl, and, upon inspection of his evidences, pro-
vide for the abbat a favourable termination of the matter.
Considering, however, the earl’s high rank, as be was brother
of the reigning king, they were afraid lest they might incur
his resentment, or afterwards suffer some disgrace for having
flhown too much fisivour to the abbat, and hostility to him ;
upon which, after discussing the matter among themselves.


fhey came to the determination, that by the king’s letters nti^
der his privy seal, and setting forth the whole case, another
day within three weeks after Easter should be named ; which
was accordingly carried into effect. They also, by general
consent, addressed similar letters of our lord the kmg to the
before-named abbat at Croyland, that he might most carefdily
observe the day named.

Accordingly, on the day appointed, the abbat presented
himself at London, as by the long’s letters he had been com-^
manded to do ; but the opposite side did not appear. How
ever, it so happened that, during that term, the king’s council
was so busied upon arduous and important affairs of the king*
dom, thai it had no time to attend to less important mattersi
of merely an incidental nature, or indeed to give any serious
thought thereto. The abbat, however, shrewdly suspecting
that his adversaries might, at some future time, impute to him
default on the day named, immediately repaired to the king’s
chancellor, and the clerk of the privy seal, and after humbly
shewing them the king’s letter, by which the before-mention^
day had been named for him to appear, urgently entreated that
they would deign, in writing, to make record of his attendancej
They readily agreed to do tibis, and caused the day of his ap«
pearance to be written and endorsed upon the said letter, which
they kept, lest, through their various occupations, the matter
might chance to escape their memory. Besides this, they ad-
vised the abbat, as he could uot at present obtain despatch of
his business before the king’s council, to return by the fifteenth
day after the feast of Saint Michael. He accordingly returned
home, and^ though the fulfilment of his hopes was thus long
deferred, determined to attend on the. day before-mentioned.

From that day till the feast of Saint liurence next ensuing,
the said abbat, his servants, and tenants passed freely and \m*
molestedly through the vill of Depyng, and transacted all
their business in tibie most quiet manner possible, without any
insidt or impediment whatever. In the meantime, however^
the said earl of Kent appointed to the office of seneschal of
his lands, a certain headstrong and most violent man, Nicholas
de Clifton by name ; who, on coming to the vill of Depyng in
the discharge of his duties about the feast of Saint Laurence^
most inconsiderately gave orders, upon the tenants of the said
vill making very great complaints against the abbat of Croyland^


that whatever monk or tenant of the said abbat they should
see passing through their demesne, they should immediately
bring him to the manor-house of his master, and present hiTn
there. Upon this, they lay concealed in ambush, Hke roaring
whelps of lions, in order that they might seize upon them,
and day after day they prowled about and ran to and fro, to
see if they could catch any of the people of Croyland or of
Spalding, upon whom they might wreak the vengeance of their

At last, on the Thursday next before the feast of Saint Bar-
tholomew, a certain monk of Croyland, the almoner of that
place^ having occasion to pass that way and being in ignorance
of the malicious intentions of the villagers, was proceeding,
a little before sunset, on his road through those parts,
conscious of no evil designs, but with singleness of purpose,
and therefore unsuspectingly. Upon this, three or four youths,
rushing forth from their lurking-places, treated him most
shameiidly and unbecomingly, and after leading him with re-
peated insults two long miles from the spot, presented him,
like 9ome important prize, before the seneschal of their master.
.Immediately upon this, they accused him with the greatest
acrimony of various injuries which had been inflicted ui)or.
them, and demanded vengeance for the same. The seneschal
^00 assailed him with numerous reproaches, and protested by
liis fealty and his knighthood, that if he should be found guilty
on any one of the points on which he was accused, he would
have him dragged some three or four times through the middle
of the pond, and afterwai*ds detained in strict custody, until his
abbat should procure his liberation. The monk, being very
sorrowful and filled with anxiety, made oath on the word of a
priest, and truthfully exonerated himself from all the charges
brought against him : upon which, a very dark night coming
on, alter having received these great injuries he was dis-

The next day, by command of the said seneschal, they ap-
prehended a man of Spalding upon the Bastondyke, and after
dipping him in the water some three or four times, placed him,
worn out and half dead, on horseback, and so led him to the
earl’s manor-house at Depyng, where they placed him in the
stocks and in close confinement. The same week they also
seized another man of Spalding, and after loading him with


^repeated insults fell to beating him, aud most cruelly broke one
of his arms. The companions of the said bailiff, also, rushing
forth from their ambush there, and taking them unawares,
seized some boatmen of Groyland at Wiilrumhall, who had
come thither with their vessels, suspecting no mischief : and
after mercilessly beating them, thus taken off their guard,
compelled them, wounded as they were, to rush headlong into
the water.

Adding to these atrocious injuries prevarication as well,
they uttered even still more serious threats, to the effect that
on the feast of Saint Bartholomew, which was then at hand/
they would pay a visit to Groyland, and would there, with a
strong hand, take toll fiwn each of them whether they would
or no. These rumours being immediately spread through-
out all Hoyland, on the said feast of Saint Bartholomew, three
of the household of the earl of Derby,** who was then staying
at Burgh Saint Peter, came to Groyland, and with them a vast
multitude of the men of Hoyland ; seizing the opportunity
-^dth alacrity as well as acrimony of avenging themselves for
the injuries which had been so recently inflicted. Immediately
on their arrival, they searched every part of the vill of Groy-
land, and, flnding some of the people of Depyng, placed some
in strict custody : while others they dipped repeatedly in the
water, wishing to give them a like return for what they them-
selves had suffered at their hands. At the approach of even-
ing on the same day, they again searched the Till with lanterns,
and found some persons to them unknown in the act of taking
to flight : upon which, one man sent an arrow after them,
and piercing one of their number through the middle of the
leg, compelled him, unwilling as he was, to halt, while the
rest consulted their safety in ^ht. After viewing him in full
light, they found that he was a certain Hoylander, Simon Gel-
lard by name, who, by reason of a homicide which he had
committed in an outbreak, had been banished &om his native
place, and had been for a long time harboured at Depyng, in
contravention of the laws of England.

On thus capturing him, the men of Spalding took him home
with them, and, on the Lord’s day, at about the ninth hour,
with the common consent of all, cut off his head at Spalding,
it being the flfteenth year of the reign of king Bichard,
« Afterwarda Henry IV.


• In the meantime, a report was suddenly sjMread abroad in the
Till of Depyng, that the earl of Derby, who, as previously
stated, was then staying at Burgh, had given orders to his
people forthwith to bum the vill of Depyng to the ground^ and
without mercy to slay with a remorseless sword all its inhabit-
ants as enemies to himself and his father. On hearing this,
the people of Depyng were very much alarmed, and adopting
more prudent counsels, with all haste sent the seneschal of their
lord’s courts, with twenty-four elders of the vill, to Burgh
Saint Peter, in order humbly to sue for peace, and voluntarily
to place themselves at the mercy of the said earl of Derby.
Upon this, the treasurer of the said earl, seeing the bitterness
of their souls, and their pride trodden under foot by such an
humble submission, readily admitted them to the favour of his
maa|ter, and allowed them to return home, after binding them
by oath to the following effect ; that they should in future, to
the best of their ability, keep the peace towards all the people
of Hoyland, and would most strictly chastise all such dis-
turbers of the peace as they might find among themselves.

In the same year, and at the beginning of the following
winter, king Eichard held his parliament at Westminster, on
tiie morrow of All Souls. Abbat John, being now rendered
more cautious ^m his past penis, and apprehending that most
probably still greater ones would at a future day ensue, once
more tore himself from the embraces of Eachel and quiet con-
templation, and found himself compelled to submit to laborious
toils for Leah amid the tumults of the world. For, with a
discreet haste he repaired to London, and made his appearance
in full parliament : and then, while his adversary, the earl of
Kent, was there seated with the rest, on a fitting opportunity de-
livered into the king’s hands, with all humility and devout-
ness, a bill containing a statement of the whole case, and en-
treated that he would deign to command it to be read in presence
of all. The king, on receiving the said bill, being both occupied
at that moment with other business, and induced thereto, as it
is snppoised, by brotherly affection, at once consigned the matter
to oblivion. The abbat, however, acting with full confidence
in the Lord, and falling on his knees before the king, on three
Operate occasions, did not desist, until the king, If only on;
account of his importunity, had ordered the bill to be publicly
read. « – . ‘


The substance of it was as follows : — That in the last par*
liament of the king, a hill had been presented on behalf of the
abbat of Croyland, relative to the divers grievances and injuries
which had been inflicted upon him, and that, by concurrence of
the peers, consideration of the whole matter had been com-
mitted to certain learned and industrious men of the council of
our lord the king; who had appointed the octave of Saint
Hilary as the day for both parties to appear to produce their
evidence ; upon which, however, the said earl on his side did
not appear. That after this, it was ordered by the same per-
sons that each party should once more be warned, by letters of
our lord the king under his privy seal, to appear before them
within three weeks after Easter ; but that not then even did a
single person of the council of the said earl make his appear^*
ance. That the said abbat, not without great labour and ex*
pense on his part, curefiilly attended on both days that had
been named for them to appear. And it was therefore, humbly
grayed his royal highness on part of the said abbat, that,
for the preservation of his right of patronage, and for avoid-
ing any diminution of the royal rights in the said abbey during
vacation of the abbacy thereof, he would deign to provide
some fltting and gracious remedy in the matter aforesaid ; be^
cause if he shoidd not quickly succour the said abbat and con-
vent in this present spoliation of them, they would not be able
in future to endure the burdens of their foundation or con-
tinue to perform their duties for the support of Divine worship,
by reason of the smallness of their means.

After the bill had been read to this effect in parliament, the
said earl is said to have thus addressed tiie king: ”My
lord,” said he, ” if so it please you, this same abbat both here
and elsewhere has repeatedly proflered most serious complaints
against me, which both redound to the curtailment of my rights
and to no small blackening of my fair name. Therefore I do
ask that you will deign so to adjust your sentence to the exact
me.asure of what is right, that his complaints against me may
henceforth be set at rest, and that my disinheritance may
not be the result thereof.” This he is supposed to have said
for form’s sake, so that he might not appear to have kept per*
feet silence, while, at the same time he uttered one thing with
his lips, and was devising another in his heart; a thing that,
was folly proved in the sequeL


For, hardly liad the space of one week gone by after thid,
when the said earl, in the same parliament, preferred a most
grievous bill against the same abbat, containing many serious
charges, and requested that it should be read. Accordingly,
during the whole time that it was being read, the earl stood
erect before the king, and, at the same time, the earl of March,
the earl of Arundel, the earl of Salisbury, the earl of Hun«
tingdon, the earl of ITorthumberland, and other nobles, who
favoured him, whatever might be his title, similarly stood
up with him, as supporters of his cause. On the abbaf s side,
he stood alone, putting his trust in the Lord, and in the most
assured truth of his proofs. On the same day, the said earl,
in like manner, presented a bill against the prior of Spalding,
which was pubKcly read in presence of the said council.

After both of them had been read, and construed by all with
very dissimilar feelings, the lord John of Gaunt, the venerable
duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster, immediately arose, and with
him the duke of York, his brother, as well as their sons,
Henry, earl of Derby, son of the duke of Lancaster, aud the
earl of Rutland, son of the duke of York- The duke of Lan-
caster forthwith addressed the king in these words: “My
revered lord, certain things that have been here read concern
me and my freehold, for which, under God*s guidance, it
behoves me to stand up so long as I live. But after I am dead,
I wish my son, to whom, by hereditary right, the same wiU
descend, to the best of his abilities to maintain the same, and
not on any account to allow my just rights to be lost.”

To this, the archbishop of York, the chancellor of England,
by the king’s command, immediately made answer : “My lord
duke of Lancaster, his royal highness, fully taking into con-
sideration the exalted station of your persons, especially wishes
this to be observed, that no grounds whatever for contentions
or discords in public may for the present be disclosed : but the
matter in dispute between you he takes into the hands of his
royal power, intending to provide for you in the matter arbitra-
tors who shall duly dLcuss and rectify everything on fair and
reasonable grounds.”

Matters being in this position, the abbat remained standing
alone in the midst of them, and destitute of all human aid.
However, seeing that his cause was thus imperilled, and si-
lently recalling to xnitid that ^’ it is better to trust in the Lord»


,than to put confidence in princes,”** and the words, “Put
. not your trust in princes nor in the son of man, in whom
i there is no help/’^ he immediately implored the Divine as-
sistaQce, and placed his entire trust in the aid of the Most
.High, and in the protection of the €K>d of heaven. Accord-
.ingly, throwing hunself at the king’s feet, in a devout spirit,
and, with a tranquil countenance and great constancy of heart,
.he called attention to his desolate state, in words to the follow-
ing effect : ” Behold, my lord king,” said he, ‘* I fly alone for
re^ige to the throne of your majesty, confessing that you are
my king, and the founder of my church, which now stands at
the point of ruin, and in danger of utter spoliation. Therefore,
pn behalf of Almighty God, I do call upon you, powerfully with
your royal hand to support the rights of your foundation, and
with all speed to succour the said church in this the moment
of her necessity, seeing that there is no other, who will be
ftble to come to her aid, as you shall be wishful to answer for
]the same at the strict judgment of Gk)d, and before the tri-
bunal of Christ.*’ After this, he raised himself by degrees,
and addressing his words to the chancellor of England and the
lord duke of Lancaster, thus continued : ” And as for you, my
lords,” said he, ” who are the chief and principal nobles of
the council of my lord the king, I do also, in the name of
God, exhort and entreat you, so faithfully to act in the defence
of the rights of my said church, as it is your wish finally to
avoid indignation at the last judgment.”

Immediately upon this, the chancellor said, by the king’s
command : ” My lord abbat, it is the king’s wish that what-
ever award he shall make to the lord duke of Lancaster in his
matter, a similar result shall, under God’s guidance, attend
your application. Wherefore, he has taken your complaints
and your grievances into his own hands, and, well remember-
ing that he has been the founder of your church, he is deter-
mined to restore everything that justice shall demand as the
right of that church, and to avert every injury from the same,
as is his boimden duty to do.”

Oh most memorable magnanimity on the part of this vener-
able man ! Oh remarkable constancy to his sons in this their
father in the Lord ! who, with such singular firmness of
J^eart, stood up against those who so iniquitously persecuted
« Psalm pxyjp..9. .: – . ” Psaim cjLlvi. 3. – ^ – -^


him ; who, inflamed with zeal for justice, manfully withstood
them and opposed himself as a wall of defence for the house
of the Lord ; who, though he knew that the feelings of the
king might reasonably be suspepted to be in favour of his own^
brotiier then present, was not alarmed thereat, did not dread
the threats of the judges, nor yet fear the crowd of earls and
nobles of the kingdom who publicly took part against him.
But, so moderate was he in his language, so temperate in his
address, that he was neither over-fluent in excess of words,
nor yet was he found wanting through poverty of speech.
Hence it was, that be both challenged the feelings of all who
stood around in his favour, and merited the praises of each.

Puring a whole year after this, he enjoyed the peace he
60 much longed for, amid the greatest tranquillity ; and np
matter for eiUier iU-will or discord was afforded to him or hie^
in word or deed, by the servants or tenants of the said earl.
But, behold ! nothing under heaven can be safe, nothing can
remain for long the same. For even they who serve God are
not stable, and “Even his own angels He charged with
folly.” *’ For we all die, and like water we glide into the earth.
Indeed, we are the tributaries of death, and in us we all have
an answer to the summons of death. Oh deceitful fortune^
who dost exalt us in the moment of exultation, and dost as sud-
denly plunge us into the abyss of sorrow ! For, in the samp
year, being that from the Incarnation of our Lord, 1392, and
the sixteenth of king Eichard the Second, the said vener-
able fiither, worthy of all lasting praise, began to sicken o^
the day of the Assumption of &e Blessed Virgin, and, being
attack^ by a violent fever, was deprived of all strength 6{
body : upon which, he most ardently longed for death, in pre-
ference to abiding any longer among the labours and storms 6£
this toilsome life. Accordingly, from the very day that his
illness began, as soon as he perceived that the hand of the
Lord had come upon him, and that he was to bid farewell to
this world, he immediately estranged himself from all the
cares of this life, and employed himself with all anxiety of
mind in making provision that the day of death, which is won’t
to com© upon so many unprepared, might not come upon him
imawares. At last, when the flnal moments of his life were

^ <* Uteriiras/' the earl being the son of Joanna, the :wife of the Black Prince. *7 Jobiv. X8, 850 CONTINUATION OF THE HISTORr OF CKOYLAND. A.D.1393. approaching, he benignly comforted his brethren and his friends who had met together, and were lamenting their incon- solable loss ; and after partaking of the spiritual viaticum, in order that the Gk)d of our salvation might grant him a speedy** journey, on the octave of Saint Bartholomew, his most espe- cial patron, with joy he quitted the world and joined the in- habitants of heaven, in the sixteenth year of his prelacy. While he was still in this world, although he was repeatedly tossed to and fix) by misfortunes fi-om without, and was harassed by the embarrassments of this life, still, none the more did he withdraw his attention firom the interests of his house, but in many ways graced his church with vestments, thuribles, deco- rations for the altars, and other ecclesiastical ornaments, and caused the great bells of the convent to be re- cast. Besides this, he supplied large vessels of copper for the purpose of brewing ; and had wooden doors placed at the outer gate of the abbey. Last of all, the perambulation, for the purpose of setting metes and boundaries for the division and separation of the districts of Hoyland and Kesteven, which is mentioned above as having been made through the lord John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and the knights of the country, was obtained through his exertions and at his expense. After he was thus dead, and gathered unto his fathers, not without the lamentations and sorrow of the whole district, he was succeeded by Thomas de Overton, prior of the same com- munity, a man prudent and circumspect in action, and one who had been well tested by experience, while holding the liigher offices of the monastery. In the seventeenth year of the same king, and the second of the abbacy of the said Thomas, some of the commons of the eounty of Northampton, with the full assent of the monks of Burgh, with great efforts raised a great embankment on the south side of the Welland, firom Feykirk as far as Southlake, opposite to Kenulphston ; whence they extended it a great distance in the direction of Croyland, within the boundaries of the abbat, without his leave or consent. However, by the providence of God, their attempts were not carried into effect. For, every year, as the waters increased to overflowing, the channel was unable to contain the increasing waters within the banks, and, consequently, by repeatedly washing away the •8 M propcram."— Qy. if not *• prosperum,*' * ** a prosperous journey." A.l>, 1393. OTTTBAGE COMHIITED OK THE LAJSDS OF CROYJAJTD. 851

soil, the wavesoverflowed the said embankment. Hence, through
the irruption of the floods, the whole surface was inundated
and covered with the waters, so that the utility resulting
therefrom consisted more in a supply of flsh than of pas-

In the same year also, in the holy week of Pentecost, a vast
multitude of the people of Depyng came into the marshes with
an armed force, and outrageously threw to the ground the
cross called Xenulphston, which had lately been erected by
authority of our lord the king and the parliament as the
boundary between Hoyland and Xesteven, on the occasion of
the perambulation before-mentioned ; and, after thus throwing
it down and breaking it to pieces, they carried it off with them
to Depyng, and there, with marks of indignation and dishonor,
threw it into the pools under the feet of the passers-by. On
the following day, also, with axes and hatchets they levelled
the trees which grew on the mound on which the cross had
stood, and after throwing them into the water, returned home
with great boasting and exultation. Upon this, abbat Thomas,
being greatly vexed at this detestable and cruel injury inflicted
upon himself and his church, and being deeply grieved thereat,
manfully prepared, to the very utmost of his ability, to defend
the rights of his foundation, and, betraying no sLothMness,
hastened to ensure the re-erection of the said cross, in conformity
with the laws of England.

Accordingly, he repaired to London, and by bill set forth his
various grievances before our lord the king ; while at the same
time he was supported by the favour and assistance of the
greatly to be honored and ever worthy to be mentioned lord John
of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster ; upon which, with all speed he
obtained from his serene highness a commission directed to the
nobles and judges of the land, to hold a grand assize on the
same. At this assize also, the said illustrious duke, as being
the first and chief upon tiie commission, most benignly pre-
sided in his own person. Here the highest and most powerftil
men of Depyng were indicted, and condemned for having
oflended against the abbat of Croyland, and the country ; after
which, they were seized and led fettered in carts and waggons,
without mercy, to the castle of Lincoln, until such time as the
i^oresaid cross should be rebuilt. In the meantime, their
Mends and neighbours made haste, without delay, to erect

852 coirrnnjATioN of the history of ceoylaitd. a.d. 1399.

another new cross, and so, being greatly alarmed, restored it,
though much against their wills, in its proper place, where it
had formerly stood, as may now be seen by all who behold it.

About this time also, kmg Eichard removed all his courts,
not without great expense, from Westminster to York, in con-
sequence of tiie ill-will shewn by the citizens of London.

In the twentieth year of his reiffn, the same king, levying a
strong body of men at London, suddenly came to the manor of
the lord Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, at Plasshe,**
in the county of Essex, and there arresting the said duke, sent
him to be kept in safe custody at Calais. After a short time,
however, by command of;Our lord the king, and by the advice
of the earl marshal of England, the then captains of the said
town of Calab, who were the keepers of the before-nam^d
duke, suddenly entered his chamber by night as he slept, and
binding him hand and foot, placed him between two larjge pil-
lows, and, by repeatedly treading thereon with their feet,
smothered him in a most dreadful manner.
. In these days, repeated evils were wrought in England, in
the banishment of earls, the beheading of peers, and the con-
jsignment of many nobles to perpetual imprisonment. At this
period, too, king Bichard, at the beginning of his parliament,
sentenced Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, to per-
petual banishment from^.the realm, and confiscated his pro-
perty to the royal treasury. In like manner also, he sen-
tenced Henry Bolingbroke, earl of Derby, son of John of Gaunt,
duke of Lancaster, to banishment for ten years.
, In the same year, Robert Braybroke, bishop of London,
with some others who had joined him at Bedford, as well as
other prelates who were induced thereto by his example, caused
two of the most noble persons in each vill throughout sixteen
counties of England, to be summoned before them ; and, when
they appeared, compelled them to set their seals to a certain
white paper which was styled ” JBlanc oharire,^’ and had been
devised by the wicked and false counsels of perfidious men ; a
thing that afterwards proved one great cause of king Bichard’s
downfall. In this year also, the clergy, people, and priests,
.being taxed, subpaitted to payment of these heavy imposts to
the kipg with gre^t murmuring.
‘ Jn the following year, that- is to say, in the year from ihe

*^ OrPledij, near Donmow, at which jAaoehe hadfoandeda collie..


Incarnation of our Lord, 1399, and the last of the reign of
king Eichard, the lord John of Gaunt, the illustrious duke of
Lancaster, of deservedly pions memory, (one who had always
proved most friendly to our monastery of Croyland, and its
opportune helper in its tribulations), departed the way of all
flesh at Leicester ; and was buried in the church of St. Paul
at London, Henry his son and heir being then in exile.

Li the meantime, king Eichard entrusted and to farm let
the kingdom of England to William Scrope, earl of Wiltshire
and treasurer of England, and John Bushe, Henry Greene, and
John Bagott, knights. He also appointed Edmund Langley,
duke of York, protector of the kingdom ; while the king him-
self, with a strong force, proceeded to Lreland, to wage war
against the Irish, who had rebelled against him.

Henry Bolingbroke, however, earl of Derby, duke of Here-
ford, and, by right inherited from his fether, duke of Lan-
caster, being in banishment at his father’s death, on hearing
of it, sent letters of entreaty to the king of England, beg-
ging that he would allow him to enjoy his paternal inheritance,
and promising that he would faithfrilly perform all duties that
a liege-man ought to perform for his long. On finding that
the king hesitated to grant his request, he determined to carry
matters with a high hand, so collecting a large body of troops,
he landed at night in the north of England on the fourth of
July, accompanied by Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canter-
bury, his feUow-exile ; and before he arrived at his castle of
Pontefract, his troops had increased to an innumerable army.
The lord Edmund Langley, the king’s representative in Eng-
land, with Nicholas Spencer, the bishop of l^orwich, and the
knights John Bushe, Henry Greene, and John Bagott, also col-
lected a large army, in number nearly sixteen thousand men ;
but although by the king’s command he hastened te attack
Bolingbroke, he was forced to retreat and take refuge in
Bristol Castle. Here the lord William Scrope, the king’s
treasurer, was punished with the loss of his head for his
treachery in having sold the castle of Calais for an inmiense
sum of money which he received from the king of France. In
like manner, the knights, John Bushe, and Henry Greene, were
punished with decapitation, because by their advice and con-
currence most grievous taxes had been imposed upon the com-
mons of England.


The king, who was still in Ireland, as soon as rumours to
this effect came to his ears., hastened to return to England, and
landed with a few men at Milford Haven, in Wales. But the
people of England forsook him, and no longer adhered to his
cause ; both because he had oppressed them with his exactions,
as also, in especial, because he had ordered Thomas of Wood-
stock, duke of Gloucester, to be put to death at Calais without
any good reason, and had had the earls of Arundel and War-
wick beheaded, and had compelled Thomas Arundel, arch-
bishop of Canterbury, and Henry, duke of Lancaster, with
many others, to go into exile. After this, the king repaired
to Flint Castle, where, after holding a short conference with
the duke, on wishing to retire, he was not permitted ; but was
immediately arrested, and taken to Chester by the servants of
the duke of Lancaster.

A short time after this, Henry, duke of Lancaster, the earl
of Northumberland, and Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Can-
terbury, with many other nobles of the kingdom, taking the
king with them, a prisoner an forsaken by all, hastened
towards London ; and on arriving there, committed him to tlie
Tower for safe custody until Parfiament should meet. Imme-
diately calling together the Parliament, king Richard ap-
pointed Bichard Scrope, archbishop of York, and a few other
nobles, his deputies, in his name to resign the crown of his
kingdom before the duke and the commons of all England.
Shortly after this, the peers of the realm condemned him to
perpetual imprisonment, first at Leeds Castle in Kent, and
then at Pontefract Castle in the county of York ; and with
the consent of the commons, they proclaimed Henry, duke of
Lancaster, king of England. In the same year, therefore,
Henry Bolingbroke, duke of Lancaster, was crowned king, at
Westminster, on the feast of Saint Edward, by Roger Walden,
the then archbishop of Canterbury ; at which coronation, he
made his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth, prince of Wales, duke
of Cornwall, and earl of Chester. Besides this, he restored
Thomas Arundel to the archiepiscopal dignity, after removing
Roger therefrom, and appointing him to the see of London^
which was then vacant.

In the following year, being that of the Incarnation of otir
Lord, 1400, king Henry, thinking that the kingdom was now
at peace in his sight, with a few of his people kept the Nativity
of our Lord at Windsor. But there is nothing to be depended


upon among men ; as certain persons, being indignant thereat,
and being unwilling that he should reign over them, cout
spired to put him to death. For the earl of Kent, the earl of
Huntingdon, the earl of Salisbury, and the lord de Spencer,
with some other knights plotted against him ,* and, at a peaceful
tournament called a ” mumming,” which was held before the
king on the day of the Epiphany, being themselves haters of
peace, caused public proclamation to be made, so that, making
an attack with a strong hand, they might be enabled traitor-
ously to slay the king by taking him unawares.

This conspiracy, however, by the providence of God, was not
.concealed from the king. For he having discovered it, they
all took to flight ; but, in a short time all these parties, who
had thus prepared to levy war, were taken or else dispersed
•abroad, and wherever they were discovered were beheaded
without delay. Among these was the before-mentioned and
too much to be noticed Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, and lord
of Depyng ; for he, who had been always an evil-wisQier and a
most spiteful persecutor of the monastery of Croyland, by the
sudden judgment of God on his life and his wickedness, came
to his end by losing his head, on the very same day on which,
as it is said, he had determined to attack the said monastery
with a strong hand. When a faithful account had been brought s
to king Eichard at the castle of Pontefract of the deaths of the
earls his brothers, in whom he placed a remarkable degree of
confidence ; being already absorbed in sorrow, and despairing
of his own safety, he pined away, and most inconsiderately
«nd rashly vowed for very grief that he would never after take
food ; and thns, after abstaining from sustenance five days and
as many nights, he departed this life, miserably dying of
hunger, after the completion of a reign of twenty-two years.

In these times, also, the world being thus at the mercy of
a malignant whirlwind of direful perturbations, which spread
throughout nearly the whole of England, Satan again went
forth from before the face of the Lord, and, in the mouths of
certain abandoned men, who had been placed in confinement^
proved himself still, as he had been from the beginning, a lying
spirit. For these wretches, being either induced thereto by
accursed bribes, or else through a misplaced anxiety in their
desperate attempts to prolong their wretched lives, most falsely
accused divers prelates and nobles of , th(3 church and the

A a2

‘o56 COCSni^UAllOX 01’ THE HISTOBY OF CBOTLANB A.i>. 1405.

kingdom of treason against the king’s person. Accordingly,
Thomas, abbat of Croyland, as well as many others of Ms
fellow-abbats in the county, was iniquitonsly charged with
treason by a certain son of perdition ; upon which, he had a
day appointed for him to appiear, Huntingdon being named aa
the place, that he might lawfully clear himself before the king’s
justices of the crime laid to his chai^. Trusting especially
in the Lord, and the testimony of his own conscience, he most
readily presented himself at the place named. Here, having
appeared before the tribunal of the presiding judge, he was,
by the providence of Christ, acquitted of the charge upon the
truthful attestation of the whole county; and so, rejoicing
and returning thanks to Gkxl, he returned home.

After this, through the remaining period of his rule, nearly
up to the time of Ms death, he enjoyed abundantly the peac6
that is so ardently longed for by all mortals. During the out-
burst, however, of the before-mentioned tempest, we cannot
sufficiently wonder how greatly the enemy showed his ma-
lignity against the Saints, and to what an extent Satan was
permitted to wreak his malice upon the professors of the truth.
For ten brethren of the order of the Minorites, famous men
and honored doctors of Divinity, together with Sir Iloger Cla-
rendon,^ and Walter de Lande, their prior, being convicted of
treason, amid the violence of these tempestuous times, were
drawn and hanged.

In the year of our Lord, 1403, being the fourth year of the
reign of tang Henry, a great and more than ordinary battle
in times of dvil war, was fought at Shrewsbury, on the fes-
tival of Saint Praxecles,** between king Henry and Henry
Percy, earl of Northumberland. In this engagement, nobles
and gentlemen, together with common men, were slain, to an
amount estimated at five thousand men. This war had long
before been foretold by a comet, which appeared in the North,
on successive nights, in form of a sword, and which the most
learned among the astrologers asserted to have been sent aa a
direful prognostic of woe.

Two years after this, Richard Scrope, archbishop of York,
and the lord Mowbray, earl marshal, together with a multi-

^ He was a natural son of the Black Pnnce. AH these persons were
•xecnted for asserting tliat king Richard was still alive.
« Twenty.first of July. .


tude of brethren, of the four orders, and a large body qt
armed men which he had levied in the northern districts, roso
in warlike array against king Henry ; on which the king met
them with a large force, and beheaded the most noble that
were taken, at York, without respect for condition or order.
However, the Divine goodness deigned in after-times to show
forth great virtues and mighty miracles in favour of the arch-
bishop, who was there put to death.

Abbat Thomas had now passed nearly fourteen years in
quietness from the turmoil of the world, tiie tribulation of the
wicked, and all sorrow ; but still, he did not spend his time in
idleness, and in neglecting to perform the works of goodness ;
for he was always strenuously exerting himself in increasing
the possessions of his church, by means of which he might
more^ abundantly promote the worship of God, and more
readily perform the duties of hospitality. For, with great
sums of money, he obtained from Sir Ealph Shdton, for his
monastery, the third part of a third part of the manor of
Oedney, caUed Sheltonfee, as also a certain part of a knight’s
fee, in the vill of Baston, called Beaumontfee, from the lord
‘Henry de Beaumont. The annual income of the prior of one
of these pLices amounts, according to a true calculation, to
sixteen pounds, while that of the other amounts to twenty

He also turned his attention to things worthy of a higher
consideration ; and looking forward with presaging mind to the
future, he observed how, upon a vacation of the abbacy, the
king*s servants and officers had been accustomed, just like so
iQany lions, to pounce upon the property of the monastery,
drive away the cattle, and, in confiscating the rest of its pos-
sessions, be guilty of the most grievous exactions: upon
which, with the most excellent intentions, he determined saga-
ciously to make provision against these evils, and to apply an
opportune remedy for the ^ture. Accordingly, he obtained a
charter patent of the royal protection, ensuring the future in-
demnity of his manors, and strictly forbidding the king*s ser-
vants thenceforth in any way to meddle with the property of
the monastery; and. by agreeing that, as often as a vacancy

^ ** Minus/’ ** less/’ in the original seems to be a misprint ; unless the
meaning is that it was his wish to curtail hospitality to provide more abnn«
dantly for the worship of God, …


should happen, a payment should be made of only tinrentjr
pounds to the royal treasury, he relieved his successors of a
ground for inextricable dijQBlculties.

He also had new forms made in the choir, upon which the
brethren are wont to kneel at prayers, and had the four sweetly-
sounding bells repaired, which hang in the tower beyond
the. choir, to the glory of the house of God. In like manner,
he had those extremely handsome buildings, situate in the court-
yard of the abbey, and used as offices for domestic purposes,
that is to say, as a brew-house and bake-house, built in a
most expensive manner.

You might also have seen him watchfully moving to and
fro, both in the midst of his flock and around it, like one of
those heavenly beasts** that had eyes for seeing both before
and behind — he was, I say, living in common with them in
the midst of his brethren, and, going round about among
them, administered to them all temporal assistance ; in the
midst of them, he was like one of them, while, in going
round about, he became the servant of them all ; in fine, he
lived in the midst of them, that there might be no personal de-
ference paid to him, and he went round about that on no side
an entrance might be left open to the enemy. But, ” Eavonr
is deceitful, and beauty is vain ;”•* and, because the prosperity
of a smiling world is wont to elevate the heart, and in ite
emptiness compels the unwary to raise themselves abore them-
selves, that so they cannot bethink themselves on the day of
blessings, or even of woe ; God, who is a God of mercy and
compassion, being unwilling that his servant should be induced
to boast in his exaltation, having had so many years granted to
him of lasting peace, but rather that he might have more
humble thoughts and more sagaciously provide against the
elevation that attends the day of mortals, withdrew from
him light in the body, like another Tobias, and, in his mercy,
sent upon him night with its shades and darkness ; a state in
which he remained for the five years during which he survived
imtil his death. However, weU remembering that it is writ-
ten, “Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth
every son whom he receiveth,” ^ he submitted with the greatest
patience to this Divine visitation, and as his answer, upon the
infliction on him of the death, he always gave most abundant

^ Alluding to Rev. iv. 6. ^ Proverbs xxxL 30. ^ Heb. xiL &


thanks to God, often repeating to himself, ”It is good, Lord,
that thou hast humbled me ;” and, again, ” I will rather glory
in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me ;”••
and, again, ” Thy visitation hath preserved my spirit ;” ” and
again, ” I believe to see the goodness of the Lord in the land
of the living.” *® Still, however, overcome by the urgent re-
quest and importunate entreaties of his brethren, he remained,
though unwillingly, to the end of his life in the performance of
his pastoral duties ; and all persons, with sincere feelings of
affection, always, in every way, paid him every mark of honor
and respect. The entire management, however, of the affairs
of the monastery, and of its interests, both temporal as well as
spiritual, were entrusted to Eichard ITpton, prior of Croyland,
by the lord Philip, who was at that time Aocesan. He was
a man, noted for his scholastic attainments, a Bachelor of Di-
vinity, one most profoundly imbued with a knowledge of lite-
rature, able in action, and prudent and discreet in the manage-
ment of temporal affairs ; having . gained great experience
while prior of Freston, an office which he had held with dis-
tinction for ten years.

But now I think it is proper to make mention of some of the
brethren of this monastery, who are deserving to be perpetually
remembered, and who, entertaining love for God and their neigh-
bour,, in the time of the said venerable father, abbat Thomas,
laudably bestowed, of the goods of their friends, and of those
which, by permission of the abbat, they had collected, more
upon the monastery than was given by others, with the leave
of the latter so to say. Wherefore, we have thought proper
here to insert their names, that posterity may be made to un-
derstand that it is their duty, by the suffrages of their prayers,
no less due than devout, to commend their souls to God, when
they remember that they are enjoying the benefi.t of their la-
bours, and know that it is through their bounty that they are
here refreshed.

One of these was brother Laurence Chateres, kitchener
of the same place, who most liberally contributed forty
pounds to the building of the west side of the cloisters. In
like manner, also, he gave forty pounds to supply almond milk
to refresh the convent on fish days. He also nobly supplied
the vestiary with an entire suit of black, embroidered with
«« 2 Cor. xu. 9. 8′ Job x. 12. ^ Psalm xxvii. 13.


letters in gold, and appropriate for the purposes of Divine ser-
vice and the burial of the dead, and wluch he had provided at
the cost of twenty-six pounds. Besides this, he also liberaUy
gave twenty pounds towards the building of a farm-house upon
the manor of the convent at Dovedale.

Another brother also, William of Croyland, we consider in
no degree inferior to the former. Being appointed master of
the works, by his labour and industry he first built the western
part of the cloisters before-mentioned, firom the very foundation.
After this, he erected the two transverse aisles of the church,
so remarkable for their beauty, below the choir, one on the
north, the other on the south, together with their vaulted
roofs, and their windows of glass ; as well as a chapel in honor
of the blessed Virgin, situate on the northern confines thereof,
and which he built of the most elegant workmanship, at a vast
outlay of money. Besides this, he ordered two tablets to be
prepared by the diligent skill of the sculptors, for the purpose
of being erected at the altar of our blessed father Guthlac,
which is placed on the side facing the east ; and that he might
render them more beauteous in appearance, he ordered the
lower one to be painted, while he had the whole of the upper
one gilded. It is also universally known that the beautLPol
refectory-hoiise of the order was built by him, fix)m the vety
foundation to the summit, with artistic elegance and the great-
est magnificence. Besides this, like another Nehemias, he
strenuously laboured in the building of the temple of the Lord,
and erected, from the very foundation to the laying of the roof,
the whole of the lower part of the nave of the church, towards
the west, as well as both aisles appendant thereto, together
with their chapels. But of this hereafter : for it belongs to
the time of the lord abbat Eichard, who next succeeded to the
duties of the pastoral charge.

Neither should brother Richard Woxbrige be omitted from
the list of our memorial, who bestowed upon God and the
church a purple vestment, delicately inlaid with flowers of
gold, consisting of two hoods, and a chasuble, with tunics,
thereby most liberally providing the wardrobe of the vestiary.
Thi8, even down to our times, is deservedly mentioned among
the principal benefactions.

• And then besides, brother Simon Eresby deserves to be
reckoned in the list of our benefactors ; for be decorated the

A.b. 1413*. GIFT or LAUBENCB CHATEBES. 361

altar of Saint John the Evangelist, to whom in especial he
paid the most devout veneration, with tablets of exquisite
beauty, both above and below. It was esteemed a happy sign
that this devoutness of his was acceptable to the Saint, that
this brother departed from this world to the heavenly banquet
upon the day of his festival, being summoned to join the holy
Apostle ; an end that he had often prayed for. He also pro-
vided two principal thuribles, made of silver gQt, at a cost of
forty marks, and devoting them to the performance of Divine
service, greatly promoted thereby the glory of the house of
God. Besides this, in the chapel of the blessed Mary, which
had been previously prepared on the south side of the church,
he most devoutly erected at his own expense two perks, which
were becomingly prepared for the arrangement of the wax
tapers thereon, together with a screen of considerable height^
which terminated the said chapel below.

But now let us briefly make mention of a matter that we
have previously omitted to do, the gift of the brother Laurence
Chateres, for the supply of almond-milk for the refreshment of
the convent. That no cause for dispute may arise, respecting
the distribution thereof, we have thought proper here to sub-
join the circumstances of the institution of the said usage. In
the year of our Lord 1413, and in the twenty-second year of
the lord abbat Thomas Overton, it was, with ike common con-
sent of the said abbat and the whole convent, enacted and or-
dained, the brother Kichard Upton, then prior of Croyland,
diligently aiding in and promoting the same, that the before-
mentioned forty pounds, given to the convent by the brother
Laurence Chateres, as before stated, should be equally divided
between six of the highest officers of the convent of Croyland,
that is to say, the master of the works, the almoner, the pit*
tancer, the sacrist, the chamberlain, and the cellarer ; and it
was fiirther agreed that every one of the before-named officers
should receive ten marks of the said sum in pennies, and should
annex the same to his office, which should be accountable for
the same for ever, and should each year answer for it as a part
of the monies belonging to his office, in his account when given
in, under the head ” For almonds.” Also, that every one of
the before-mentioned six officers should find for the convent
almond-milk on the fish days, each in his turn, just as the turn
of each of the said officers should come rounds each taking cars


to supply thre^ pounds of almonds, together with good bread
and honey sufficient for his turn, there being one pound of
almonds, with bread and honey as above-mentioned, for eacli
eight, or nine monks. And if the festival’® In albis, or any
fast day, upon which the pittance’^ ought to be provided for
the convent in the refectory by the kitchener, should happen
to fall on any fish day, then the officer who should have to
provide the TnilTr on that day, was to receive from the
kitchener one pound of almonds, instead of the pittance above-
mentioned; and so the kitchener should be excused from
providing the pittance which he ought to have found in the
refectory, that so the milk before-mentioned might be pro-*
vided more carefully and more punctually for the monastery.
It was also ordained, by the common consent of the abbat and
convent, that every officer who should faiU’ on his turn and
day, of his own wUl and knowledge, to find the same, should
lose as much of his commons as would amount to double the
value of the milk which ought to have been provided on that
day : and this, as often as any lapse of the kind should be de«’
tected by the prior and seniors of the convent.

Another enactment, also, that was by his order approved of,
we think it by no means superfluous here to insert, that all
occasion for disagreement may be thereby removed from those
who come after us. An ancient and laudable custom had
hitherto prevailed, that on every principal feast in the year,
the abbat should have with him at table, either in the hall or
in his chamber, three monks of the convent, and on every cope
day, two ; and that the abbat’ s receiver should receive nothing
for them, from the kitchener, on the said days. Also, that if, on
the feast of Saint Catherine the Yirgin,^ and of Saint Thomas the
Martjrr, the prior, or any other member of the convent, should
celebrate mass in the abbat’ s chapel, thei> both the prior or
other person so celebrating mass, as well as all the monks who
should be invited by the abbat to his table on these feast days,
should be entertained at the expense of the abbat, and the re-
ceiver of the abbat should take nothing for them from the

‘^ Or Low Sunday, being called << in albis," from the white garments in which the Neophytes were clothed. ^^ The pittance was an allowance of food to each two monks. It generaUy meant fish, but it is pretty clear that here eggs or cheese are alluded to. ^ In the original, this sentence appears to be imperfect. i 7» 25th November and 29th December. A.D. 1413. SUCCESSION OF THE LORDS OF PEPrNO. 363 kit(;hener. Also, that when, on the vigil of the Nativity of our Lord, or on the Saturday next preceding the same, and on the vigils of Easter and Pentecost, and on the first Sun- day of the Advent of our Lord, and on Septuagesima Sunday, or Quinquagesima Sunday, the prior of Croyland should, ac- cording to custom, eat at the abbat's table, the abbat's receiver should take nothing for him. It was afterwards enacted in the time of Thomas Overton, the lord abbat, and confirmed by Kichard Upton, the lord abbat, that, besides the times aforesaid, every day throughout the whole year two monks of the convent should take their meal in the hall or the chamber of the abbat, whether the abbat should be present or not; and that the kitchener should pay to the abbat or his receiver every week, in pennies, the same sum that he pays to our scholars who arc studying at Cambridge. And if the abbat should wish to invite any other monks of the convent to dinner, besides the said two monks, whether the .prior, or any one else, on other than the feasts aforesaid, then the receiver was to receive victuals for them from the kitchener, just as they would have been served in the convent, according to their rank; with the exception of the prior's dish,'* which he was never to have provided for him by the abbat to eat in the abbat's presence. But if the prior or any one of the convent should eat in the cham- ber of the cellarer, by leave of the prior, but not invited by the abbat, or in obedience to the ordinance above stated, then in such case, both the prior as well as the other monks there eating were to receive everything from the kitchener and the other pittances, for dinner and supper, just as though they had been taking their meals in the infirmary. In the mean time, after Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, and lord of the manor of Depyng, had been beheaded for his treason to the king, as we have above stated, Edmund Holland, his brother, became earl of Kent, and was admitted by here* ditary right to possession of the said demesne of Depyng. Having taken to wife Lucia, sister to the duke of Milan, he survived a few years only, and died without issue in the parts beyond sea. After his death, the inheritance of the said de- mesne of Depyng devolved upon the lady Margaret, sister of the before-named earls Thomas and Edmund. John BeaoforU ^* Interferculum : entremet* 364 coKTivnATioN of the histoby of CBOYLASB. A.D. 1415. earl of Somerset, son of the lord John of Gannty the most illustrious duke of Lancaster, was united to her in marriage ; and by her had an illustrious progeny, John, afterwards duke of Somerset, and Edmund, marquis of Dorset. But more of -them hereafter. The before-named lady Margaret, after her husband had departed this life, was again married to the most illustrious lord, Thomas, duke of Clarence, son of king Henry the Fourth, and nephew of her former husband; a dispensation having been first obtained for the purpose. King Henry the Fourth, after having completed thirteen years and nearly six months of his reign, putting faith in a deceitfiil prophecy, determined to set out for the holy city of Jerusalem. But, a short time after, being attacked by a mortal malady, he died at Westminster in a certain chamber which had b^n from ancient times called '' Jerusalem,*' thus fulfilling the above idle prophecy. He was buried at Canterbury. Ac- cordingly, in the same year, that is to say, in the early part of the year from the Incarnation of our Lord, 1414'*, Henry of Monmouth, his son, was crowned at Westminster, by Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, on ti^e ninth day of Aprils being the Sunday of our Lord's Passion. He was for fi"om ap- proving the dethronement of king Bichard and his being im- prisoned for life, but looked upon all who were the promoters of his death as guilty of treason. By way of some atonement for his father's offence, he had his body ti'ansferred from Lang- ley, where he had been formerly buried, to London, and had him honorably interred at Westminster, near the shrine of St. Edward. After the lapse of a short space of time, a profane multitude of Lollards, enemies of the cross of Christ, rose in rebellion in Saint Gileses Fields, also called Fyketfelde, against the king : but being protected by the Divine favour, he triumphed with a victorious arm, and having taken prisoner Sir John Oldcastle, who was the leader of this nefarious band, together with majiy others, consigned him to the fiames. In liie following year, being the year of our Lord, 1415, king Henry having convoked a council at Westminster, proposed as a question to the peers of the realm, the extent of the right and title of his ancestors to Normandy, Gascony, and Aqui- taine. Accordingly, they advised him to send special mes- •engers to the king of France for the assertion of the said rights- '* Properly, 1413. A.D. 1415. BATTLE OF AiSIXCOUliT. 36B The dauphin of France, on hearing this, as a mark of his con- tempt for the king of England, insolently sent him a cask full of tennis balls, with the objejct of mocking him. The king of England, feeling greatly indignant at so insulting a present being sent him, promised that beyond a doubt, he would send him in return some balls for playing at a new kind of game, by means of which the very strongest roofe of their houses would rattle. Accordingly, after a short time had elapsed, having assembled no smaU multitude of armed men at Southampton, he determined to lead an expedition against France. But just as he was about to embark, it providentially became known to him that the lord Kichard Lwigley, earl of Cambridge, the lord Kichard Scrope, treasurer of England, and the lord Thomas Grey, knight, were about to sell mm to the king of France, on condition of receiving one tiiousand pounds in gold. On discovering this conspiracy, they were imme- diately punished, by the king's conunands, with the loss of their heads, in accordance with their deserts, without the north gate of Southampton. After these transactions, the king made a speedy voyage with the troops and fifteen hundred ships, and landed at the harbomr of Chef de Caux, at the moul£i of the river Seine whence he proceeded with a prosperous course, and laid siege to the town of Harfleur by sea and land. This place he vigorously attacked by throwing into it immense masses of stone by means of his engines of war, as though they were playing with the Frenchmen at the game commonly known as ' tennis.' The ])eople being worn out with the obstinacy of the prolonged siege, and starved through want of food, the king, under the guidance of God, was at length victorious on the feast of Saint Mauricius,^' and by this display of his strength gained pos- session of the town : for which he afterwards duly returned thanks to God, the bestower of all blessings. After an inter- val from this time of nearly five weeks, a great battle was fought between the king of England with seven thousand men, ; and the flower of the knighthood of all France, sixty thou- sand in number, on the plains of Agincourt, upon the feast ^® «f Saints Crispin and Cnspinian. Here, king Henry, girding himself with valour and trusting in the aid of God and the prayers of the clergy throughout all England, dew eleven " Twenty^econd of September.. '» Twenty-ifth of October. <■ ^66 COJTTINTJATIOir OP TH5 HISTOKT OF CKOYLAND. A.D. 14l5. thousand men of the opposite side ; while he took prisoner the duke of Orleans, together with great numbers of the nobles, and compelled the rest of the army to take to flight. After the battle was thus finished, and the king of England had by the will of Gk)d thus gained the victory, he returned to his camp, there to return thanks to God for thus granting him this triumph ; and with great exultation of heart, had the hymn of praise, the Te I>eum, sung in his tent, no small
number of the private soldiers standing by, as well as such of
the clergy as were then present. The king himself, still with
his armour on, rendering the palm of glory unto God, threw
himself prostrate on the ground in the midst of all ; nor did
he consider himself worthy to arise therefrom, before the said
hymn of praise, together with the prayers appended thereto,
had been brought to a conclusion*

While, however, these successes were being gained abroad,
the ever hostile, ever malicious commonalty did not cease to
disturb the peace of the Church at home. But how long,
Lord, how long, shall the sinners exult ? How long too
wilt thou, holy fSather Guthlac, who didst formerly, in thy
might, render daBmons subject to thy rule, allow malignant
people to invade thy possessions, and to plunder what is thine ?
For lo ! thine enemies have sounded to arms, and those who
hate thee, have again lifted up their heads against thy servants.
For the family of them have said together in their hearts,
” Gome, let us destroy them from out of the nations, let us
take possession of the inheritance of the sanctuary of God ;”
they have said so, I say, and that which they have iniquitously
conceived in the wickedness of their minds they have still more
iniquitously fuMlled in the execution of their designs. For, as
soon as, by common report, it became known throughout the ad-
joining counties, that tiie Divine goodness had, as we have men^
tioned above, mercifully visited the venerable father Thomas,
abbat of Croyland, with the loss of his sight ; the neighbouring
people of Hoyland, inhabiting the vills of Multon and Weston,
congratulating themselves on a fitting time having arrived for
the fulfilment of their wishes, hoped to gain a profit at the ex*
pense of others. Besides this, they imagined that now there
was no longer any person to protect or to save, or manftJly to
make head against their unjust usurpations ; so, assembling
together iu the hopes of an easy victory, with an armed force


just like 80 many warriors, they entered a certain island called
” le Purc^ynt,” situate within the metes and boundaries of
the abbey of Croyland, with a frantic spirit and tumultuous out*
cries. Here, just like so many ravening dogs, they committed
all sorts of excesses in their frenzy, and perpetrated many
enormities, in fishing, fowling, and plundering the nets and
every thing else they could find ; and thus continually oc-
cupying the said precinct for nearly a whole year, they would
allow none of the farmers or servants of the abbat to receive
any advantage whatever therefrom. In addition to this, with
hatchets and axes they also levelled a fishing-house situate at
Sandistowe with the ground, and setting fire thereto soon re-
duced it to ashes.

Besides this, certain of the people of Spalding were at the
same time possessed by a similar spirit, and presumed, with a
strong hand, to fish in the waters of the Welland^ in which
river the abbat of Croyland had several piscary, even as far
as the vill of Croyland ; and insultingly collected in no small
i^ultitudes with haughty and threatening gestures. After they
had also with one accord efiPected an entrance into the marsh
of Goggislound, which is also the several soil of the before-named
abbat, they dug up turf therein, cut sedge and bulrushes, and
as though they had taken seisin and possession thereof, pre-
tended to claim the right of property therein, and proceeded,
hy violent means, to hinder such of the tenants of the vill of
Croyland as, for a long time had held possession of the said
marsh, from entering thereupon.

Fpon this, the venerable prior Eichard, to whom, as we
have pre’viously mentioned, the whole management of the mo-
nastery, in matters spiritual and temporal, hud been entrusted,
felt desirous to take measures against evil doers of this descrip-
tion at the outset, in order that they might not proceed on
their career with impunity; so, having first consulted the
diocesan thereupon, he was of opinion that the sword of eccle*
siastical censure ought at once to be imsheathed, as necessity
now demanded it, against these disturbers of the peace ; the
same having been in former times specially granted by the
most holy father Bimstan, archbishop of Canterbury, to abbat
Turketul, and laid up with singular care among the treasures
of the place. Accordingly, in presence of the whole convent,
upon a solemn festival of note, he publicly and solemnly fulmi^


nated sentence of excommunication at the doors of the chnrdi
against all persons whatsoever who should infringe the liberties
of the church of Saint GutMac, or should unjustly plunder its
property, or presume rashly to invade its possessions.

After this, he resorted to the temporal arm and the laws of
the realm, and, taking with him the muniments of the illus-
trious kings, Ethelbald, Edred, and Edgar, he maofully girded
up his loins as though about to £ght against beasts, and
hastened to London, in order to bring both parties to triaL
Here, with much labour and expense he diligently prosecuted
his suit, but, through numerous dissensions and delays, it was
nearly two years before he could bring the matter to the desired
conclusion. For he had daily to undergo such vast anxieties
both through the counsels of the duke of Lancaster, who
favoured the people of Spalding, as well as through the lords
of the before-mentioned vills of Multon and Weston, who im-
peded all his efforts, that he became quite wearied out by this
two-fold battle as it were, and could bear up against it no-
longer. Fpon this, the prior, seeing that his business now lay at
the mercy of the cast of a die, and that it was far from answer-
ing his wishes, but daily wore a worse and worse aspect, fell
into such a state of sickness, that the physicians even despaired,
of his recovery ; for his stomach, as tiiough through indigna-
tion, refused to retain anything that was offered to it. And
beyond a doubt, the frustration of his labours thus prolonged
would have almost led him to despair of his cause, had not He
who alone takes into consideration labour and sorrow, ^eedily.
deigned to look down from heaven upon the cause of the poor.

Wherefore we shall not deem it amiss in the present pages
to insert such matters as took place at this time, and which
we know to be worthy of recitd. A certain lawyer who was
counsel for the said prior, and who was conamonly called, ac-
cording to the laws of England, a ” serjeant-at-law,** Wil-
liam Ludyngton by name, acted as his adviser in this busi-
ness and his most trusty advocate. While he was one night
lying awake in bed, extremely sad and disquieted in spirit, by
reason of revolving many things in his mind, he found hiniself
unable to sleep. At last, however, a gentle slumber seeming
to fall upon him, he reposed for a short time, when, behold I a
certain venerable form, in the dress of an anchorite, was seea
standing near him and uttering words to this e^t: ^’ Why,


amid the fluctuations of thy mind, art thou anxious about the
prosecution of thy cause, and why pass the night without
sleep, as thoughts crowd upon thee from every side ? Come
now, pause a moment, and relax thy limbs in repose : for to-
morrow morning every thing will succeed to thy utmost wish,
and the same matters which hitherto have seemed to wear an
adverse aspect, will happily smile upon thee according to thy
will and pleasure/’ So saying, the vision disappeared.

Bising early in the morning, and encouraged by this oracle
which had, beyond a doubt, been revealed to him from heaven
by Saint Guthlac, he immediately began to entertain better
hopes. Upon this, he hastened directly to the court, and
having for a short time held a conference on the matter with
those who were of counsel for the parties, he at last succeeded
in making the following arrangement upon the matter ; that
each side should at once choose arbitrators, who should come
to a just decision upon the matter in dispute between them ;
to which course, as putting an end to all trouble and expense,
they willingly consented. The prior, who was still, as we
have stated, lying upon a bed of sickness, hearing tiiat this
perplexed labyrinth of agonizing toil was likely to have some
outlet, and ihat such an expensive series of litigation was
about to be set at rest, was greatly rejoiced thereat, and now
breathing more freely, returned abundant thanksgivings to
Grod for tiie Divine consolation whicb had been granted to him
from heaven.

Accordingly, after this, two arbitrators were chosen on’be«
half of the abbat of Croyland and the convent of that place,
namely. Master Richard Flemyng, an excellent doctor of
holy Theology, rector of the parish church of Saint Botolph,
canon of the cathedral churches of York and Lincoln, and
afterwards bishop of Lincoln, and John Mete, of Erampton, a
man of noble rai^ and held by public report in high repute.
On part of the commons of the vills of Multon and “Weston,
John Baysham, rector of the church of Hanneslap, and vicar of
thii church of Multon, and Bichard Pynchbeck, were in like
manner chosen arbitrators. Fpon a day previously named by
them, being the Tuesday before the Exaltation of the holy
Cross, in the third year of the reign of king Henry the Fifth,
being the year from the Licamation of our Lord, 1415, these
persons, together with John Cokayne and William Ludyngtonf


370 coifTnarATioN or the histo&y op cKorLAKD. a.d. 1416,

two justices of the Common Pleas of our lord the king, who
had been chosen to act impartially in the said matter by the
said parties, met together at Croyland. A$er inspecting the
evidences and the various muniments, and carefully examining
the same, when produced to them by the abbat and con-
vent and their counsel, they gave and set forth their award
and judgment, which was afterwards confirmed by our said
lord the king, and ratified by his seal patent, in the fol-
. lowing words : —

” To all the faithful in Christ, who shall see and hear this
present writing indented. Master Eichard Flemyng, doctor of
holy Theology, rector of the parish church of Saint Botolph, and
canon of the cathedral churches of York and Lincoln, John
Flete of Frampton, John Baysham, rector of the church of
Hanneslap, and vicar of the church of Multon, and Eichard
Pynchbeck of Pynchbeck, health everlasting in the Lord.
Whereas divers debates, s^fes, dissensions, and discords have
been moved and have arisen of late between the venerable man
Thomas, abbat of the monastery of Croj^land and the convent
of that place, of the one part; and Lambert Bonoui^ of
Multon, Adam Browne of Multon, William Miller of Multon,
John Somner of Multon, Eobert Michell of Multon, Geoffrey
Hull of Multon, John Eumney of Multon, William Broun of
Multon, Henry Johanneson, otherwise called Henry Sergeant-
son, of Multon, Thomas Johanneson, otherwise called Thomas
Sergeantson, of Multon, Nigel Avery of Multon, John Hare-
berd of Weston, John Williamson of Weston, Walter Cook of
Weston, and John Feldewe of Weston and the commons of
Weston and Multon, of the other part,— of and concerning the
right, title, and daim to a certain island called ‘ Le Purceynt,*
within the metes and boundaries of the vill of Croyland, as
the before-named abbat asserts. And whereas, within the said
island, the before-named Lambert, and the other persons,
whose names are above-written, of the aforesaid viUs of Mul-
ton and Weston, and the commons aforesaid, have claimed to
have common of pasture for their cattle of all kinds, and
common of piscary and turbary, and of cutting and gathering
rushes and reeds, and right of taking all kinds of fowl to be
found within the said island so called Le Purceynt, as also of
taking all other profits within the said island arising or en-
suing, asserting that greater par( of the said island is within


the metes and boundaries of the said yilld of Mnlton and
Weston. And whereas, as to the right, title, and claim hereto
as also the debates, discords, and dissensions, and all kinds of
transgressions and offences whatsoever, in any way committed
against the said abbat and convent by &e before-named
Lambert and others, whose names are above-written, of the
vills of Multon and Weston, and the commons aforesaid, be-
fore the day of the making of these presents, the said par-
ties have proposed and agreed to stand and abide by the
award, order, and judgment of the aforesaid Master Eichard
Flemyng and John Flete, arbitrators chosen on behalf of the
said abbat and convent, and John Baysham and Eichard Pynch-
beck, arbitrators chosen on behalf of the said Lambert and
others, whose names are above- written, of the aforesaid vills
of Multon and Weston, and the commons aforesaid ; upon the
understanding that, if we could not come to an agreement^
then in such case the said parties should stand and abide by
the ordinances and judgment of John Cokayne and William Lu*
dyngton, two justices of the Common Pleas of our lord the king,
chosen by consent of the before-named parties to act indifferently
herein. Wherefore we, the before-named Masters Eichard
Flemyng, John Plete, Jolm Baysham, and Eichard Pynchbeck, on
the Tuesday next before the Exaltation of the holy Cross, in the
third year of the reign of King Henry the Fifth, having called
before us the said abbat and convent, with their counsel, to
show unto us, if they had any means of proving the same, that
the said island was within tiie said vill of Croyland, and that
the said island was wholly their own several soil ; the said abbat
and convent, with their counsel, showed unto us divers evi-
dences, that is to say, the charter of the firstfoundation of the said
monastery of Croyland, by which Ethelbald, king of the Mercians
in England, did in the year of our Lord seven hundred and six-
teen, grant unto God, the blessed Mary, and Saint Bartholomew,
the whole island of Croyland as a several seat for the abbey,
and severally to be held, the same being surrounded by four
rivers, that is to say, by the river which is called Shepishee
towards the east, by ike river which is called None, on the west,
by the river which is called Southee towards the south, and
by the river which is called Asendyke towards the noj-th, where
the common Drain runs between Spalding and the said island,
and within which metes and boundiEiries, the said island called

B B 2

372 coNTnorATiON or the histoby of csotlakd. a.d. 1415.

* Le Purceynt* lies. They did also show unto lis the charter of
re-foundation of the said monastery, after it had been destroyed
and laid waste by the pagans, made by Edred, king of England,
in the year of our Lord nine hundred and forty-eight, in which
he delivered., gave and confirmed unto Turketul, his kinsman,
abbat of Croyland, and all the monks their successors, the
whole island of Croyland as the glebe of that church, and the
several site of the said monastery, together with the boundaries
thereof, that is to say, from the triangular bridge of Croyland
along the river WeUand towards Spalding, as far as Asendyke,
where Asendyke falls into the river Welland, on the northern
side of a cross of stone by the said Turketul there erected, and
so towards the east along Asendyke as fiEur as Aswyktoft, and
thence to Shepishee, on the eastern side of the said island, and
so to TedwarlJiar, and there entering Southee, as fiir as Ko-^
manslandhyme, where the said Turketul ordered a cross of
stone to be erected, six perches distant from Southee, and
which cross is distant from the river None on the west six
perches, and thence along the said river Nene as it runs up to
the above-mentioned bridge of Croyland, together with several
fishery in all the waters ti^at surround the said island as well
fis in the pools and marshes enclosed therein. They also
showed unto us charters of confirmation and ratification of divers
kings of England since the Conquest, that is to say, of king
Stephen, king Henry the Second, king Bichard the First, king
John, king Henry the Third, king Edward the Eirst and other
kings of England, to king Henry the Eifth that now is : all
which charters confirm, ratify, exemplify and expressly
attest the above-named limits, metes, and boundaries of the
island before-mentioned. In like manner they showed unto
us a certain claim and award made thereon, on a certain
circuit at Lincoln, before John de Yaux, and his fellows, the
judges in eyre, in the ninth year of the reign of king Ed-
ward, son of king Henry, and other claims then made by the
abbat of Croyland, who, among other liberties, claimed to have
the seat of the abbey of Croyland, with its boundaries there
named, which extend as follow: from Croyland to where
Asendyke falls into the river Welland, and so along Asendyke
to Aswyktoft, and so to Shepishee, and so to Tedwarthar, and
80 to Nomandand, and so along the river Kene to the river
Welland before-mentioned : which claim and award testify


that the said island is within the said metes and boundaries.
There was also produced before us on behalf of the said abbat
and convent a certain writing of release of Thomas Pita-
Lambert of Multon, the then lord of the manor of Multon^
made to the abbat of Groyland, which writing, in like manner,
proves and testifies the metes and boundaries of the said island.
There were in like manner shewn unto us on behalf of the
said abbat and convent many accounts of divers bailiffs of the
manors situate within the said island, that is to say, Brother-
house, Morecotes, Nomansland, otherwise called Girthlakes-
land, and Dovedale, of the time when the said island was
arable and sown in some parcels thereof, and in other parcels
consisted of meadows, crofts and great pastures to farmlet,
while other parcels thereof remained in their own hands;
also, relative to the agistments for beasts depasturing in the
said island, as the same are set forth in the rolls of account
of all the abbats, predecessors of the before-named abbat that
now is, from the time of king Henry, son of John. The saic*
abbat and convent, with their counsel, also shewed unto us many
other evidences of considerable length, the which, by reason
of such length, we do not think proper here to insert. The
said Lambert and the others above-written, of the before-
named vills of Multon and Weston, as also the commons
aforesaid, being called before us with their counsel, to declare
and to show their right, title, or right of claim which they
had in the said island, and being asked whether they had any
thing to say against the evidences aforesaid by the said abbat
and convent and their counsel produced, were able in effect
K> say nothing whatever thereto. Wherefore, we, considering
the aforesaid evidences of the said abbat and convent, by them
and their counsel in form aforesaid shewn and produced before
us in presence of the aforesaid John Cokayne and William
Ludyngton, chosen as indifferent judges in this matter, as
also by consent of the aforesaid abbat and convent, as well as
of the before-named Lambert and the others above written
of the aforesaid vills of Multon and Weston, and of the com-
mons aforesaid, in the chapter-house of the said abbey appear-
ing, do order, adjudge, and have decided, in manner, form,
and with the conditions following. In tiie first place, that
the before-named abbat and convent and their successors shall
have and hold the said island called * Le Purceynt,’ together

874 coTXTUsruAjioisf op the histobt of cboylakd. ,a.d. :1415»

witH all the profits to the said island in any way whatsoever
belonging, as their several property, and shall hold the same
in severalty, by the before-mentioned metes and boundaries,
in the aforesaid foundation, restoration, and confirmation by
the kings, claim and award of the judges in eyre, and charter
of release and quit-claim of the said Thomas Eitz-Lambert,
specified and set forth ; and shall enjoy the same freely and
quietly for ever, without gainsaying or hindrance on part of
the before-named Lambert and the others above- written of the
before-named vills of Multon and Weston and the commons
aforesaid, their heirs or successors; so that neither the said
Lambert and others of the said vills of Multon and Weston
above-written, and the common aforesaid, men holding an^
residing in the said vills of Multon and Weston, nor their
heirs or successors, shall ever have any common of pasture,
piscary, or turbary, nor yet common to take any profit that
shall in any way arise in the said island in future : but that
they, their heirs, and successors, shall be excl